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Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study 1 Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study 1

Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study By Abhishek Kumar Sinha, Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study By Abhishek Kumar Sinha, Janhvi Doshi, Vikram Vijay Guide: Professor Milind Sohoni September 2010 2

Acknowledgement We would like to thank Mr. G. P Nivdange and Mr. Ashok Ghule Acknowledgement We would like to thank Mr. G. P Nivdange and Mr. Ashok Ghule from MJP, Karjat, Mr. Ashok Jangle from Disha Kendra, and Mr. R. M. Ade from the Minor Irrigation, Karjat, for their invaluable support and guidance throughout the project. The project was financially supported by the Dean R& D. 17 -03 -201810/09/10

How did it all begin? Severe drinking water shortage in North Karjat beginning January How did it all begin? Severe drinking water shortage in North Karjat beginning January Reliance on groundwater in most hamlets – by Feb some wells dry out, hand-pumps don’t work Invitation to CTARA to investigate options. Well in north Karjat after the first rain (2010) 4

Various Options Groundwater study-Availability and Recharge Check-dams and local surface water storage Investigation of Various Options Groundwater study-Availability and Recharge Check-dams and local surface water storage Investigation of surface water option from existing reservoirs Important policy input for planning process. Livelihood norm of 200 lpcd and sustenance norm of 40 lpcd 5

North Karjat Target area: spans 120 sq. km covers over 70 hamlets current population North Karjat Target area: spans 120 sq. km covers over 70 hamlets current population (2011) 51, 618 Intermediate population (2026) 63721 design population (2041) 81, 140 Karjat Taluka 6

Key Outputs Net Investment 200 lpcd - Rs. 57. 25 crore and Rs. 7051 Key Outputs Net Investment 200 lpcd - Rs. 57. 25 crore and Rs. 7051 per capita 40 lpcd - Rs. 17. 25 crore and Rs. 2119 per capita For comparison, Mumbai’s piped water system cost Rs. 7000 per capita, Thane’s Rs. 10, 000 per capita (both 200 LPD), MJP’s Anjap project cost Rs. 2700 for 55 LPD 7 Novel design methodology for optimization of secondary network Application of GIS in surveying of target area

Components of Design RISING MAIN Ground Storage Reservoir (GSR) 17 -03 -201810/09/10 Components of Design RISING MAIN Ground Storage Reservoir (GSR) 17 -03 -201810/09/10

Rural Piped Water Supply System Tertiary Primary Second ary NOTE: Tertiary network design requires Rural Piped Water Supply System Tertiary Primary Second ary NOTE: Tertiary network design requires both socio-economic data and data-related to land use and it extends beyond the scope of this project. 9

Components of Design Illustrated ESR MBR WTP Rising Main 10 Components of Design Illustrated ESR MBR WTP Rising Main 10

Existing stand-post at Naldhe 11 Existing stand-post at Naldhe 11

Design Parameters and Norms Met all major design specifications Key design parameters include: 40 Design Parameters and Norms Met all major design specifications Key design parameters include: 40 lpcd (sustenance norm) and 200 lpcd (livelihood norm) 6 hours of supply to villages per day (5 -8 AM and 5 -8 PM) 12

Life of Design Components Particular Design life Jack well 30 years Rising main 30 Life of Design Components Particular Design life Jack well 30 years Rising main 30 years Pumping machinery 15 years (replaced after 15 years) WTP 15 years (additional unit is provided ) MBR 30 years Gravity main 30 years ESR 30 years Distribution network 30 years 13

Overall Design Methodology 14 Overall Design Methodology 14

Available Sources No. Source Remarks 1 Barvi Dam Operated by MIDC Far from target Available Sources No. Source Remarks 1 Barvi Dam Operated by MIDC Far from target area At low elevation Operating at full capacity 2 Shilar River Not enough water in summer season 3 Ullhas River Perennial source Supplying water to many dependent areas 4 Pej River Perennial source Tail water discharge of Bhivpuri dam (1000 MLD) 15

