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Poetry © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Poetry © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Contents 4 What is poetry? 5 -24 Rhyme 26 -47 Imagery 49 -64 Sound Contents 4 What is poetry? 5 -24 Rhyme 26 -47 Imagery 49 -64 Sound effects 65 -67 Analysis of Wind by Ted Hughes © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What is Poetry? Poetry creates pictures in words; It may use sound effects in What is Poetry? Poetry creates pictures in words; It may use sound effects in the words to build up the picture; It may use description to create a picture in the reader’s mind; It has a rhythm and a flow which is not like ordinary prose; It may rhyme, but it does not have to. Poetry gives you the opportunity to create vivid mind pictures for your reader by using the most precise words possible. In prose, you can build up detailed descriptions to set a scene clearly: in poetry, the challenge is to do this better, while using fewer words! © Boardworks Ltd 2001

© Boardworks Ltd 2001 © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Contents 7 What Is Rhyme? 8 -14 Activity: finding rhyming words 15 Rhyming couplets Contents 7 What Is Rhyme? 8 -14 Activity: finding rhyming words 15 Rhyming couplets 16 Metre 17 End-stopped lines 19 -24 Rhyme schemes 21 -24 Activity: finding rhyme schemes © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What is Rhyme? Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear What is Rhyme? Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear in your head, like ground, or found, Wound - as in clocks, but not as in pain. Which brings me to rain and also to reign, For rhyme is one time when spelling means naught, So taught and caught can rhyme with brought. Rough rhymes with fluff, but never with cough Which won’t rhyme with through, but will rhyme with off. So remember when poems you’re trying to rhyme, It’s the sound in your head you should hear every time. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Finding Rhymes for Words Activity Remember to hear the sounds of words in your Finding Rhymes for Words Activity Remember to hear the sounds of words in your head and try to find rhymes for the following words. Some are much easier than others, so for some you should be able to find more than one rhyming word. The number in brackets tells you how many words to try to find. a) hat(4) e) sing(3) j) table(2) n) hour(3) b) feel(3) f) k) scene(2) o) tin(4) c) bread(2) g) mug(4) d) peat(2) h) mouse(2) m) book(4) hide(1) l) drop(4) Some sounds can be spelt several different ways. e. g. door rhymes with four, even though they are spelt differently. Now find five more rhyming words. pane(10 at least!) © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers These are not the only answers, just some suggestions of common words to Answers These are not the only answers, just some suggestions of common words to start you off a) hat(4) b) feel(3) c) bread(2) d) peat(2) e) sing(3) f) hide(1) g) mug(4) h) mouse(2) © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers These are not the only answers, just some suggestions of common words to Answers These are not the only answers, just some suggestions of common words to start you off a) hat(4) cat flat mat pat b) feel(3) real reel heal peel c) bread(2) red dread d) peat(2) e) sing(3) heat ring feet fling ping f) hide(1) ride g) mug(4) bug dug rug h) mouse(2) house louse © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers j) table(2) k) scene(2) l) drop(4) m) book(4) n) hour(3) o) tin(4) Some Answers j) table(2) k) scene(2) l) drop(4) m) book(4) n) hour(3) o) tin(4) Some sounds can be spelt several different ways. e. g. door rhymes with four, even though they are spelt differently. Now find five more rhyming words. pane(10 at least!) © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) book(4) n) hour(3) look flour rook took power our crook o) tin(4) pin thin bin din Some sounds can be spelt several different ways. e. g. door rhymes with four, even though they are spelt differently. Now find five more rhyming words pane(10 at least!) © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) book(4) n) hour(3) look flour rook took power our crook o) tin(4) pin thin bin din Some sounds can be spelt several different ways. e. g. door rhymes with four, even though they are spelt differently. Now find five more rhyming words. floor more pour poor pore pane(10 at least!) © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) Answers j) table(2) able cable k) scene(2) seen mean l) drop(4) crop flop m) book(4) n) hour(3) look flour rook took power our crook o) tin(4) pin thin bin din Some sounds can be spelt several different ways. e. g. door rhymes with four, even though they are spelt differently. Now find five more rhyming words. floor more pour poor pore pane(10 at least!) main drain pain gain mane lane plane reign wane complain © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How do Poets use Rhyme? Rhyming words can be used at the ends of How do Poets use Rhyme? Rhyming words can be used at the ends of pairs of lines as we saw in the poem about rhymes. Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear in your head, like ground, or found, These are called © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Using Rhyming Couplets Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear Using Rhyming Couplets Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear in your head, like ground, or found, Using rhyming couplets has a major effect on the rhythm of a poem. The couplets give the poem a regular ‘beat’. In poetry, the rhythm is called the of a poem. This includes the length of the lines as well as the ‘beat’ you hear. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Using Rhyming Couplets Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear Using Rhyming Couplets Rhyme is when words have a similar sound, That you hear in your head, like ground, or found, As you can see from the example above, the rhythm is very regular because the rhyme makes the reader stress the last word in each line. The reader puts a pause at the end of each line when reading. because they These are called have punctuation at the end which makes the reader pause when reading. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Using Rhyming Couplets WARNING Unless you want your poem to have a heavy, regular Using Rhyming Couplets WARNING Unless you want your poem to have a heavy, regular rhythm, avoid rhyming couplets. They can be very effective when used sparingly, but bear in mind that even Shakespeare only used them occasionally. One of the few times when rhyming couplets can create a good effect, is in comic verse: the rhythm helps to emphasise the humour. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How Poets use Rhyme If it is not a good idea to use rhyming How Poets use Rhyme If it is not a good idea to use rhyming couplets all the time, how do poets make use of rhyme? They use what are known as This is when poets use rhymes in a pattern of lines. For example, every other line could be rhymed. I chatter over stony ways, In little sharps and trebles, I bubble into eddying bays, I babble on the pebbles. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What is the Rhyme Scheme? When you are trying to work out the rhyme What is the Rhyme Scheme? When you are trying to work out the rhyme scheme in a poem, it is usual to give each new rhyming sound a letter of the alphabet. For example. . . I chatter over stony ways, a In little sharps and trebles, b I bubble into eddying bays, I babble on the pebbles. a b See if you can find the rhyme scheme in the poem on the next slide. Remember to give each new sound a new letter. Hear the sounds, don’t be put off by the spelling. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, “This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon. ” In the afternoon they came unto a land In which it seemed always afternoon. All round the coast the languid air did swoon, Breathing like one that hath a weary dream. Full-faced above the valley stood the moon; And like a downward smoke, the slender stream Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, a “This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon. ” b In the afternoon they came unto a land a In which it seemed always after noon. b All round the coast the languid air did swoon, b Breathing like one that hath a weary dream. c Full-faced above the valley stood the moon; b And like a downward smoke, the slender stream c Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. c © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Look at some more of the same poem and notice how Tennyson varies his Look at some more of the same poem and notice how Tennyson varies his rhyme scheme. There is sweet music here that softer falls Than petals from blown roses on the grass, Or night-dews on still waters between walls Of shadowy granite, in a gleaming pass; Music that gentlier on the spirit lies, Than tir’d eyelids upon tir’d eyes; Music that brings sweet sleep down from the blissful skies. Here are cool mosses deep, And thro’ the moss the ivies creep, And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Look at some more of the same poem and notice how Tennyson varies his Look at some more of the same poem and notice how Tennyson varies his rhyme scheme. There is sweet music here that softer falls a Than petals from blown roses on the grass, b Or night-dews on still waters between walls a Of shadowy granite, in a gleaming pass; b Music that gentlier on the spirit lies, c Than tir’d eyelids upon tir’d eyes; c Music that brings sweet sleep down from the blissful skies. c Here are cool mosses deep, d And thro’ the moss the ivies creep, d And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, d And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. d © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Now you know how rhyme works HOWEVER THERE IS MORE TO POETRY THAN JUST Now you know how rhyme works HOWEVER THERE IS MORE TO POETRY THAN JUST RHYME What else is there? © Boardworks Ltd 2001

