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PIA 2020. Introduction to Public Affairs Week Two: The Methodology of Comparing Public Systems PIA 2020. Introduction to Public Affairs Week Two: The Methodology of Comparing Public Systems

Revisit: Overview of this Session A. The Importance of Culture and the Comparative Method Revisit: Overview of this Session A. The Importance of Culture and the Comparative Method B. Influences on the Public Policy Processes C. History and Contemporary Policy Issues D. The Search for Enduring Themes

The Beginning: The Importance of Culture in Comparative Politics So far so good…. The The Beginning: The Importance of Culture in Comparative Politics So far so good…. The Problem- Definition as the beginning of confusion 1. Method vs. Area Problem- The Comparative Politics core of 2. Strict definition: A method for crossnational comparison of political or bureaucratic structure or behavior. 3. Often used as all public administration which is not American 4. Key: Focus Upon Bureaucracy in both a contemporary and a Historical Context helps us understand public affairs

The Critical Issue of Culture: Public Affairs and the Bureaucracy The Critical Issue of Culture: Public Affairs and the Bureaucracy

What is the dominant cultural value in Terms of Access? a. Ascription b. Representation What is the dominant cultural value in Terms of Access? a. Ascription b. Representation vs. achievement c. Values re. social and economic change or distribution d. What is the dominant cultural value? What is most important? e. Representation vs. Politics

Ascription Ascription

Culture and Enduring Themes § Dysfunctionalism Corruption and Civil Service Reform § Law and Culture and Enduring Themes § Dysfunctionalism Corruption and Civil Service Reform § Law and Order: Private Enterprise and Public Sector Management of Economic Activities § State Management vs. Privatization § Debates about Contracting

Culture and the Nature of Interaction with Society Access: 1. Access to government often Culture and the Nature of Interaction with Society Access: 1. Access to government often through the bureaucracy 2. Nature of interaction a. Ascription vs. achievement b. Values re. social and economic change c. Ethnic, religious or racial privilege

ACCESS? ACCESS?

Comparative Public Management and Development: Macro-Theme Companion to Issues of Development Theory, Human Security, Comparative Public Management and Development: Macro-Theme Companion to Issues of Development Theory, Human Security, Policy, and Planning Critical to an understanding of International Relations and Security Policy

Summary: Comparative Public Policy 1. Comparative View of Public Affairs and Management and Relationship Summary: Comparative Public Policy 1. Comparative View of Public Affairs and Management and Relationship to the Policy Process 2. The role of the bureaucracy in politics- Bureaucrats do make policy 3. The relationship between the state, the state bureaucracy to non-profit organizations and economic development.

Political Culture: Bureaucracy, Organizations and Power ¡ ¡ The control of bureaucratic power, upon Political Culture: Bureaucracy, Organizations and Power ¡ ¡ The control of bureaucratic power, upon which comparisons of diverse bureaucracies can be valid. Reminder- The Use of History: Historical Kingdoms in Asia, Africa and Europe precursor to modern state system

D. Comparative Public Affairs (PA) and Administration: “Five Minute History” Preliminary Comments: 1. The D. Comparative Public Affairs (PA) and Administration: “Five Minute History” Preliminary Comments: 1. The History and Public Affairs: Culture and the Passage of Time is Important 2. The view from the rest of the world. That includes the U. S. 3. A discipline that is not 4. Origins in the Comparative Politics Movement

Historical Case Studies: Political Culture and Continuity of Themes- How the World Shaped Public Historical Case Studies: Political Culture and Continuity of Themes- How the World Shaped Public Policy Processes China ¡ Egypt ¡ Rome ¡ Feudalism ¡ Africa ¡ Absolutism ¡ India, Empire and Britain ¡ Modern Europe ¡

China- Mandarins- c. 1500 BC Symbol: Elites a. Personalized Despotism b. Ministries/Departments with Officials China- Mandarins- c. 1500 BC Symbol: Elites a. Personalized Despotism b. Ministries/Departments with Officials c. Hierarchy of Authority a. Selection based upon competition b. General administration model

Many of the palaces were very much in the Chinese style. Vietnam was ruled Many of the palaces were very much in the Chinese style. Vietnam was ruled by China for several hundred years, and adopted many of the Imperial Chinese practices (like the exam system, and mandarins). (Influenced East and South East Asia)

Egypt- c. 1000 BC Symbol: Technical achievement a. Clerks and Scribes b. Architects, engineers Egypt- c. 1000 BC Symbol: Technical achievement a. Clerks and Scribes b. Architects, engineers c. Pyramids- craftsmen as elites d. Contemporary views in Egypt: Criticism includes bribery, corruption, over-standardization, red tape, extortion, laziness e. Hydraulic Society

