Скачать презентацию Pervious Pavement We can t solve problems by using Скачать презентацию Pervious Pavement We can t solve problems by using

1faee85e6f11f12f5f3e051f7b540398.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 89

Pervious Pavement “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we Pervious Pavement “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. " Pervious pavements are a different way of thinking about roads. Albert Einstein John Harrison, B. Sc. B. Ec. FCPA Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 1

What Is Pervious Pavement? Ü Pervious pavement is a permeable pavement surface with a What Is Pervious Pavement? Ü Pervious pavement is a permeable pavement surface with a stone reservoir underneath. The reservoir temporarily stores surface runoff before infiltrating it into the subsoil or sub-surface drainage and in the process improves the water quality. Pervious materials such as ancient lime mortars and pervious pavements are made using relatively mono graded materials. In the case of pervious pavement this translates as a lack of "fine" materials. No fines concrete or under asphalted gravel are names for common materials used. Ü Pervious pavements allow the earth to breathe, take in water and be healthy. The stone and soil under them acts as a reservoir and cleans the water just like the filter on a fish tank. They are safer to drive on as they do not develop "puddles", have a good surface to grip and importantly, in Australia, some parts of the US and many other places in the world subdivisions made with pervious pavement that also have street trees can be several degrees cooler than surrounding suburbs without. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 2

The Water Cycle The water or hydrological cycle is powered by the sun and The Water Cycle The water or hydrological cycle is powered by the sun and water changes state and is stored as it moves through it. Human intervention is reducing the time it takes for water to return to the oceans resulting in less moisture on land, salinity and aridity. Source: Illustration by John M. Evans USGS, Colorado District (http: //ga. water. usgs. gov/edu/watercyclegraphichi. html) Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 3

Australia Before Settlement In years gone by grassland forest covered the land Presentation downloadable Australia Before Settlement In years gone by grassland forest covered the land Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 4

Australia Now Paper Mill - Soda liquor + Cl Forestry Cover removal Vehicles - Australia Now Paper Mill - Soda liquor + Cl Forestry Cover removal Vehicles - carbon dioxide Cows - methane Farming Pesticide, N P K Immediate and polluted water run-off. Air pollution. Carbon dioxide and other gases. Putrescible wastes. Huge linkages. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Our impacts on the environment are many and damaging 5

Our Legacy Ü In years gone by forests and grassland covered most of our Our Legacy Ü In years gone by forests and grassland covered most of our planet. When it rained much of the water naturally percolated though soils that performed vital functions of slowing down the rate of transport to rivers and streams, purifying the water and replenishing natural aquifers. Our legacy has been to pave this natural bio filter, redirecting the water that fell as rain as quickly as possible to the sea. Ü Given global water shortages, problems with salinity, pollution, volume and rate of flow of runoff we need to change our practices so as to mimic the way it was for so many millions of years before we started making so many changes. Ü The key to survival in the future will be learning from nature and mimicking her subtle processes. Road are the arteries, veins and lymphatic system to cities. Ü This presentation focuses on where we have gone wrong with roads and the radical Tec. Eco pervious Tec. Pavement solution. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 6

Australia with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort Tec. Eco technology provides ways of Australia with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort Tec. Eco technology provides ways of sequestering carbon dioxide and utilising wastes to create our techno - world Less paper. Other Cl free processes - no salinity Evolution away from using trees – paperless office Vehicles – more efficient and using fuel cells Cows – CSIO anti methane bred Organic farming Carbon returned to soils. Pervious pavements prevent immediate and polluted run-off. Carbon dioxide and other gases absorbed by Tec. Eco. Cements. Sewerage converted to fertilizer and returned to soils. Buildings generate own energy etc. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com It is essential we learn to live with nature and change our ways 7

One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems Global Sustainability Alliance Partners are in the One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems Global Sustainability Alliance Partners are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet – Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 8

Global Fresh Water Ü A finite resource – Population rising – Per capita use Global Fresh Water Ü A finite resource – Population rising – Per capita use rising Ü Water-stress – 1/3 world's population – By 2025, 2/3 due to global warming. – 1 person in 5 do not have access to safe drinking water Ü Yet water is the most common substance on the planet. – Water covers 70% of the surface – Only =~ 1% is potable Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 9

Australia’s Water Problems Ü Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world - Australia’s Water Problems Ü Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world - only Antarctica gets less rain. Ü Most of Australia has experienced drought under El Nino conditions for the past few years. Ü Some major cities are seriously short of water. Ü Yet giga litres of stormwater go into our coastal water ways every year carrying with it significant levels of pollution. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 10

