- Количество слайдов: 39
PLC Training @ IMM IAS Presented by: Smaranda Radauceanu / Autor / Datum © Continental AG
Contents § What is a process? § Quality Management System § Process improvement § Quality, Software Quality & Software Quality Assurance § Process Models § PLC @ BU IMM & the V – cycle model § Process assessment IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Processes – Definition, Measurement & Improvement / Autor / Datum © Continental AG
What is a Process? Activity that transforms input into output What? With what? Input Activity Output Resources: Results: People Equipment Material Methods Products Services Performance IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
How is a Process Managed? Monitor & Measure the Process make sure the inputs are right, the activities consistently work and the desired results are achieved, then - improve the process as needed With who? Input How? Activity Output Right Resources: Desired Results: Qualified People Right Equipment Correct Materials Proven Methods Quality Products Quality Services Customer Satisfaction IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Indicators
How is a Process Measured? Efficient No Waste Input Effective Desired Results Achieved Activity Output Right Resources: Desired Results: Qualified People Right Equipment Correct Materials Proven Methods Quality Products Quality Services Customer Satisfaction IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Indicators
Why certification? Every successful organization should: • identify and satisfy the needs and expectations of its customers and of its stakeholders, respectively employees, suppliers, shareholders, society • obtain, maintain and improve on a continuous basis its general performances and capabilities; QP Every organization can build up a safer future, by the implementation and certification of a quality management system. Quality Policy QMS Quality Management System Procedures & Methods Work instruction, records. . . IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Checklists, Guidelines, Templates Evidence: Records & Documents
Management System say what you do The Basis of a Quality System is to. . . do what you say record what you did check the results and act on the difference ISO/TS 16949 is a quality management system designed specifically for automotive supply chain. It is applicable for auto makers and their suppliers. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Benefits of a Quality Management System (QMS) Ø The customer's confidence in the ability of the organization to deliver the desired product and service Ø Better position on the global market, as well as access to new markets Ø Lower production costs because of fewer nonconforming products, less rework, lowered rejection rates and fewer mistakes Ø Higher internal operational efficiency Ø Continuous process improvement that saves time and money and improves quality (Processes are fixed & therefore reproducible/everybody knows what to do) Ø Higher engagement and motivation of employees Ø Allows a certification IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
System Approach to management Organizations must understand - a system is a set of interrelated processes - the output of one process is the input to one or more subsequent processes - it is critical to manage the interface between processes to ensure that the overall system is effective IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Relevant processes IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Process improvement through PDCA cycle The process optimization and competitiveness enhancement are reached via continuous improvement by means of corrective and preventive actions in the entire organization and during every business process. PLAN >> Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with customer requirements DO >> Implement the processes The way an optimal process runs Strategies Implementation CHECK >> Monitor and measure processes and product against objectives and requirements for the product and report the results ACT >> Take actions to continually improve process performance IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Preventive and corrective actions Efficiency control Assessment/Analysis
Quality, Software Quality & Software Quality Assurance / Autor / Datum © Continental AG
Quality, Software Quality and Software Quality Assurance What is meant by quality? The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) defines quality as "the degree to which a system, component or process meets specified requirements and customer or user needs or expectations. " The International Standards Organization (ISO) defines quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy specified or implied needs. " Kitchenham: “quality is hard to define, impossible to measure, easy to recognize. " While these definitions seem to be clear and unambiguous, the concept of quality really is not! IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Gillies: "Quality is generally transparent when present, but easily recognized in its absence. "
Software Quality Definition from the Handbook of Software Quality Assurance: "Software quality is the fitness for use of the software product. " Software quality IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Application of software
Software Quality Assurance In the Handbook of Software Quality Assurance, the following definition is given: "Software quality assurance is the set of systematic activities providing evidence of the ability of the software process to produce a software product that is fit to use. " The focus of SQA is to monitor continuously to ensure the quality of the delivered product: Monitoring the processes Provides management with objective feedback regarding process compliance to approved plans, procedures, standards. Objective: identify and remove defects throughout the lifecycle, as early as possible IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Monitoring the products Focus on the quality of product within each phase of the SDLC (e. g. , requirements, design, code, test plan, etc. ).