© Boardworks Ltd 2001 © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Contents 28 30 31 -37 32 33 -34 35 -36 38 -42 40 41 Contents 28 30 31 -37 32 33 -34 35 -36 38 -42 40 41 -42 43 -47 44 45 46 47 What is imagery? Analysing the image Similes Activity: complete the similes Activity: make your own similes How poets use similes Metaphors Discussion task: how metaphors work Activity: make your own metaphors Personification What is being personified? How does the image work? How poets use personification Activity: make your own personification © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What is Imagery? Imagery is a picture of some sort. Poetic imagery means painting What is Imagery? Imagery is a picture of some sort. Poetic imagery means painting a picture in the mind of your reader with the words you use. e. g. And like a downward smoke, the slender stream Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. What picture does this create for you? Try to see in your mind’s eye the picture it describes. Is it anything like the picture which follows. . . © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What do you see in the image? Why has the poet referred to the What do you see in the image? Why has the poet referred to the water as being like “smoke”? Think about the characteristics of smoke very thin/delicate silent soft, no hard edges moves slowly floats through the air Are there any other things you thought of? Consider the effect of the phrase “like a downward smoke”? © Boardworks Ltd 2001

What is the Image Called? The image you have been studying is one of What is the Image Called? The image you have been studying is one of a particular type. Do you know which type it is? CLUE These images all contain the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. ANSWER They are Similes are a way of comparing two things: in this case, water and smoke. Another way of using a simile to compare water with smoke would be. . . The water fell as slowly and softly as smoke drifting down. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Similes As the example you have been studying shows, the simile can be a Similes As the example you have been studying shows, the simile can be a useful image when writing poetry. Some similes have also become very well-known phrases. Do you recognise the phrase “as white as snow”? What about “as black as coal” or sometimes “as black as pitch”? There are many, many more. See if you can complete the phrases on the following slide. There are some phrases which can be completed in more than one way, so if you know more than one answer, write down all you know. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Similes 1. As cold as… ice 11. As safe as. . . houses 2. Similes 1. As cold as… ice 11. As safe as. . . houses 2. As clear as… day/glass 12. As cheap as… dirt 3. As green as… grass 13. As brave as a. . . lion 4. As hard as… nails 14. As sweet as. . . honey/sugar/pie 15. As bold as. . . brass 5. As round as a… ball 6. As plain as a…pikestaff 16. As wise as an. . . owl dodo/ 7. As dead as a… 17. As cunning as a. . . fox doornail 8. As dull as… ditch water 18. As neat as a. . . new pin 9. As daft as a… brush 19. As rich as. . . Croesus 10. As tough as…old boots 20. As old as. . . the hills/ time/Methuselah © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Make Your Own Similes In the same way that some phrases using “. . Make Your Own Similes In the same way that some phrases using “. . . as…as…”, have become well known, there are some similes using “like” which are over-used. e. g. s/he ran like the wind However, this should not stop you from being inventive and imaginative. Try to create some descriptive similes using “like” to replace the rather dull phrases and sentences on the next slide. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Activity Make Your Own Similes e. g. The explosion was loud and it echoed. Activity Make Your Own Similes e. g. The explosion was loud and it echoed. The explosion boomed and echoed like thunder. 1. The sand was very hot. Walking on it was painful. 2. I tripped over the dog and fell headlong. 3. The frost on the pavement made it very slippery. 4. The cat was sitting very still on the window sill. You could alter these phrases in many ways. Here are some ideas: 1. Walking on the sand was like stepping onto burning coals. 2. I fell over the dog and went down like a ton of bricks. 3. The frosted pavement was like glass. 4. The cat sat like a small statue on the window sill. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How do Poets use Similes? Look at the extract below. One simile should be How do Poets use Similes? Look at the extract below. One simile should be familiar, but there is another. Where is it? “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, “This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon. ” In the afternoon they came unto a land In which it seemed always afternoon. All round the coast the languid air did swoon, Breathing like one that hath a weary dream. Full-faced above the valley stood the moon; And like a downward smoke, the slender stream Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How do Poets use Similes? Look at the extract below. One simile should be How do Poets use Similes? Look at the extract below. One simile should be familiar, but there is another. Where is it? “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, “This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon. ” In the afternoon they came unto a land In which it seemed always afternoon. All round the coast the languid air did swoon, Breathing like one that hath a weary dream. Full-faced above the valley stood the moon; And like a downward smoke, the slender stream Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