Stormwater = Rainwater + Pollution Ü Pollution comes from many different sources, however the Stormwater = Rainwater + Pollution Ü Pollution comes from many different sources, however the two main sources are Point and Non-point sources. Ü Stormwater is the major cause of reduction in water quality in rivers and the destruction of marine environments. Ü Stormwater is NOT supposed to include sewerage! Ü Pollution is why it is not a good idea to eat too many fish from many areas near cities Why mix rainwater and pollution? Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 11

Point and Non-Point Source Pollution Ü Point Source Pollution Point source pollution is when Point and Non-Point Source Pollution Ü Point Source Pollution Point source pollution is when high levels of pollution enter a water system such as a wetland or river from one source, such as a factory, mine, sewage plant or garbage dump. Point source pollution is easy to trace. Ü Non-Point Source Pollution Non-point source pollution is when levels of pollution enter a water system at various points and from various sources. This type of pollution is the most difficult to monitor and manage. The most common non-point source of stormwater pollution comes from local residents throughout a catchment. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 12

Stormwater = Rainwater + Pollution Source: thesource. melbournewater. com. au/. . . /river. htm Stormwater = Rainwater + Pollution Source: thesource. melbournewater. com. au/. . . /river. htm Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 13

Sources and Types of Pollution Land uses Types of pollution Rural/agricultural &market Silt, pesticides, Sources and Types of Pollution Land uses Types of pollution Rural/agricultural &market Silt, pesticides, fertilisers, livestock gardens faeces. Residential properties & gardens Detergent, pesticides, fertiliser, dog faeces, leaf litter. Industrial areas Industrial runoff & acidity Roads & carparks Oil, petrol, heavy metals, leaf litter Shopping centres Litter, shopping bags, junk food containers Service stations Detergents, oil, petrol Construction/building sites Silt, paint, packaging, bricks Sewage treatment plant Bacteria, phosphorus, nitrates Parks and reserves Litter, dog and cat faeces, grass cuttings, leaves Adapted from: www. cwmb. sa. gov. au/kwc/section 1/1 -24. htm Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 14

Types of Pollution (1) Litter Pedestrians dropping food wrappers , cigarette butts etc. Motorists Types of Pollution (1) Litter Pedestrians dropping food wrappers , cigarette butts etc. Motorists tossing litter from their vehicles. Litter from building sites. Industry packaging and other waste materials. Trucks with uncovered loads which blows onto roads. Macro Leaves Deciduous trees drop their leaves in Autumn creating a significant pollution problem in the waterways. Excessive leaves enter the stormwater system, choking waterways, reducing sunlight penetration and decomposing, causing nitrate pollution. This can create low oxygen conditions, killing animals. Macro Micro and Molecular Sediment is a major source of pollution in stormwater. Excessive sediment chokes creek beds and reduces flow capacity as well as de- grading natural ecosystems by stifling aquatic plants and animals and blocking sunlight. Sources include construction sites, erosion along streams and rivers, soil erosion from poor management of agricultural activities, and road runoff. Micro Soaps and detergents Detergent and soaps tend to contain high levels of phosphorus. This chemical is a limiting factor in plant growth. Excessive amounts provide the nutrients required to fuel an algal bloom. Molecular Modified from: EPA stormwater code of practice from www. cwmb. sa. gov. au/kwc/section 1/1 -24. htm Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 15

Types of Pollution (2) Oil and grease Enter the stormwater system via leaking engines, Types of Pollution (2) Oil and grease Enter the stormwater system via leaking engines, deliberate dumping and accidental spills. High levels of oil can directly threaten the life of animals in waterways. Macro and Molecular Nutrients Enter the stormwater system via runoff from parks and farms that use fertiliser, effluent from sewage treatment plants and septic tanks, chemical and fertiliser spills, and rotting vegetation. Nutrients provide fuel for algal blooms which choke waterways, cut off light and hence kill off aquatic ecosystems. Excessive nitrogen is one of the major factors in the die back of seagrass in our rivers. Molecular Faecal coliforms Enter the stormwater system by contamination with human or animal wastes. The main sources are dogs, horses, septic tanks and farm animals. Macro Micro and Molecular Heavy Metals Lead, zinc and copper are the major heavy metals Molecular entering the stormwater system via roads, and in the case of lead, via exhaust. Elevated levels can cause death and mutation in animal populations. Source: EPA stormwater code of practice from www. cwmb. sa. gov. au/kwc/section 1/1 -24. htm Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 16