Process Models guide the analysis, design, development and maintenance of information systems. Most system development Process Models in use today have evolved from three primary approaches: 1. Ad-hoc Development 2. Waterfall Model 3. the Iterative process. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Ad-hoc Development Performance Skills and experience of individual staff members In the absence of an organization-wide software process, repeating results depends entirely on having the same individuals available for the next project. Success that rests solely on the availability of specific individuals provides no basis for longterm productivity! IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
The Waterfall Model Disadvantages come from rigid design: Real projects rarely follow the sequential flow proposed. At the beginning of most projects there is great deal of uncertainty about requirements, being difficult for customers to identify them in detail. A working version of the system is not yield until late. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Iterative Development Advantages : Provides faster results and requires less upfront information. The project is divided into small parts allowing to demonstrate results earlier on in the process and obtain valuable feedback from system users. Disadvantages: The user community needs to be actively involved throughout the project. This is demanding on the time of the staff and can add project delay. User feedback following each phase may lead to increased customer demands. As users see the system develop, they may realize the potential of other system capabilities. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
PLC @ BU IMM / Autor / Datum © Continental AG
Conti PLC @ BU MM - Poster Main Deliverables per Phase Concept Development Quotation G 10 G 20 Quo te Sup port • • • N e g oti at io n Rf. Q PCIS (Quote) PM Effort Estimation Risk List Project Work Breakdown Structure Business Case Product Cost Calculation Bo. M QM Qualification Concept x. V 1 G 30 • Feature List • Basic System Architecture • HW Non-Compliance List • HW Technical Addendum • Basic Production Concept • MP OEL • • • Project Plan Project Orgchart Project Schedule Staff. & Train. Plan PCIS (awarded) Business Case Prod. Cost Calc. QM Qualification Concept & Plan QM PQP Estimation of Quality Figures Initial DFT Special Char. List Service Concept Disc. Effort Est. • • • Feature List (Sy. RD) Sy. ADD, Con. Ops Patent Check System FMEA SE Computer Resource Est. • System Rel. Plan • SE Dev+QA Plan • SE CM Plan • (SWRD), SWAD • SW Schedule • SW Dev+QA Plan • SW Test Plan • HW-RD + RCS • HW-ADD • Justific. Sheet • Bo. M • Basic HW Design • HW Verification Test Plan • HW Schedule • HW Dev. Plan • MP Plan • Prod. Concept IAS / PLC Training • Initial DFA IMM Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 * Main deliverables PU to be defined Increment Loops x. V 2. 5 x. V 3 SW + HW Planning & Architecture SW + HW Design SW + HW Integration & Test • Project Plan • Project • SWRD+ RCS • SWAD • SW Integr. • • SW Design Code Orgchart Code Review Plan • Project Static Code Schedule • SW Effort Analysis • PM Effort Estimation • SW Module Estimation • SW Schedule Test Spec + • Object Rev. Report • SW Dev. Plan Status List • HW-RD+RCS • SW Integr. • QM Production • HW-ADD Test Spec Launch • Justific. Sheet • SW Verific. Checklist Test Spec • HW Verific. Test Plan • Bo. M • HW Effort • HW-SW Estimation Interface Spec. • HW Schedule • HW Comp • Feature List Spec • HW Dev. Plan • Sy. RD • HW Electr • (Sy. ADD) Spec • (Con. Ops) • PVV V&V Plan • Patent Check • System Integr. • Schematics Plan • Layout • System Release Plan • MCAD Data • SE Effort • Drawings Estimation • D-FMEA • SE Schedule • HW Verific. • PVV Plan • Test Spec P-FMEA • HW-PTS • MP OEL • PVV Schedule Series Production & Maintenance Original Equipment Service x. V 4 G 50 / G 55 System Planning & Architecture Production Ramp Up System Integration System Test & Design Validati on G 60 G 80 G 70 Industriali- Production zation Safe Launch Support G 90 Production Ramp-Up Support • Regularly: PM Project Report, Action Item List, Risk List, QM PQR, PPR's, Baselines • • • Disc. Effort Est. x. V 2 G 40 Concept Development