482b8491a3d9fa650779ad5bda1a0d99.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 51

Зарегистрируйтесь, чтобы просмотреть полный документ!

РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ
Plasma stabilization control models for tokamak Ovsyannikov A. D. , Ovsyannikov D. A. Suhov E. V. Vorobyov G. M. , Zavadsky S. V. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Gutta tokamak Main parameters: • major radius – R 16 cm, • minor radius – a 8 cm, • aspect ratio – A 2, • vessel elongation – k 2, • plasma current < 150 k. A, • toroidal field 1. 5 T The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Tokamak poloidal circuits. Poloidal field coils Vacuum vessel The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Poloidal crossection Poloidal field coils Vacuum vessel The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Dynamic model of a poloidal circuit system Where I-vector of currents, U-vector of voltages, L-inductance matrix, R-resistance matrix, C-capacitance matrix The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Poloidal currents dynamics The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Model testing Calculated outer loop voltage. Horizontal axis – time in microseconds, vertical axis – voltage, 1 V in point. Red line - Loop voltage on outer loop. Measured outer loop voltage. Horizontal axis - time in microseconds, vertical axis – voltage, 0. 5 V in point. Red line - Loop voltage on outer loop. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

General form of the control problem. The coefficients of system (2) remain continuous on half-intervals tm corresponds electron-cyclotron (ECR) pre-ionization time, tp breakdown time The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Optimal and non optimal breakdown conditions Plasma visible light. Horizontal axis – time in microseconds, red line – plasma visible light amplitude in conventional units. Optimal breakdown conditions. Plasma visible light. Horizontal axis – time in microseconds, red line – plasma visible light amplitude in conventional units. Non-optimal breakdown conditions. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The structural parametric optimization of transient processes • The equations of the control object in the state space are the following (1) • The control object is completed with a regulator of a decreased dimension with the following structure (2) • The control object closure by the gained regulator The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The structural parametric optimization of transient processes • Let us investigate the control object with presence of a constantly applied disturbance (3) • f(t) is a disturbance vector that satisfies following equation at the moment t (disturbance ensemble) (4) The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The structural parametric optimization of transient processes • let us introduce a performance functional (5) • the gradient of the functional by parameters (6) • where (7) The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The results of the first experiments on the plasma shape control in Gutta tokamak • There were developed different versions of the realtime control system for horizontal plasma position with the use of feedback • The system is constructed on the bases of the power transistor switch, PC, special software and hardware, elements of electromagnetic diagnostics The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Control System Scheme Control poloidal field coils Diagnostic coils The diagnostic error signal that characterizes the horizontal shift of plasma column Special PC software and hardware Signals of executing system The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The software of real-time plasma shape control system Software graphic interface. Discharge information The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Some software parameters • program measures the error signal each 2. 5 microseconds • program forms a control command for the switch each 5 microseconds yellow points - control discrete moments The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

The results of the first experiments on the plasma shape control in Gutta tokamak Fig. a. Testing experiments without controls. Horizontal axis – time in microseconds, Vertical axis – vertical magnetic flux in conventional units. Fig. b. Testing experiments with controls. Horizontal axis – time in microseconds, Vertical axis – vertical magnetic flux in conventional units. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

LINEAR CONTROL MODELS FOR GUTTA TOKAMAK The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

DESCRIPTION OF THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Program Workflow Build Geometrical Model Calculate matrices of inductivities and resistances of the circuits Compute Equilibrium Database Construct Linear Model The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Construction of Geometrical Model of Tokamak • • • Poloidal section of the ITER. The passive structure of the tokamak has to be divided into several circuits, whose induced currents together with the current in control windings are the states in the linear model. The section of each circuit that is included in the linear model can be geometrically presented by one (active circuit) or several (walls of vacuum chamber) rectangles. The division of circuits that refer to the walls of the vacuum chamber into several rectangles allows to approximate the geometry of chamber walls more precisely. The programs for calculation of geometry make the first part of the software package that is discussed here. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Calculation of Matrices of Inductivities and Resistances of the Circuits (1) (2) (3) Для расчета равновесных плазменных конфигураций с целью построения линейной модели необходимо знать электротехнические параметры проводящих системы полоидальных проводящих контуров токамака. Программа eltech вычисляет собственные и взаимные индуктивности обмоток, согласно формулам 1 и 2, при этом обмотки разбиваются на элементарные нити тока, как показана на рис. 123 и взаимная индуктивность нитей тока вычисляется по формуле (3) и сопротивления контуров согласно. Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical The 4 th IAEA Technical (4) Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008 (4)