Roads Interrupt Natural Drainage Ü We have dissected the landscape with roads and no Roads Interrupt Natural Drainage Ü We have dissected the landscape with roads and no matter what kind, they modify the drainage network. Ü Roads themselves are impervious and also capture water. Ü Stormwater from buildings and from properties usually goes to the same drainage system. Ü Stormwater = Rainwater + Pollution Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Various sources! Keith Stichler, CDR 17

Roads are the Drainage Network And represent a huge wasted catchment Presentation downloadable from Roads are the Drainage Network And represent a huge wasted catchment Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 18

Impervious Watersheds Kill Rivers and Speed up the Water Cycle Ü There is a Impervious Watersheds Kill Rivers and Speed up the Water Cycle Ü There is a relationship between the amount of impervious surface cover within a watershed and the quality of surface water within that watershed. – 10 to 15% of an area is covered by impervious surfaces, the increased sediment and chemical pollutants in runoff have a measurable effect on water quality. – 15 to 25% of a watershed is paved or impervious to drainage, increased runoff leads to reduced oxygen levels and harms stream life. – If more than 25% of surfaces are paved, many types of macro and micro organisms in streams die from concentrated runoff and sediments Smith, A. (2001). New Satellite Maps Provide Planners Improved Urban Sprawl Insight, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC on-line News Releases. The more impervious the surface the more speed, volume and pollution water acquires. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 19

Purifying Water Ü Pervious pavements filter water falling on them releasing it slowly to Purifying Water Ü Pervious pavements filter water falling on them releasing it slowly to sub-surface drains or aquifers and finally the sea. There is little or now surface run-off to carry rubbish into drains and streams. Ü Water quality is purified by the sub-pavement acting as a giant biofiliter allowing bacteria and oxygen to do their work and because surface rubbish does not contaminate it. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 20

Pervious Pavements Act Like a Giant Biofilter Ü Just as fish cannot be kept Pervious Pavements Act Like a Giant Biofilter Ü Just as fish cannot be kept in an aquarium without a filter system they are not healthy in our lakes dams creeks and rivers without natural or man made filtration of run off water. Ü Pervious pavements and their sub structures act as a giant biofilters Ü Pervious pavement with integral bacteria improves water quality entering aquifers, streams and rivers. Ü The critical "first flush" of pollutants is sent rapidly into the cross-section where constantly available sources of bacteria and microbes exist and have sufficient Source Wikipedia. Filtration system in a typical aquarium: (1) air exchange capability to maintain Intake. (2) Mechanical filtration. (3) Chemical filtration. (4) themselves and perform their Biological filtration medium. (5) Outflow to tank. cleaning functions. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 21

Speed, Volume Sediment Load and Pollution Rainwater does good all the way to the Speed, Volume Sediment Load and Pollution Rainwater does good all the way to the sea. Polluted and salty water do no good at all Low speed, low volume low distance covered = low pollution and salts Higher speed, higher volume, more energy, greater distance covered = more pollution and salts Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 22

Traps Do Not Stop Micro and Molecular Pollution Source www. dpiw. tas. gov. au/. Traps Do Not Stop Micro and Molecular Pollution Source www. dpiw. tas. gov. au/. . . /RPIO 4 YJ 3 KA? open Traps are useless for stopping most pollutants other than those that are unsightly www. azstorm. org/public_edu. php Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 23

The Functions of Roads Ü Roads are the veins, arteries and lymphatic system of The Functions of Roads Ü Roads are the veins, arteries and lymphatic system of cities. Ü They provide – The network for • The transport of resources and wastes • Drainage – The route for all services • • • Water Sewerage Electricity Gas Telephone etc. Ü Many different people are involved Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 24

Current Road Designs are Not Sustainable Drainage and Traffic Engineers Sewerage Engineers Traffic Engineers Current Road Designs are Not Sustainable Drainage and Traffic Engineers Sewerage Engineers Traffic Engineers Management Hydraulic Engineers Environmental Scientists Gas Engineers Ratepayers Telecommunication Engineers Geo Technical Engineers The various groups with an interest in roads do not work together holistically Electrical Engineers How often do you see the same section of road dug up repeatedly in quick succession? Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 25