Available Sources Target Area 16 Available Sources Target Area 16

Pej River 17 Pej River 17

Lift-up Point along Pej River 18 Lift-up Point along Pej River 18

Demand - Location and Estimation Villages identified and lat/long recorded using regional maps and Demand - Location and Estimation Villages identified and lat/long recorded using regional maps and Google Earth Population forecasted for Intermediate Stage (15 years, 2026) and Final Stage (30 years, 2041) Results of geometric and incremental methods of forecasting averaged Five sets of Census data used (1961 -2001) Design Demand = 1. 2 x population x per capita demand (SF of 1. 2 to account for 20% water losses) 19

Hamlets marked on Google Earth 20 Hamlets marked on Google Earth 20

Primary Grid (Gravity Main) Details 21 Residual pressure of 2 m after water delivery Primary Grid (Gravity Main) Details 21 Residual pressure of 2 m after water delivery to ESR Only a looped system is feasible in given terrain Network for MBR to 19 ESRs Total length = 72, 535 m Looped system with 1 source point Alternate sources may be added to given loop

Map of Primary Grid (Gravity Main) Nandgaon Khandas Shilar Aleman Kashele Chinchpada Male 22 Map of Primary Grid (Gravity Main) Nandgaon Khandas Shilar Aleman Kashele Chinchpada Male 22

Dummy Nodes Created at intervals of 500 -1000 m and at every sharp elevation Dummy Nodes Created at intervals of 500 -1000 m and at every sharp elevation drop or rise along the primary grid Entered into LOOP while designing gravity main to incorporate the elevation changes along pipeline (There are 19 ESRs in the primary grid but over 130 nodes were entered into LOOP) This relatively straightforward application of GIS can potentially replace costly and resource intensive land surveying 23

Dummy Nodes 24 Dummy Nodes 24

Dummy Nodes 25 Dummy Nodes 25

Clustering and Secondary Network Design Villages organised into clusters based on the following: Elevation Clustering and Secondary Network Design Villages organised into clusters based on the following: Elevation of villages Position of villages Population of villages Elevation of terrain Proximity to major road Appearance of the land Pipeline from ESR to villages follow roadways 26

Example: ESR 17 Cluster 27 Example: ESR 17 Cluster 27

Clustering and Secondary Network Design Staging height of ESR chosen by optimization of piping Clustering and Secondary Network Design Staging height of ESR chosen by optimization of piping and ESR construction cost. As ESR height is increased: Pipe costs decrease Construction costs increase Height at which sum of both costs is minimum is chosen Optimum ESR height entered along with node-pipe connectivity information into Branch 3. 0 Existing MBR for Anjap Project by MJP 28

Example of an ESR Staging Height Optimization Graph 29 Example of an ESR Staging Height Optimization Graph 29

Example: ESR 17 and Secondary Network (Ware) 30 Example: ESR 17 and Secondary Network (Ware) 30

Jack Well, WTP & MBR Water structure For 200 LPCD For 40 LPCD Jack Jack Well, WTP & MBR Water structure For 200 LPCD For 40 LPCD Jack Well 19. 47 MLD 3. 90 MLD 1 st stage 22. 94 MLD 4. 56 MLD 2 nd stage 6. 28 MLD 1. 29 MLD 6. 50 ML 1. 30 ML WTP MBR 31

Rising main This system is designed for two stage pumping Specification Raw water rising Rising main This system is designed for two stage pumping Specification Raw water rising main(1 st stage) Clean water rising main(2 nd stage) Path Lift-Up point to WTP to MBR Length 2845 m 1977 m Class of pipe DI DI Diameter 600 mm (for 200 LPCD) 350 mm (for 40 LPCD) 700 mm (for 200 LPCD) 350 mm (for 40 LPCD) 32