As with any poetic device, similes should be used sparingly: that way your reader As with any poetic device, similes should be used sparingly: that way your reader will notice them and remember the effect they created. Sometimes, a simile is not what you want in your writing. At times like this, if you want to create a vivid image, you need to turn to something else. Look at the poem on the next slide and particularly at the line in red. Try to work out what kind of imagery is being used. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley I met a traveller from an antique land Who Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley I met a traveller from an antique land Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert … Near them, on the sand, Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

“The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed: ” CLUE ANSWER Here “The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed: ” CLUE ANSWER Here there is no “like” or “as…as”, it is written as a statement about how the king (who in real life was Rameses II of Egypt) treated his people It is a Metaphors are images which state that a thing or person is something or is doing something which it clearly cannot be/do. They are very useful in poetry as they allow you to sum up the nature or characteristics of something in only a few words. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How Does the Image Work? “The hand that mocked them, and the heart that How Does the Image Work? “The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed: ” Look at the words used here and think about the picture they create. Hands do not speak, therefore they cannot mock. Kings do not feed their people with their hearts. Discussion Task What do you think Shelley means by his image? What kind of picture is he creating of “Ozymandias”? Why has Shelley not said, “The heart that mocked them, and the hand that fed”? © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Make your own Metaphors Activity Below are some statements. Try to re-write them using Make your own Metaphors Activity Below are some statements. Try to re-write them using metaphors to create a picture of exactly what is happening. Remember that metaphors do NOT use “like” or “as…as”. e. g. She ran quickly up to the house. Since she did not sprout wings, this is She flew up the drive. a metaphor 1. The duck skidded around on the ice as if it were dancing. 2. Fear made them stand absolutely still. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Make your own Metaphors Activity Below are some statements. Try to re-write them using Make your own Metaphors Activity Below are some statements. Try to re-write them using metaphors to create a picture of exactly what is happening. Remember that metaphors do NOT use “like” or “as…as”. e. g. She ran quickly up to the house. Since she did not sprout wings, this is She flew up the drive. a metaphor 1. The duck skidded around on the ice as if it were dancing. The duck waltzed across the frozen pond. 2. Fear made them stand absolutely still. Fear turned them to stone where they stood. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Metaphors and similes can be used in both prose (ordinary writing) and verse, to Metaphors and similes can be used in both prose (ordinary writing) and verse, to make the description more interesting and effective. They can also be combined with another device which appears in many poems. This is which is when you describe a thing or an animal as though it were human. Have a look at the extract from a poem on the next slide and work out what the poet is personifying. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The title gives the image away Songs from The Brook by Alfred Lord Tennyson The title gives the image away Songs from The Brook by Alfred Lord Tennyson I come from haunts of coot and hern, I make a sudden sally And sparkle out among the fern, To bicker down the valley. By thirty hills I hurry down, Or slip between the ridges, By twenty thorps, a little town, And half a hundred bridges. hern: heron to make a sally: to rush out a thorp: a tiny village or hamlet to bicker: to squabble © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How Does the Image Work? What can you see that makes the brook sound How Does the Image Work? What can you see that makes the brook sound like a person ? Guidance points I come from haunts of coot and hern, Written in the first person as though the brook can talk. I make a sudden sally And sparkle out among the fern, To bicker down the valley. By thirty hills I hurry down, All the verbs are active as though the river can choose to do things. Choice of verb “to bicker” sounds like a group of children Or slip between the ridges, Choice of verb “to hurry” By twenty thorps, a little town, sounds as though the brook And half a hundred bridges. can decide how fast it flows © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How Do Poets Use Personification? Remember to look for words which make the brook How Do Poets Use Personification? Remember to look for words which make the brook sound like a person I chatter over stony ways, In little sharps and trebles, I bubble into eddying