Changing the Road Paradigm Ü Roads and associated services as they are today have Changing the Road Paradigm Ü Roads and associated services as they are today have not been thought out. They have evolved. Ü In the past the agencies that are responsible for these networks and services have more or less acted independently of each other resulting in – Wasted Resources – Additional Cost Ü How often do you see different crews digging up the same bit of road? – This is not sustainable! You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete. – Buckminster Fuller Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 26

Building a New Model Ü The engineering paradigm too prevalent amongst the road building Building a New Model Ü The engineering paradigm too prevalent amongst the road building fraternity is: – “Roads are for vehicles” “water on roads in dangerous” “collect it and get rid of it as quickly as possible” Ü Given the current water crisis can this limited thinking be allowed to continue? Ü Only a small % of water reticulated through a community is used for drinking. – Most is used for washing, laundry, flushing toilets or watering gardens. Ü Perhaps the water caught by our road drainage systems could be used for these purposes. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 27

Heads First for Action Ü Water, CO 2, waste and many other issues are Heads First for Action Ü Water, CO 2, waste and many other issues are mostly in our heads. – We must first think differently then – Act differently! Ü Roads are not just for traffic – They set drainage patterns – Carry services under them – Define wildlife zones – Prevent natural percolation to aquifers etc. Ü Roads in the future will have to be: – Holistically designed – Take into account previously unintended outcomes such as local drainage alteration and pollution. – Capture desperately needed water Ü Our model, measure and mentor for change must be nature. John Harrison with pervious pavement. Photographer Peter Boyer Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 28

Our Guide - Biomimicry - Geomimicry Ü The term biomimicry was popularised by the Our Guide - Biomimicry - Geomimicry Ü The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Ü Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. Ü It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Ü Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes We can learn from nature about how we should construct roads Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 29

Pervious Concrete Pavement - Addressing the Issues Pervious pavement is a unique and effective Pervious Concrete Pavement - Addressing the Issues Pervious pavement is a unique and effective means of addressing environmental issues Image source: http: //www. perviouspavement. org/ Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 30

Tec. Eco Permecocrete - Thinking About Water and Roads Pavements are not just for Tec. Eco Permecocrete - Thinking About Water and Roads Pavements are not just for vehicles. They must do much more CO 2 CO 2 Sequestration Cleansing microbial activity and oxygenation Cooling Evaporation Moisture retention The substrate must be properly designed Optional groundwater recharge Optional impervious layer, underground drainage and storage. Dual water supply or parks etc. only. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 31

Holistic Roads for the Future In Australia we run many duplicate services down each Holistic Roads for the Future In Australia we run many duplicate services down each side of a road. Given the high cost of installing infrastructure it would be smarter to adopt a system whereby services run down the middle of a road down what amount to giant box culverts. Conventional bitumen or concrete footpath pavement Pervious Eco. Cement concrete pavement (Permecocrete) surface using recycled aggregates Possible leakage to street trees and underground aquifers Services to either side of the road. All in same trench of conduit Impermeable layer (concrete or plastic liner) angling for main flow towards collection drains Service conduit down middle of road Collection drains to transport drain or pipe in service conduit at intervals Pervious gravel under for collection, cleansing and storage of water Foamed Eco-Cement concrete root redirectors and pavement protectors. Roots will grow away from the foamed concrete because of its general alkalinity. It will also give to some extent preventing surface pavement cracking. Its time for a road re think! Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 32

Placing Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 33 Placing Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 33

Finishing Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 34 Finishing Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 34

Laying Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 35 Laying Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 35

Cross Section Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Cross Section Pervious Pavement Source: www. percocrete. com Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 36

Tec. Eco Permecocrete Ü Tec. Eco-Cement Permecocrete concrete pavement technology – Is a unique Tec. Eco Permecocrete Ü Tec. Eco-Cement Permecocrete concrete pavement technology – Is a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support sustainable growth. Ü Environmental Advantages – Slows down the rate of transport to rivers and streams • purifying water • replenishing natural aquifers. • Reducing salinity – Eco-Cement Pervious concrete sequesters carbon dioxide Ü Non Environmental Advantages – – – Safer for traffic Improved accoustic properties Reduces building maintenance Cooler Suberbs Reduced drainage infrastructure costs • Reduces the need for culverts, pies drains, retention ponds, swales, and other stormwater management devices. – Less watering of street trees Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 37