The Principle of Building Pyramids-1 The Principle of Building Pyramids-1

The Principle of Building Pyramids-2 The Principle of Building Pyramids-2

Rome- 27 BC-476 AD Symbol: Taxes and Empire a. Revenue- system for Tax collection Rome- 27 BC-476 AD Symbol: Taxes and Empire a. Revenue- system for Tax collection b. Distinguish: private vs. public personalities of head of state/ separation of resources of state from individuals c. Distinguished ruler from ruled d. Contemporary critique: Too large, inflexible, oppressive, over-centralized (eg. Israel) e. The Importance of Law

¡ Roman Law: The new code promoted the organization of public prosecution of crimes ¡ Roman Law: The new code promoted the organization of public prosecution of crimes and instituted a system whereby injured parties could seek compensation in civil Disputes 1. Napoleonic Law 2. Roman Dutch Law 3. Common Law

Feudalism- 400 AD-1400 AD Symbol: Collapse a. b. c. d. Many power centers- myth Feudalism- 400 AD-1400 AD Symbol: Collapse a. b. c. d. Many power centers- myth of collapse (Decentralization) Collapse of apparatus of central state- not all bad More developed state systems-Byzantium, North Africa and Asia Back to more traditionalist, fused systems at the end of the period (Resembled Africa)

Roland Pledges His fealty to Charlemagne Roland Pledges His fealty to Charlemagne

African Kingdoms: 800 -1800 Ghana- Hierarchical Monarchy Mali- Timbuktu and Higher Education Songhai- Imperial African Kingdoms: 800 -1800 Ghana- Hierarchical Monarchy Mali- Timbuktu and Higher Education Songhai- Imperial Grandeur Zimbabwe- Stone Architecture Zulu- Warfare and Totalitarianism

African Kingdoms: 1000 -1700 African Kingdoms: 1000 -1700

Songhai Empire, c. 1340– 1591 Songhai Empire, c. 1340– 1591

An African Traditional Leader? Khama the Great- (C, 1837 -1923) Ian Khama Being Sworn An African Traditional Leader? Khama the Great- (C, 1837 -1923) Ian Khama Being Sworn In on April 1, 2008 (An African Democrat? ) The Resilience of Traditionalism

Absolutism and the Nation-State, 1500 -1800: Western Europe and Scandinavia a. Return to Roman Absolutism and the Nation-State, 1500 -1800: Western Europe and Scandinavia a. Return to Roman Ideal. Absolutist Kings b. Royal Privileges c. Raise revenues: system of taxation, collectors back in business tax d. Mercentilism- wealth, based on state monopoly companies, basis of state power. Empire key to Expansion e. Modern origins of specialized administration- no longer members of the "king's household"-

Sixteenth Century Europe Sixteenth Century Europe

Louis XIV, the Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715: Traditionalism Louis XIV, the Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715: Traditionalism

Poul Christian von Stemann, (April 14, 1764 – November 25, 1855) for twenty years Poul Christian von Stemann, (April 14, 1764 – November 25, 1855) for twenty years the last ”prime minister” of Danish absolutism

Prussia: Frederick the Great- 18 th century (Institutions of Governance) a. Administration as a Prussia: Frederick the Great- 18 th century (Institutions of Governance) a. Administration as a university study - Cameralism (Chamber managing the public's business) b. Entrance Examinations c. Field Training (Internships) d. Critique: caste status of bureaucrat, aloof, exclusive and inflexible

Prussian Law: Cameralism is an economic theory in which public revenue is sole measure Prussian Law: Cameralism is an economic theory in which public revenue is sole measure of national prosperity

 Old Sarum U. K. By the 19 th Century, the village, Old Sarum, Old Sarum U. K. By the 19 th Century, the village, Old Sarum, was officially uninhabited and yet still had formal parliamentary representation, making it the most notorious of the rotten boroughs that existed before the Reform Act of 1832

The Debate about Institutions, Economics and Society Social Dynamics and the Origins of bureaucratic The Debate about Institutions, Economics and Society Social Dynamics and the Origins of bureaucratic systems: an understanding Max Weber and Karl Marx The Public Sector Debate: Law and Order (or Weber vs. Marx)

Abolutism as Emprire: Asia, Africa, the Americas India- Northcote-Trevelyn Report of 1854 - Reform Abolutism as Emprire: Asia, Africa, the Americas India- Northcote-Trevelyn Report of 1854 - Reform in the Colonies BB (Before Britain) a. Result of Indian Mutiny b. Pattern of Recruitment- Career appointments, competitive examinations, and an end to patronage c. Early model of merit system

Empire: Sepoy Mutiny 1857 Empire: Sepoy Mutiny 1857

Modern Europe- (Note John Armstrong)- 19 th Century England 1. Gentlemen generalists 2. Rotten Modern Europe- (Note John Armstrong)- 19 th Century England 1. Gentlemen generalists 2. Rotten boroughs and patronage 3. Sinecures- "bastard sons of the ruling class“ 4. Reform- merit, exams and elites 5. Colonial Administrators

Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920)- The Big Man Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920)- The Big Man

Weber: The Importance of Democracy in the Delivery of Public Services Campaigning for the Weber: The Importance of Democracy in the Delivery of Public Services Campaigning for the Weimar Constitution in Germany, 1919

