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Plumbing Uponor Radiant Cooling Radiant Heating & Cooling Turf Conditioning Permafrost Ice and Snow Plumbing Uponor Radiant Cooling Radiant Heating & Cooling Turf Conditioning Permafrost Ice and Snow Melt Ecoflex ® Introductions Commercial Systems Experience Sustainability Support

Agenda • Why Radiant? Terminology • Thermal Comfort • Radiant Cooling Overview • Control Agenda • Why Radiant? Terminology • Thermal Comfort • Radiant Cooling Overview • Control Strategy • Applications • Current Project Database • Design Services •

Radiant Cooling History • Today’s radiant cooling design effort started in Europe. • Within Radiant Cooling History • Today’s radiant cooling design effort started in Europe. • Within the Uponor Group, Uponor-Velta was the leader in radiant cooling designs due to the work by Dr. Bjarne Olesen. • International Bangkok Airport § 492, 000 square feet § Peter Simmonds, Ph. D

Advantages… • Comfort • Energy efficient § Better distribution efficiency(pump vs fan motor) § Advantages… • Comfort • Energy efficient § Better distribution efficiency(pump vs fan motor) § Average 30% energy saving • Architectural freedom • Air Quality, no noise, no draft • Low temp heating; High temp cooling • LEED Pts.

Terms and Definitions • AUST- Average Uncontrolled Surface Temp. Area-weighted of all interior surfaces Terms and Definitions • AUST- Average Uncontrolled Surface Temp. Area-weighted of all interior surfaces § Excluding heated panel • MRT- Mean Radiant Temp. § (AUST+heated panel)/2 • Operative Temp. § Temp. an occupant feels § (MRT + room temp)/2 § Winter (68 F – 75 F) § Summer (73 F – 79 F) §

Calculating AUST-MRT-OT Room Temp. = 77 F Room Temp. = 68 F AUST = Calculating AUST-MRT-OT Room Temp. = 77 F Room Temp. = 68 F AUST = 78. 2 F AUST = 66. 4 F MRT = 72. 1 F MRT = 75. 7 F Operative Temp. = 74. 6 F Operative Temp. = 71. 9 F

Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 • Primary § § § § Thermal Comfort Variables Metabolic Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 • Primary § § § § Thermal Comfort Variables Metabolic Rate Clothing Insulation Activity Level Humidity Air Temperature Air Speed Radiant Temperature

Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 • Local § § § Thermal Discomfort Factors Temperature Drifts Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 • Local § § § Thermal Discomfort Factors Temperature Drifts & Ramps Draft Floor Temperature Radiant Asymmetry Vertical Air Temperature Difference

Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 Floor Surface Temperature, °F Predicted Percent Dissatisfied 80 60 40 Thermal Comfort…ASHRAE Standard 55 Floor Surface Temperature, °F Predicted Percent Dissatisfied 80 60 40 30 66 °F 10 6 4 41 84 °F Design Range 50 59 Ref. : ASHRAE Standard 55 -2004 68 77 86 95 104

Thermal Comfort…. ASHRAE Standard 55 ng 80 60 40 Ce ili all ar m Thermal Comfort…. ASHRAE Standard 55 ng 80 60 40 Ce ili all ar m l. W o Co W 20 Predicted Percent Dissatisfied Radiant Temperature Asymmetry, °F 10 g lin ei C ol o C 6 4 all W Warm Design Range 0 9 18 Ref. : ASHRAE Standard 55 -2004 27 36 45 54 63

Thermal Comfort…. ASHRAE Standard 55 20 20 10 108 8 6 Design 6 Range Thermal Comfort…. ASHRAE Standard 55 20 20 10 108 8 6 Design 6 Range 2 2 0 0 4 4 Ref. : ASHRAE Standard 55 -2004 7 7 11 11 Predicted Percent Dissatisfied Air Temperature Difference Between Head and Feet, °F 80 60 60 40 40 14 14 18

Convection Toc Tih Ref. : ASHRAE Standard 55 -2004 Radiation Convection (orientation) Tsc & Convection Toc Tih Ref. : ASHRAE Standard 55 -2004 Radiation Convection (orientation) Tsc & Dp Tic Toh

Types of Loads • • The Akron Art Museum, Ohio Sensible load § Direct Types of Loads • • The Akron Art Museum, Ohio Sensible load § Direct solar load Latent load § Can not address § Mechanical system is required

Sensible Load § § Combination of convection and long wave radiation, no solar § Sensible Load § § Combination of convection and long wave radiation, no solar § The California Academy of Science, San Francisco Space cooling capacity 12 -14 Btu/sqft/h Temperature dependant

Direct Solar Load • Cooling • Short § capacity 25 – 32 Btu/h/sq ft Direct Solar Load • Cooling • Short § capacity 25 – 32 Btu/h/sq ft wave radiation (sun, electrical lights) Energy transferred independent of room temperature and surrounding surfaces. • Amount of energy absorbed depends on absorbtivity of material. • Solar load exceeds cooling capacity§ Increases in floor surface temp § Emits long wave radiation back into space