Environmental Advantages Ü Reduced volume and rate of runoff – Pervious pavement would allow Environmental Advantages Ü Reduced volume and rate of runoff – Pervious pavement would allow the replenishment of aquifers and reduced the cost of infrastructure to carry water out to sea as the volume and rate of flow would be less. Not as many pollutants, rubbish and debris would be transported reducing waterway pollution. Ü Cleaner water - less pollution – A pervious pavement with integral bacteria would improve water quality entering aquifers, streams and rivers. The critical "first flush" of pollutants would be sent rapidly into the cross-section where constantly available sources of bacteria and microbes exist and have sufficient air exchange capability to maintain themselves and perform their cleaning functions. Pervious pavements could act as both pavements and biofilters at the same time. Ü Replenish aquifers or provide water – Reducing salinity by replenishment with fresh water. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 38

Non Environmental Advantages Ü Pervious pavements do not collect puddles of water making it Non Environmental Advantages Ü Pervious pavements do not collect puddles of water making it safer for traffic Ü Pervious pavements are quieter as the absorb sound Ü Pervious pavement prevent the ground drying out under building cracking them. Ü Pervious pavements made with Tec. Eco-Cements are more durable Ü Cities with pervious pavement are cooler – They can transpire naturally (loosing latent heat of evaporation) – Eco-Cement Permecocrete concrete pavement has a lighter albido Ü Given economies of scale Tec-Eco Permecocrete pavement should cost less – Less infrastructure • Reduced need for culverts, pipes, retention ponds, swales, and other stormwater management devices Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 39

Hot City Syndrome and Pervious Pavement Ü Ever walked up a pebble beach on Hot City Syndrome and Pervious Pavement Ü Ever walked up a pebble beach on a hot sunny day? The heat held by the stones can be unbearable! It’s the same in large cities. There are so many materials with high specific heat that during hot sunny weather and with no natural transpiration, due to the fact that we have paved all the ground, large cities just get hotter and hotter. Ü As architects, engineers and designers of cities we need to come to grips with the macro impacts of the materials we use. Hot city syndrome is one of a number of man made phenomena that the use of pervious Eco-Cement pavements will reduce. The solution is to let the ground breathe and pervious pavements do this. Evaporation after all is still the principle behind many cooling systems – so why do we pave the ground and prevent moisture entering or exiting? Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 40

Solving the Water Pervious Collecting Rain Water Using. Problem Pavement Ü An unknown but Solving the Water Pervious Collecting Rain Water Using. Problem Pavement Ü An unknown but huge quantity of water is drained away to sea taking with it polluting substances and articles every time it rains on our cities. Ü This rapid drainage of rain requires a high cost of investment in much larger drains than the original natural drainage replaced because water no longer percolates through natural vegetation and obstacles. – In urban and some agricultural areas water gets to the sea in hours not days! Ü This water could be collected by permeable roads also acting as giant bio filters, subterranean reservoirs (the city of Alexandria had huge underground cisterns over 2000 years ago) and collection and redistribution network. Ü An essential component of this paradigm is pervious pavement. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 41

Tec. Eco-Cement Pervious Pavement Permecocrete Allow many mega litres of good fresh water to Tec. Eco-Cement Pervious Pavement Permecocrete Allow many mega litres of good fresh water to become contaminated by the pollutants on our streets and pollute coastal waterways Or Capture and cleanse the water for our use? Tec. Eco have now perfected pervious pavements that can be made out of monograded recycled aggregates and other wastes and that sequester CO 2. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 42

Tec. Eco-Cement Permecocrete - Mimicking Nature Water feature keeps water clean All rainwater redirected Tec. Eco-Cement Permecocrete - Mimicking Nature Water feature keeps water clean All rainwater redirected to pavement filter. Permecocrete pervious pavement Pump Water storage e. g. under drive Ü Permecocrete is made with Eco-Cements that set by absorbing CO 2 and can use recycled aggregates. It does not get any greener! Ü Freedom from water restrictions – forever! Ü Pure fresh water from your own block. Ü Filtration through Permecocrete and water feature in garden will keep water pure and fresh. Ü Cooler house and garden (cycle under slab for house cooling/heating option). Ü Lower infrastructure costs for local council. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 43