Capitalism and the Protestant Ethic- And its Critics Capitalism and the Protestant Ethic- And its Critics

The Norms, Beliefs, and Institutions of 21 st-Century Capitalism: Celebrating Max Weber's The Protestant The Norms, Beliefs, and Institutions of 21 st-Century Capitalism: Celebrating Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Conference: October 8 -9, 2004

4. Traditional, Charismatic and Legal. Rational Models of Public Administration- Max Weber: 1864 -1920 4. Traditional, Charismatic and Legal. Rational Models of Public Administration- Max Weber: 1864 -1920 ¡ Note: It was history that influenced the ideas of two late 19 th century intellectuals, Karl Marx and Max Weber 1. Myth- Bureaucracy as a neutral actor 2. Max Weber’s Theory- Three ideal types of administration- Max Weber's three models 3. Traditional, Charismatic and Legal Rational

Central Debate: Two Giants of Public Affairs and Public Service Max Weber- Both a Central Debate: Two Giants of Public Affairs and Public Service Max Weber- Both a social scientist and a politician 1. Concern for Values: So-called Protestant Ethic 2. Separation of bureaucracy and politics 3. Weimar Republic- Political Institutions Karl Marx- Both a social scientist and a revolutionary 1. Class- Dialectic Materialism (History) 2. Social and Withering Away of State 3. Russian Revolution After his Death

As a Social Scientist Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 -March 14, 1883) As a Social Scientist Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 -March 14, 1883)

HISTORY: Marx Roman Slavery. Citizens vs. Slaves Feudalism. Capitalism. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat Socialism. Dictatorship HISTORY: Marx Roman Slavery. Citizens vs. Slaves Feudalism. Capitalism. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat Socialism. Dictatorship of the Proletariat Communism ¡ The Dialectic and Historical Materialism

19 th Century Germany ¡ ¡ Prussia- law, authoritarian, hierarchical, and the German Intellectual 19 th Century Germany ¡ ¡ Prussia- law, authoritarian, hierarchical, and the German Intellectual Max Weber- Liberalism and the State- Influenced by the Prussian model of the state

Continental Europe 1. France- Revolutionary modelroutinization, Technical specialization 2. Iberia- Cartesian Models 3. Scandinavia/Benelux- Continental Europe 1. France- Revolutionary modelroutinization, Technical specialization 2. Iberia- Cartesian Models 3. Scandinavia/Benelux- Legal, then social model

Weber’s Traditional- Fused Administration 1. Looked back at China, Egypt, Rome and Africa 2. Weber’s Traditional- Fused Administration 1. Looked back at China, Egypt, Rome and Africa 2. Fused System- magic, mystification and witchcraft 3. Key- gradual move to rational separation of King from government

French Revolution: “History, Nationalism and the Rule of Law” French Revolution: “History, Nationalism and the Rule of Law”

Charismatic- Revolutionary and the Aftermath of French Revolution, 17891815 1. State identified with the Charismatic- Revolutionary and the Aftermath of French Revolution, 17891815 1. State identified with the movement and leader 2. Apex under Napoleon 3. Allegiance of civil servant to leader

Routinization of Charisma 4. Key: Routinization of Charisma -from leader, shift loyalties one step Routinization of Charisma 4. Key: Routinization of Charisma -from leader, shift loyalties one step further to nation -basic ministries- finance, foreign affairs, War, Justice, Interior 5. French revolution- Continued emphasis on science and engineering

Discussion, Introduction and Chapter 1, Schiavo-Campo “Good Governance” a. What is the difference between Discussion, Introduction and Chapter 1, Schiavo-Campo “Good Governance” a. What is the difference between Government and Governance? b. Why is civil society important? c. What is the difference between institutions and organizations? d. Explain Political Culture

Discussion of the Week: Zakaria, Introduction and Chapter One What is the difference between Discussion of the Week: Zakaria, Introduction and Chapter One What is the difference between liberty and “democracy? ” 1. 2. Explain illiberal (populism? ) 3. Compare “democracy in Ango-world from Europe, Asia and Africa? 4. How does religion influence “politics”

Discussion: Lemann, The Promised Land 1. Why do you think we are reading “The Discussion: Lemann, The Promised Land 1. Why do you think we are reading “The Promised Land” 2. What did you learn about Clarksdale Mississippi that surprised you? 3. What does Clarksdale tell us about social systems in America? 4. Compare and contrast Lemann, Zakaria and Schiavo-Campo

Picard and Buss ¡ ¡ ¡ What is their Overall Thesis How do they Picard and Buss ¡ ¡ ¡ What is their Overall Thesis How do they differ from most books about foreign policy? Is Foreign Aid important for Public and Security Management?

The Role of Satire ¡ ¡ ¡ https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =nih. DRSu. The Role of Satire ¡ ¡ ¡ https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =nih. DRSu. TG 6 o How Cultural is Political Satire? Which Political Cultures are being satired here?