Tools Used for Design Google Earth Google Maps Pipe diameter optimization software Branch 3. Tools Used for Design Google Earth Google Maps Pipe diameter optimization software Branch 3. 0 and LOOP 4. 0 Topo-sheets of Karjat 33

GIS applications used in design Use of elevation data of Google Earth to create GIS applications used in design Use of elevation data of Google Earth to create dummy nodes that monitor and record elevation changes along pipelines Manual detection of: 34 Road networks Hamlets Uncultivated land Available water sources and potential lift-up points High elevation points along terrain for storage tank location

Potential for GIS Application in Design of Piped Water Systems More optimized and streamlined Potential for GIS Application in Design of Piped Water Systems More optimized and streamlined design process is possible with a stronger GIS interface catered specifically towards design of piped water systems. Automated detection of the following: Road networks Population centers Available water sources Uncultivated land Marking of contour lines Calculation of average head loss over a given drawn pipe path (using elevation data) Integration with Branch and Loop (C++ optimization programs) 35

Costs of Installation Details 36 Costs of Installation Details 36

Installation Cost per Capita For 200 LPCD Daily Demand Net Investment Cost per Person Installation Cost per Capita For 200 LPCD Daily Demand Net Investment Cost per Person Ratio of Design Demand Ratio of Costs 81, 140 19. 47 MLD Rs. 57, 21, 47, 601 3. 90 MLD 17, 19, 33, 649 7051 2119 For 200 LPCD Design Population For 40 LPCD 5 1 3. 3 1 NOTE: O&M and pumping energy costs are NOT included in the above estimate 37

Summary Net investment for piped water at both norms of 40/200 lpcd to north Summary Net investment for piped water at both norms of 40/200 lpcd to north Karjat is economically feasible Estimated Net Investment: 200 lcpd - Rs. 7051 per capita 40 lpcd - Rs. 2119 per capita Energy costs(@ Rs. 5 per unit, pumping efficiency 75%) 200 lcpd - Rs. 400 per capita per annum 40 lpcd - Rs. 79 per capita per annum Energy cost per 1000 litre – Rs. 4. 56 38

What’s happened since August Government/NGO Response Next Steps 39 Meeting with Disha Kendra, MJP What’s happened since August Government/NGO Response Next Steps 39 Meeting with Disha Kendra, MJP engineers, MLA They are interested in building this network at norm of 70 -110 lpcd Participation resolution must be passed by gram panchayats FAQ regarding charges, land acquisition, availability of water Detailed planning, MJP may want IIT to be involved

Detail Design • Target area to be refined • Some villages from west to Detail Design • Target area to be refined • Some villages from west to go, and some from east to come in. • Design norm of 100 lpcd. Design improvements to reduce energy cost • Better lift up point • Consultation between MJP, TATA Power and Irrigation Department. • Better/different network design(consideration of 17 -03 -201810/09/10

Schemes: Two types and their issues. Single Village (SVS)-built by ZP, operated by GP Schemes: Two types and their issues. Single Village (SVS)-built by ZP, operated by GP Regional (RR)-built by MJP, operated by ZP, private body, cooperative. Issues: source and institutional sustainability. SVS RR Institutional Sus. Strong Weak Source Sus. Weak Strong 41 Our Scheme: Super-RR • Such schemes more likely when regional collapse of local groundwater sources. High chance of sub optimal operation.

More research required. . . Socio-Economic Design of ownership Design of tariff structure, billing More research required. . . Socio-Economic Design of ownership Design of tariff structure, billing and recovery Control on establishment and O&M costs Study Comparative study across Konkan (Chiplun-Guhagar pilot underway) Cooperative sector 42 Wider Issues Livelihood norm? Competition with irrigation Feasibility of regional water supply grid Technical/Engg. Source stabilization. Watershed, percolation structures, local surface? Pilot study next summer Experience of other states

Thank You 43 Thank You 43