Salinity Ü Increasing salinity is one of the most significant environmental problems facing Australia. Salinity Ü Increasing salinity is one of the most significant environmental problems facing Australia. – While salt is naturally present in many of our landscapes, European farming practices which replaced native vegetation with shallow-rooted crops and pastures have caused a marked increase in the expression of salinity in our land water resources. Ü Rising groundwater levels, caused by these farming practices, are bringing with them dissolved salts which were stored in the ground for millennia. – Salt is being transported to the root-zones of remnant vegetation, crops, pastures, and directly into our wetlands, streams and river systems. The rising water tables are also affecting our rural infrastructure including buildings, roads, pipes and underground cables. – Salinity and rising water tables incur significant and costly impacts. Ü According to the Australian National Action plan (http: //www. napswq. gov. au/publications/salinity. html#how) and CSIRO web sites there are two main causes of salinity – irrigation salinity – dryland salinity • Caused by clearing • Caused by evaporation Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 44

Irrigation Salinity Ü According to the Australian National Action plan website at http: //www. Irrigation Salinity Ü According to the Australian National Action plan website at http: //www. napswq. gov. au/publications/salinity. html#how salinity occurs when irrigation water soaks through the soil area where the plant roots grow, adding to the existing water. The additional irrigation water causes the underground water-table to rise, bringing salt to the surface. When the irrigated area dries and the underground water-table recedes, salt is left on the surface soil. Each time the area is irrigated this salinity process is repeated. Ü The government website quoted above fails to state the obvious which is that: – Every time water percolates through rocks and soil it picks up more salts. In the Murray Darling system a lot of irrigation water returns on the surface and underground to the river and is used again for irrigation, exacerbating the problem Ü The sequence forestry-agriculture-irrigation-salinity-aridity has destroyed many civilisations – will ours be next? Figure from the Australian National Action plan website at http: //www. napswq. g ov. au/publications/sal inity. html#how Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 45

Dryland Salinity – Caused by Clearing Ü According to the Australian National Action plan Dryland Salinity – Caused by Clearing Ü According to the Australian National Action plan website at http: //www. napswq. gov. au/publications/salinity. html#how Dryland salinity is caused when the rising water-table brings natural salts in the soil to the surface. – The salt remains in the soil and becomes progressively concentrated as the water evaporates or is used by plants. – One of the main causes for rising water-tables is the removal of deep rooted plants, perennial trees, shrubs and grasses and their replacement by annual crops and pastures that do not use as much water. Ü Tec. Eco consider this view substantially incorrect. See our web site at http: //www. tececo. com/sustainability. salinity_pollution. php and what follows Figures from the Australian National Action plan website at http: //www. napswq. gov. au/publications/salinity. html#how Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 46

Dryland Salinity – Caused by Evaporation Ü Salinity also develops as excess water moves Dryland Salinity – Caused by Evaporation Ü Salinity also develops as excess water moves to and collects in poorly drained discharge zones. The buildup of excess water brings dissolved salts to the surface where evaporation concentrates them. Figure modified from the Manitoba Agriculture Web Site www. gov. mb. ca/. . . /soilwater/soil/fbe 01 s 06. html Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 47

Salinity, Agricultural Practices and Pervious Pavement Native tree belts Deep rooted salt tolerent species Salinity, Agricultural Practices and Pervious Pavement Native tree belts Deep rooted salt tolerent species (The Punda. Zoie company) Tec. Eco permecocrete roads Contoured swales Salty water Salinity in untreated areas Deep drains Fresh water Ü Salinity can be rectified by a combination of: – Deep drainage. – Mulching to increase humidity at ground level and reduce evaporative loss. – Planting deep rooted salt tolerant species and leaving native belts that reduce the overall rate of evapotranspiration of the fresh water lens on top of ground water. – Pervious rather than sealed surfaces (Tec. Eco Permecocrete pervious pavement). • Allowing capture of fresh water rather than run off. – Maximising capture and use of fresh water and minimising irrigation water. • Replenishing aquifers with fresh rain water rather than recycled water through irrigation. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 48

How Our Theories Differ on Salinity Ü Many websites including the CSIRO and Australian How Our Theories Differ on Salinity Ü Many websites including the CSIRO and Australian government website on salinity when discussing salinity that is not clearly related to irrigation and the re-use of water seem to think that the problem relates to reduced evapotranspiration with agriculture and rising water tables that bring “ancient” salts to the surface. Ü We think this analysis wrong. When land is cleared natural mulches and soil humus that retain water and reduce evaporation and rate of run off at the surface of soils are removed. Ü As a consequence what then happens is that fresh water does not enter the water table when it rains. It runs off into our rivers. According to the water dynamic discussed above it also picks up salt and pollution. Gradually during dry periods the fresh water lens on top of our aquifers is used up and the saltier water underneath remains. For more information please see our web site at http: //www. tececo. com/sustainability. salinity_pollution. php Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 49