Introduction to Production & Validation Development • System Integr. • System Test Spec Integr. Test • System Module • System Ver. Acceptance Test Report • System Release • SW Integr. Note Test Report • SE CM Audit • SW Verific. Test Report • SW Release Note • SW CM Audit • HW Prototype Build • HW Verific. Test Report • HW Release Note • Lessons • QM Learned • PVV Trace & Baseline Report • PVV Test Report • PVV Qual. Test Report • PVV Maturity Report C-Prototype: • Production Bo. M • Working Instructions • Pre Launch Control Plan • PVV Test Cases Production Launch Checklist • PPAP file & approval • Lessons Learned • D-FMEA • HW-PTS • Series Control • C-Prototype Line Audit • Release for Series Production Report • Process / Machine Capability Analysis • Application Release on Production Equipment • Ramp Up Plan • P-FMEA Plan • Production • Project Archived (Doc + Code) • Lessons Learned • SW Transfer to Maintenance • HW Transfer to Maintenance • Series Production Started G 100 Series Production Maintenance Project: G 110 After Series •
Quotation & Concept Development Phases Cost is defined for the development of the product and for the product itself. Disc. Effort Est. Feature List Basic System Architecture IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 The Quote Bit is discussed with the customer and an agreement is reached (or not) Feature List (Sy. RD) Sy. ADD Patent Check SE Computer Resource Est. SE Dev+QA Plan SE CM Plan (SWRD), SWAD SW Schedule SW Dev+QA Plan SW Test Plan development of System Requirements, System Architecture and detailed Project Plan
Project Planning Project planning identifies the project’s needs and constraints and lays out the activities, resources, budget, and timeline for the project. A project plan can be considered to have five key characteristics that have to be managed: Scope: defines what will be covered in a project. Resource: what can be used to meet the scope. Time: what tasks are to be undertaken and when. Quality: the deviation allowed from a desired standard. Risk: defines in advance what may happen to drive the plan off course and what will be done to recover the situation. The point of a plan is to balance: the scope, and quality constraint against the time and resource constraint, while minimizing the risks. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Project Planning ACTIVITIES CUSTOMER’S NEEDS • Validate what the customer expects from the project • Clarify the criteria the customer will use to evaluate results INPUT • Project goals & objectives • Resources CONSTRAINTS • Policies & procedures Identify project tasks & interdependencies • Break the final deliverable down into manageable parts • Assign each part to team member Define the budget for project tasks • Identify and quantify the prospective costs of project outcomes Identify needed resources (people and equipment) – project org. chart Make procurement decisions (some project tasks may be contracted out) Develop project schedule • Identify project phases & milestones • Schedule all the deliverables to meet the project key dates Identify project risks • Explore what might go wrong • Identify countermeasures to prevent problems from occurring Prepare project plan - compile the information developed during the planning Prepare necessary supporting management plans - separate plans for a variety of project supporting activities (CM Plan, QA Plan) IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
The Development Phase • Regularly: PM Project Report, Action Item List, Risk List, PPR's Project Plan Project Orgchart Project Schedule PM Effort Estimation Object Rev. Status List Feature List Sy. RD (Sy. ADD) System Integr. Plan SE Effort Estimation SE Schedule SWRD+ RCS SWAD SW Integr. Plan SW Effort Estimation SW Schedule SW Dev. Plan PVV Schedule IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 SW Design System Integr. Test Spec Code Review SW Integr. Test Report Static Code Analysis SW Verific. Test Report SW Module Test Spec + Report SW Release Note SW Integr. Test Spec SW CM Audit SW Verific. Test PVV Test Cases Spec System Integr. Lessons Learned Test PVV Test System Ver. Report Test System Release Note SE CM Audit All activities related to design and development are completed.