Direct Solar Load Surfaces Carpet dark Black metallic surfaces (asphalt, carbon, slate, paper. . Direct Solar Load Surfaces Carpet dark Black metallic surfaces (asphalt, carbon, slate, paper. . ) Absorptance for Solar Radiation ______ 0. 85 . 98 Tile or plaster, white or light cream 0. 30 ─ 0. 50 Red tile, stone or concrete, dark paints (red, brown, green, etc. ) 0. 65 ─ 0. 80 White painted surfaces 0. 23 ─ 0. 49 Table: Absorptances for Solar Radiation, Source ASHRAE Fundamentals, 1996

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Total Heat Exchange Coefficient Mode Heating Cooling Surface Btu/h ·ft 2 ·°F W/m 2 Total Heat Exchange Coefficient Mode Heating Cooling Surface Btu/h ·ft 2 ·°F W/m 2 · ºK Floor 1. 9 11 1. 2 7 Wall 1. 4 8 Ceiling 1. 2 7 1. 9 11

q(tot) = q(con) + ql, (rad) + qs, (rad) q(tot) = h(tot) x (to q(tot) = q(con) + ql, (rad) + qs, (rad) q(tot) = h(tot) x (to – ts) + qs, (rad) q(tot) – space heat flux h(tot) – heat exchange coefficient to – operative temperature ts – floor surface temperature

Radiant Based HVAC for Total Comfort Radiant Htg/Cooling Forced-Air Htg/Cooling RH Occupant, Room Mass Radiant Based HVAC for Total Comfort Radiant Htg/Cooling Forced-Air Htg/Cooling RH Occupant, Room Mass M RT HR V Room Air PM V Comfort Conditions AU ST Room Air OT IA Q d. P Hybrid Htg/Cooling Radiant Based HVAC - The Total Comfort System Satisfied Customers

Control Strategy Constant flow and constant supply temp § Space with low, consistent load Control Strategy Constant flow and constant supply temp § Space with low, consistent load § Lack of control – Under/over cooled floor • Variable flow and constant supply temp § Better controllability § Variable speed pump – Costly – Difficult to control and operate § Not as responsive • Constant flow and vary supply temp § Common practice • The Los Angels Federal Building, California

Design Considerations • Floor § Avoid carpet • Slab § coverings- less thermal resistance Design Considerations • Floor § Avoid carpet • Slab § coverings- less thermal resistance the better thickness and tube depth Min. ¾” over top of tubing (by Code) • Tube spacing (typ. 6” oc) • 5/8” he. PEX § § Longer loop length Low head loss • Dew § § point Depends on humidity and temperature Condensation

Panel Options - Floors • Structural § High Mass § On Grade Below Grade Panel Options - Floors • Structural § High Mass § On Grade Below Grade § § § Above Grade Concrete/Steel Reinforcing Control Joints

Panel Options - Floors • Structural § High Mass § On Grade Below Grade Panel Options - Floors • Structural § High Mass § On Grade Below Grade § § § Above Grade Concrete/Steel Reinforcing Control Joints

Panel Options - Floors • Over Structural § Low Mass § On Grade Below Panel Options - Floors • Over Structural § Low Mass § On Grade Below Grade § § § Above Grade Concrete/Steel Reinforcing Control Joints

Common Radiant Cooling Applications • • • The Copenhagen Opera House • • • Common Radiant Cooling Applications • • • The Copenhagen Opera House • • • Museums Institutional & educational facilities Office buildings Manufacturing & retail spaces Hospitals/health care facilities Dormitories, barracks & prisons Churches Wineries Airports

Uponor North America Experience Uponor North America Experience

Installations – Finishing/Operational Akron Art museum Akron, OH IBE/Simmonds Bellevue Town Hall Bellevue WA Installations – Finishing/Operational Akron Art museum Akron, OH IBE/Simmonds Bellevue Town Hall Bellevue WA Keen Eng Eugene Federal Court House Eugene, OR L. A. Federal Court House RFH-RFC-SIM Museum 45, 000 RFH-RFC Municipal Bldg 10, 000 Glumac Engineering RFH-RFC Municipal Bldg 14, 000 Los Angeles, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Municipal Bldg 85, 000 Mannhiem School Mannhiem, PA Consolidated/Harris RFH-RFC Public School 25, 000 San Diego Zoo Lion Exhibit San Diego, CA GEM/Hernandez Steinhart Aquarium San Francisco, CA ARUP RFH-RFC Common Area's 26, 000 Westminster Cultural Center Westminster, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Performing Arts 12, 000 Academy of Sciences SF, CA ARUP RFH-RFC Museum 14. 3 miles Hunter Museum Chattanooga, TN March Adams/Mc. Kenzie RFH-RFC Museum 4, 500 Hurst Building New York, NY Cosentinni/Scarmadella RFH-RFC Low rise-residential 25, 000 Museum Of Water and Life Hemit, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Museum 45, 000 Salem Conference Center Salem, OR Interface/Quesenberry RFH-RFC Conference Center 35, 000 San Jose Civic Center San Jose, CA Arup/Mc. Kinnely RFH-RFC Civic Center 11, 000 Smithsonian Institute Washington DC URS RFH-RFC Atrium 22, 000 Dartmouth University/Tuck Mall Dartmouth, NH Flack & Kurtz NY RFH-RFC Class rooms 50, 000 Urban Outfitters Philadelphia, PA Consolidated/Harris RFH_RFC Retail Space 60, 000 Pad Cooling Cool Rocks 400