The Clogging Myth - Cleaning Pervious Pavement Those who remain sceptics please also note The Clogging Myth - Cleaning Pervious Pavement Those who remain sceptics please also note that it is better to have pollution collected from a pervious pavement by machinery than pollute our coastal waterways Frimokar Australia high pressure jet and suction cleaning in action The experience of many engineers is that with relatively minor control and maintenance clogging will not reduce the infiltration rate below a design rate within the lifecycle of the pavement. Like any other kind of surface, pervious pavements should be cleaned periodically to remove debris and water under pressure combined with suction is most effective. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 50

We Must Learn to Recycle Everything Including CO 2 Ü During earth's geological history We Must Learn to Recycle Everything Including CO 2 Ü During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Ü Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in pervious pavement mimics nature. In eco-cement blocks and mortars the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably wastes “Biomimicry Geomimicry” We all use carbon and wastes to make our homes! CO 2 C CO 2 Pervious pavement Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Waste 51

Geomimicry Ü There are 1. 2 -3 grams of magnesium and about. 4 grams Geomimicry Ü There are 1. 2 -3 grams of magnesium and about. 4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. Ü Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust. Ü There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. Ü To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 52

Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Ü Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earth’s Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Ü Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite, magnesite, coal and oil by the activity of plants and animals. – Shellfish built shells from it and – Trees turned it into wood. Ü These same plants and animals wasted nothing – The waste from one was the food or home for another. Ü Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Materials are very important Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 53

Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Ü The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Ü The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. – Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. – It can only happen economically. Ü We must put an economic value on carbon to solve global warming by – Inventing new technical paradigms such as offered by the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering. – Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms – By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as a building materials we could economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 54

Economically Driven Sustainability $ - ECONOMICS - $ New, more profitable technical paradigms are Economically Driven Sustainability $ - ECONOMICS - $ New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 55

Changing the Technology Paradigm It is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as Changing the Technology Paradigm It is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO 2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms “By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1” 1. Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York. 1990 Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 56

Cultural Change Ü Ü Ü Ü Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots Cultural Change Ü Ü Ü Ü Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have a growing role Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 57

Sustainability is Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability Sustainability is Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. $ ECONOMICS We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability Equilibrium Shift Supply Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Demand # A measure of the degree of sustainability of an industrial ecology is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 58

Making Pervious Pavement Ü Ideally a pervious pavement should be made with monograded stone Making Pervious Pavement Ü Ideally a pervious pavement should be made with monograded stone aggregates and a binder and be similar to asphalt or concrete to handle and install. – In cold areas it is important that the pavement should not trap water otherwise in winter the water would freeze and cause cracking. – It is also important to detail a pervious structural base and sub base for the pavement that has a high void ratio as this acts as a reservoir, and provide underground drainage as required. Eco-Cement Permecocrete Pervious Pavement Set by absorbing CO 2 Can use recycled materials as long as they are hard and monograded Asphalt Carcenogenic to workers using it. Becoming more expensive as petroleum supplies dwindle. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 59

Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem Ü How much magnesium Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem Ü How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? – 12 billion tonnes CO 2 ~= 22. 99 billion tonnes magnesite – The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm 3 or 3 tonne/metre 3 Ü Thus 22. 9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7. 63 cubic kilometres of magnesite are required to be deposited each year. Ü Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. Ü If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste Gaia Engineering offers technical paradigms allowing us to do so economically Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 60

The Gaia Engineering Process Inputs: Atmospheric or smokestack CO 2, brines, waste acid, other The Gaia Engineering Process Inputs: Atmospheric or smokestack CO 2, brines, waste acid, other wastes Outputs: Potable water, gypsum, sodium bicarbonate, salts, building materials, bottled concentrated CO 2 (for algal fuel production and other uses). Carbonate building components CO 2 Solar or solar derived energy CO 2 Mg. O Eco-Cement Tec. Eco Mg. CO 2 Cycle Tec. Eco Kiln Mg. CO 3 Coal Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds Fossil fuels Oil Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com CO 2 Greensols Process 1. 29 gm/l Mg 61

Tec. Eco Cements SUSTAINABILITY PORTLAND POZZOLAN Hydration of the various components of Portland cement Tec. Eco Cements SUSTAINABILITY PORTLAND POZZOLAN Hydration of the various components of Portland cement for strength. DURABILITY Reaction of alkali with pozzolans (e. g. lime with fly ash. ) for sustainability, durability and strength. TECECO CEMENTS STRENGTH Tec. Eco concretes are a system of blending MAGNESIA reactive magnesia, Hydration of magnesia => brucite fo strength, workability, Portland cement and dimensional stability and durability. In Eco-cements usually a pozzolan with carbonation of brucite => nesquehonite, lansfordite and an other materials and are amorphous phase for sustainability. a key factor for sustainability. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 62