bays, I babble on the pebbles. Notice how the verbs are active, just like in the previous section. They all sound as though they are being done by a person. The result is that the personification brings the brook to life. eddying: swirling of water babble: to talk non-stop nonsense © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Creating Personification Yourself This is tricky and you need to apply your imagination. It Creating Personification Yourself This is tricky and you need to apply your imagination. It gets easier with practice, so don’t give up. e. g. There was an old shabby table in the corner which looked quite out of place with the newly decorated room. This could become: A battered old table squatted apologetically in the corner of the lovely new room. Activity What can your imagination do to these everyday objects to give them life, feelings and actions? a door that slams a glass that breaks a duvet that ends up on the floor a piece of buttered toast © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Now you know how personification works HOWEVER THERE IS MORE TO POETRY THAN JUST Now you know how personification works HOWEVER THERE IS MORE TO POETRY THAN JUST RHYME AND IMAGERY What else is there? © Boardworks Ltd 2001

In addition to rhyme and imagery, poetry makes use of the sound of words In addition to rhyme and imagery, poetry makes use of the sound of words Let’s look at a section which you have seen before. . . © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Contents 51 -59 Alliteration 51 -53 Looking at sounds 54 -55 Activity: how Tennyson Contents 51 -59 Alliteration 51 -53 Looking at sounds 54 -55 Activity: how Tennyson combines poetic devices 57 How poets use alliteration 58 -59 Activity: making silly sentences 60 -61 61 62 -64 Assonance Activity: Analyse the effect and make your own Onomatopoeia 63 Activity: finding onomatopoeic words 64 Extension activity: writing using onomatopoeia © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. Find and count up all of the hard sounds used in this couplet You are looking for: hard c or k, hard g, t, d and b. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. Find and count up all of the hard sounds used in this couplet You are looking for: hard c or k, hard g, t, d and b. Not many are there. three ds, which are barely pronounced since they are at the end of a word; one hard c, one t which is part of a soft sound and one hard g sound made up of two letters. Now look for the soft sounds: f, s, l, m, n, w, soft th, hard th, soft g, r, p and y. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the Looking at sounds And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. Find and count up all of the hard sounds used in this couplet You are looking for: hard c or k, hard g, t, d and b. Not many are there. three ds, which are barely pronounced since they are at the end of a word; one hard c, one t which is part of a soft sound and one hard g sound made up of two letters. Now look for the soft sounds: f, s, l, m, n, w, soft th, hard th, soft g, r, p and y. What a difference! 1 × f, 4 × s, 5 × l, 2 × m, 5 × n, 1 × w, 4 × hard th, 4 × r, 4 × p and 2 × y. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Let’s have another look at the couplet and this time look at how meaning Let’s have another look at the couplet and this time look at how meaning and sound are connected. Discussion Activities What is the effect of all these soft sounds? And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. Look at the opening section of The Lotos Eaters on the next slide. Discuss how and with what success, Tennyson combines rhyme, rhythm, imagery and sound effects to create a vivid picture of the tropical island which he is describing. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, The Lotos-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land, “This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon. ” In the afternoon they came unto a land In which it seemed always afternoon. All round the coast the languid air did swoon, Breathing like one that hath a weary dream. Full-faced above the valley stood the moon; And like a downward smoke, the slender stream Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. languid: weak and exhausted to swoon: to faint © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Special sound effects As well as using soft sounds in general in that extract, Special sound effects As well as using soft sounds in general in that extract, Tennyson used two popular special effects which you too can use in your writing. The first of these is This is when words, or sometimes syllables, begin with the same consonant. Take another look at the couplet on the next slide and see if you can find where Tennyson uses alliteration. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