Equilibrium Database Computation of database of plasma equilibriums can be broken into 3 stages: 1. Calculation of base equilibrium. 2. Computation of equilibriums for deviations of currents in active and passive circuits. 3. Computation of equilibriums for deviations of plasma parameters (plasma current, poloidal beta, plasma internal inductance). The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Equilibrium Database Computation • On each stage direct problem of equilibrium has to be solved for each parameter deviation. – Let us assume that coil currents and physical parameters of plasma (currents, “beta poloidal”, etc. ) are known. – It is necessary to restore the magnetic surface for plasma equilibrium. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Equilibrium Database Computation • Grad-Shafranov equation: • Boundary conditions: • The position of plasma border is not given and is determined by the problem solution. Because of that the problem is always non-linear even in cases when the right part of the equation is linear. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Equilibrium Database Computation • For solving direct problem of equilibrium the PET code is used. • Huge number of equilibriums has to be computed. – Process of equilibriums computation is automated. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Model Construction Linear model has the following form: The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Model Construction • The A, B, C, D representation of control object equation: where , , D – zero matrix, , The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Model Construction • Computation of matrix elements is given by the following formulas: The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Model Construction Workflow Initialization of input parameters (matrices of inductivities and resistances of the circuits, equilibrium database) For each circuit: Computation of current and magnet flux variations with respect to base equilibrium values. Program finds 2 variations of magnet flux in the database of equilibriums corresponding to variations of current in j-th contour. Program computes average of relations between flux variation and variation of current in j-th contour. Similar computations are performed for all other parameters of the model. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

CONSTRUCTION AND COMPARISON OF LINEAR MODELS OF VARIOUS ORDERS FOR ITER The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for ITER • Models with various degree of division of passive elements of the tokamak were computed (for divisions into 131 and 71 circuits. • For base equilibrium one of the standard ITER plasma equilibriums was selected. • Positive eigenvalues of A-matrices were computed for each model as well as the corresponding eigenvectors. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

POLOIDAL SECTION OF THE ITER The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for ITER: Results • Difference between positive eigenvalues of Amatrices for different models is less than 1%. • Double-ply increase of passive contours does not result in essential increase of model parameters accuracy, so for practical computations it is enough to use the model with 71 contours. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

CONSTRUCTION AND COMPARISON OF LINEAR MODELS OF VARIOUS ORDERS FOR GUTTA The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Gutta Tokamak Main parameters: • major radius – R 16 cm, • minor radius – a 8 cm, • aspect ratio – A 2, • vessel elongation – k 2, • plasma current < 150 k. A, • toroidal field 1. 5 T The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

POLOIDAL SECTION OF THE GUTTA The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta • For prescribed plasma parameters inverse equilibrium problem was solved using DIALEQT-C code so the currents in the control coils corresponding to reference equilibrium were computed. • Models of order 103, 93, 83, 73, 63, 53, 43, 33, 21, 18, 16 and 13 that were built using considered software package were compared. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta: Results Dependency of maximum singular value on frequency The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta: Results • As a result the model of order 33 was selected as the base model, which provides compromise between order of the model and closeness of the singular characteristic of the model to singular characteristics of the higher-order models. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta: Results Deviations of singular characteristics for different models from singular characteristic of the base model in the working frequency range The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta: Results • Results of the simulation in the MATLABSimulink framework also show consistency of considered models. – In the simulation the perturbations of types and drops were used. - vector of perturbations (components that correspond to and are constant non-zero values ) The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Deviations of singular characteristics for different models from singular characteristic of the base model in the working frequency range Linear Models for Gutta: Results Reaction of different models on the perturbations The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Linear Models for Gutta: Results – Amplitude-frequency responses from two inputs of the system to the output that corresponds to the plasma current were analyzed. – Consistent behaviour between models of different order is also achived. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Deviations of singular characteristics for different models from singular characteristic of the base model in the working frequency range Linear Models for Gutta: Results Amplitude-frequency responses from input #1 of the system to the output that corresponds to the plasma current. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Deviations of singular characteristics for different models from singular characteristic of the base model in the working frequency range Linear Models for Gutta: Results Amplitude-frequency responses from input #2 of the system to the output that corresponds to the plasma current. The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

Thank You The 4 th IAEA Technical Meeting on Spherical Tori and the 14 th International Workshop on Spherical Torus, ENEA, Frascati, Roma, Italy, October, 7 -10, 2008

482b8491a3d9fa650779ad5bda1a0d99.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 51