Installations – In Process Bryant Park New York, NY RB&B RFH-RFC-SIM High rise- office Installations – In Process Bryant Park New York, NY RB&B RFH-RFC-SIM High rise- office space 2, 000 Childrens' Museum of L. A. Los Angeles, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Museum Farley Post Office NYC JB&B RFH-RFC Post Office Museum of Northern AZ Flagstaff, AZ AM-Engineering RFH-RFC Museum 50, 000 Hall Winery Napa, CA IBE Engineering RFH-RFC Wine Production/Storage 35, 000 UC San Francisco, CA Flack & Kurtz SF RFH Atrium 16, 600 UC Davis- Graduate School Davis, CA Timmons Design RFH-RFC Classrooms 25, 000 40, 000 300, 000

Installations - Planning Cal Arts Los Angeles, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Common Area's 1, 800 Installations - Planning Cal Arts Los Angeles, CA IBE/Simmonds RFH-RFC Common Area's 1, 800 Central college Iowa Holabird-Root RFH-RFC Common Spaces 25, 000 City Center Las Vegas, NV Flack & Kurtz SF RFH-RFC Shopping Mall 66, 500 Dallas Performing Arts Dallas, TX Flack & Kurtz Ed Roberts Campus San Francisco, CA ARUP Gaylord National Harbor Baltimore, MD Harvard Project RCC Performing Arts center 7, 000 RFH-RFC Class rooms and common area's 7, 700 Flack & Kurtz RFH-RFC Common Area's Boston Mass Unknown RFH-RFC Common Spaces Hurst Bldg Phase 2 NYC Flack & Kurtz RFH-RFC Office spaces 40, 000 Lincoln Center NYC Flack & Kurtz RFH-RFC-SIM Common Area's 37, 000 Native American Museum Tulsa, OK IBE/Simmonds Museum 35, 000 Path Terminal NY, NY RB&B South Face Atlanta GA South Face RFH=RFC Corporate headquarters 47, 000 Time Warner Bldg NYC JB&B RFH-RFC Penthouse 80, 000 Wal-Mart Southwest Arup/Mc. Kinnely RFH-RFC Retail Space RFH-RFC-SIM low rise- commuter terminal 180, 000 1, 000, 000 1, 500, 000

Featured Project Featured Project

Bangkok International Airport • • • Outdoor Temperature at 77 -95°F and year round Bangkok International Airport • • • Outdoor Temperature at 77 -95°F and year round high RH relative humidity The annual horizontal solar radiation total is more than 1, 500 k. Wh/m²a, results in a solar radiation of 1, 000 W/m² 45, 708 m 2 (492, 000 ft 2) radiant cooling Humidity is conditioned in the airport to 50 -60% Ventilation is four air changes/hour

Bangkok International Airport • • • Radiant Cooling Supply Water Temp is 13°C (55°F) Bangkok International Airport • • • Radiant Cooling Supply Water Temp is 13°C (55°F) Return Water Temperature of 19°C (66°F) Cooling capacity of 80 W/m² (25. 5 btu/ft²) 40% of the total load Airport Load is handled by the radiant cooling Total cooling load energy savings = 30. 5 %

Bangkok International Airport Bangkok International Airport

Bangkok International Airport Temperature Distribution 40 o. C (104 o. F) 21 o. C Bangkok International Airport Temperature Distribution 40 o. C (104 o. F) 21 o. C (70 o. F)

Bangkok International Airport Comparison of cooling loads for the entire airport Original Concept Total Bangkok International Airport Comparison of cooling loads for the entire airport Original Concept Total Load: 275 GWH/a 739 k. Wh/m 2 a Optimized Concept Total Load: 191 GWH/a 513 k. Wh/m 2 a

Common Design Results • The Water + Life Building, Southern California Most radiant cooling Common Design Results • The Water + Life Building, Southern California Most radiant cooling designs fall within the following parameters § 12 to 14 Btu/h/ft 2 of sensible cooling § 25 - 32 Btu/h/ft 2 with solar absorption § 66 o. F minimum floor surface temperature § 76 o. F to 78 o. F room setpoint temperature § Supply fluid temperature (mid 50’s)

Design Services • Assist § in radiant systems design Design Parameters –Heating/cooling –Solar sensible Design Services • Assist § in radiant systems design Design Parameters –Heating/cooling –Solar sensible loads gain –AUST –Space setpoint and relative humidity –Construction details • CAD loop layout • Bill of materials

Plumbing Radiant Heating & Cooling Questions? Turf Conditioning Permafrost Ice and Snow Melt Ecoflex Plumbing Radiant Heating & Cooling Questions? Turf Conditioning Permafrost Ice and Snow Melt Ecoflex ® Introductions Thank you Commercial Systems Experience Sustainability Support