Development Phase - 1 Development x. V 1 System Planning & Architecture Project Plan Project Orgchart Project Schedule PM Effort Estimation Object Rev. Status List x. V 2 Project documents: Project Plan, Schedule, Effort Estimation and Review Status List are created. Feature List Sy. RD (Sy. ADD) System Integr. Plan SE Effort Estimation SE Schedule PVV Plan PVV Schedule IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 SW + HW Planning & Architecture SWRD+ RCS SWAD SW Integr. Plan SW Effort Estimation SW Schedule SW Dev. Plan PVV Plan x. V 2. 5 SW + HW Design SW Design Code Review Static Code Analysis SW Module Test Spec + Report SW Integr. Test Spec SW Verific. Test Spec The SW Requirements, Architecture are created, also SW Effort Estimation, Schedule, and Development Plan. The SW Design is created, the code, the Module Test and Module Test Reports and the specification for Integration and Verification.
Development Phase - 2 SW + HW Integration & Test x. V 3 System Integr. Test Spec System Module Acceptance Report SW SW Integr. Test Report Verific. Test Report Release Note CM Audit PVV Test Cases IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 System Integration System Integr. Test System Ver. Test System Release Note SE CM Audit After the SW Integration, the Integration and Verification Test Reports and the Release Notes are created. System Test & Design Validation Lessons Learned PVV Test Report System Integration performs the test and creates the test reports. x. V 4
V-Cycle for all Increments System Requirements System Planning SE/PVV Activities System Architecture & Design V 4 System Verification System Integration Verification & Validation V 3 ME Activities EE Activities SW Activities V 1 Disc. Planning SW Requirements SW Architecture SW Verification SW Integration V 2 SW Design SW Coding IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 SW Module Test Code Review Realization
Introduction to Production and Validation & Ramp-Up Phases The full manufacturing responsibilities is transferred to the receiving plant. The project team must review the project to make sure it is ready for series production. Regularly: PM Project Report, Action Item List, Risk List, PPR's The product and process are ready for production. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 QM Production Launch Checklist PPAP file & approval Lessons Learned Project Archived (Doc + Code) Lessons Learned SW Transfer to Maintenance The project team reviews and compares the outcome of the project to the initial expectations.
Series Production & Maintenance and Original Equipment Service The post - series production activity required to meet the customer’s needs for service parts are covered. The production is ongoing to fulfill the market needs. Maintenance Project: An annual improvement plan is created to address continuous quality, continued profitability and market growth. IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 Update of: QM Effort Estimation QM Prod. Launch Checklist PPAP file
HW & SW V - Cycles Relation between HW- and SW V-Cycles: HW lifecycle runs in parallel to SW lifecycle, if a new HW version is provided. 1 st project V-cycle is always a SW and HW V-cycle. HW may skip a V-cycle, if no new HW version is provided. Projects define at G 40 the number and timing of V-cycles. G 40 V 4 V 4 V 1 SW: V 1 V 3 V 2 HW: V 2 Application projects declare at G 40 which V 2. 5 milestones will be handled as G 50 / G 55 IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 V 4 V 1 V 3 V 2 V 2. 5 V 2 V 4 V 3 V 2. 5 Example: G 50 V 3 V 2 V 1 G 55 V 4 V 1 V 3 V 2 V 1 V 4 V 1 V 3 V 2
Overlap of V-Cycles Must: V 3 reached before V 2 of next V-Cycle Strongly recommended: V 4 reached before V 2 of next V-cycle V 4 V 1 V 3 V 2 IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008 V 2 1 st V-cycle 2 nd V-cycle
CMMI/SPICE Short introduction / Autor / Datum © Continental AG
Process Assessment Capability / maturity determination can be accomplished by performing process assessments using process assessment models such as: the SPICE project uses ISO 15504 part 5 as an assessment model IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Automotive SPICE IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
CMMI The Maturity Levels IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
Training overview Processes – Definition & Motivation Software Quality Assurance PLC @ IMM Fundamentals V – Cycle Model CMMI/SPICE IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008
IMM IAS / PLC Training Radauceanu Smaranda 08. 10. 2008