How poets use alliteration And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from How poets use alliteration And in the stream the long-leaved flowers weep, And from the craggy ledge the poppy hangs in sleep. Why has he chosen to alliterate on the letter l? What is the effect of using this device here? This is a sparing use of alliteration, which is suitable for creating a serious effect in writing. However, you don’t always have to be serious when you write. . . © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Six stripy snakes sunbathed sleepily, seeking serpentine sun -tans. This is how you can Six stripy snakes sunbathed sleepily, seeking serpentine sun -tans. This is how you can have fun with alliteration. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Activity Now try to create some silly sentences for yourself. See if you can Activity Now try to create some silly sentences for yourself. See if you can build some around the words listed below. mice birds chairs elephants sharks trees parrots roses cars newts apples dancers fish insects jaguars stones rabbits llamas gerbils hearts If you really want a challenge, try the following: orang-utans queens yetis zebras thorns iguanas kings umbrellas © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Sometimes, alliteration is not what you want. For instance, if you are trying to Sometimes, alliteration is not what you want. For instance, if you are trying to create a soft effect, you might prefer to make use of lots of vowels. If you repeat vowel sounds in a phrase or sentence it is called Because vowels are all soft sounds, this effect tends to be used to create moods which are gloomy or sleepy. After all, these sounds are the ones associated with vowels. As with rhyme, it is the sound which counts in assonance, not the spelling. So, look at the extract on the next slide and see if you can find a vowel sound which is being repeated. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Music that gentlier on the spirit lies, Than tir’d eyelids upon tir’d eyes. Activities Music that gentlier on the spirit lies, Than tir’d eyelids upon tir’d eyes. Activities Which sound is being repeated here? What effect is the poet trying to create? How does it work? See if you can create a sentence which uses a long o sound and has a gloomy effect. Remember that ‘ou’ can sound the same as ‘oo’, or it can sound like ‘ow’. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The last special sound effect that we are going to study is called This The last special sound effect that we are going to study is called This strange word comes from Greek and means “the same sound”. That tells you exactly what this image does: it mimics sounds. For example: click, buzz, thud, splash, tap, tick etc. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Activity See how many onomatopoeic words you can think of in connection with the Activity See how many onomatopoeic words you can think of in connection with the following things. water fire wind trees traffic sea snow demolition It can be easier to keep similar levels of noise grouped together on a mind map. ? thund ? ? ? drip drop tap er ? ? ? Here a few ideas to start you off. Where might you put these? rush ripple splash © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Using Onomatopoeia Extension Activity Choose one of your mind map sets of words and Using Onomatopoeia Extension Activity Choose one of your mind map sets of words and try using them in a piece of description. You may not wish to use all of them and you may think of some others while you are writing: this all part of the creative process! See how vivid you can make the picture for the reader. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

You have now looked at most of the main technical things which need to You have now looked at most of the main technical things which need to be considered when analysing, or indeed writing, poetry. On the next two slides you will find a poem called Wind by Ted Hughes. This poem makes use of many technical devices to communicate a sense of the power of nature to the reader. Extension Activity Study the poem with care, then analyse how and with what effectiveness, Ted Hughes brings to life his chosen theme of a storm. Remember to look out for all of the technical devices which you have been studying. © Boardworks Ltd 2001

Wind by Ted Hughes This house has been far out at sea all night, Wind by Ted Hughes This house has been far out at sea all night, The woods crashing through darkness, the booming hills, Winds stampeding the fields under the window Floundering black astride and blinding wet Till day rose; then under an orange sky The hills had new places, and wielded Blade-light, luminous black and emerald, Flexing like the lens of a mad eye. At noon I scaled along the house-side as far as The coal-house door. Once I looked up-Through the brunt wind that dented the balls of my eyes The tent of the hills drummed and strained its guyrope, Reproduced with the permission of Faber and Faber Ltd © Boardworks Ltd 2001

The fields quivering, the skyline a grimace, At any second to bang and vanish The fields quivering, the skyline a grimace, At any second to bang and vanish with a flap: The wind flung a magpie away and a black. Back gull bent like an iron bar slowly. The house Rang like some fine green goblet in the note That any second would shatter it. Now deep In chairs, in front of the great fire, we grip Our hearts and cannot entertain book, thought Or each other. We watch the fire blazing, And feel the roots of the house move, but sit on, Seeing the windows tremble to come in, Hearing the stones cry out under the horizons. Reproduced with the permission of Faber and Faber Ltd © Boardworks Ltd 2001