Tec. Eco Formulations Ü Tec-cements (5 -15% Mg. O, 85 -95% OPC) – contain Tec. Eco Formulations Ü Tec-cements (5 -15% Mg. O, 85 -95% OPC) – contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids: paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term p. H. – Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term p. H which is lower and due to it’s low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability. – Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems. Ü Eco-cements (15 -95% Mg. O, 85 -5% OPC) – contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in pervious materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. Ü Enviro-cements (5 -15% Mg. O, 85 -95% OPC) – contain similar ratios of Mg. O and OPC to eco-cements but in non pervious concretes brucite does not carbonate readily. – Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 63

Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Ü Many Engineering Issues are Actually Mineralogical Issues – Problems Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Ü Many Engineering Issues are Actually Mineralogical Issues – Problems with Portland cement concretes are usually resolved by the “band aid” engineering fixes. e. g. • Use of calcium nitrite, silanes, cathodic protection or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. • Use of coatings to prevent carbonation. • Crack control joins to mitigate the affects of shrinkage cracking. • Plasticisers to improve workability. – Portlandite and water are the weakness of concrete • Tec. Eco remove Portlandite it and replacing it with magnesia which hydrates to Brucite. • The hydration of magnesia consumes significant water Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 64

Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Ü Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) is too soluble, mobile and reactive. – Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Ü Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) is too soluble, mobile and reactive. – It carbonates, reacts with Cl- and SO 4 - and being soluble can act as an electrolyte. Ü Tec. Eco generally (but not always) remove Portlandite using the pozzolanic reaction and Ü Tec. Eco add reactive magnesia – which hydrates, consuming significant water and concentrating alkalis forming Brucite which is another alkali, but much less soluble, mobile or reactive than Portlandite. Ü In Eco-Cements brucite carbonates forming hydrated compounds with greater volume Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 65

Why Add Reactive Magnesia? Ü To maintain the long term stability of CSH. – Why Add Reactive Magnesia? Ü To maintain the long term stability of CSH. – Maintains alkalinity preventing the reduction in Ca/Si ratio. Ü To remove water. – Reactive magnesia consumes water as it hydrates to possibly hydrated forms of Brucite. Ü To raise the early Ph. – Increasing non hydraulic strength giving reactions Ü To reduce shrinkage. – The consequences of putting brucite through the matrix of a concrete in the first place need to be considered. Ü To make concretes more durable Ü Because significant quantities of carbonates are produced in permeable substrates which are affective binders. Reactive Mg. O is a new tool to be understood with profound affects on most properties Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 66

Why do Eco-Cements use Magnesium Compounds? Ü At 2. 09% of the crust magnesium Why do Eco-Cements use Magnesium Compounds? Ü At 2. 09% of the crust magnesium is the 8 th most abundant element. Ü Magnesium oxide is easy to make using non fossil fuel energy and efficiently absorbs CO 2 Ü Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO 2 is released or captured. Ü A high proportion of water in the binder means that a little binder goes a long way Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 67

Strength with Blend & Porosity Tec-cement concretes Eco-cement concretes High Porosity High OPC Enviro-cement Strength with Blend & Porosity Tec-cement concretes Eco-cement concretes High Porosity High OPC Enviro-cement concretes High Magnesia STRENGTH ON ARBITARY SCALE 1 -100 Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 68

Solving Waste & Logistics Problems Ü Tec. Eco cementitious composites represent a cost affective Solving Waste & Logistics Problems Ü Tec. Eco cementitious composites represent a cost affective option for – using non traditional aggregates from on site reducing transports costs and emissions – use and immobilisation of waste. Ü Because they have – lower reactivity • less water • lower p. H – Reduced solubility of heavy metals • less mobile salts – greater durability. • denser. • impermeable (tec-cements). • dimensionally more stable with less shrinkage and cracking. – homogenous. – no bleed water. Tec. Eco Technology - Converting Waste to Resource Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 69

Eco-Cements Ü Eco-cements are similar but potentially superior to lime mortars because: – The Eco-Cements Ü Eco-cements are similar but potentially superior to lime mortars because: – The calcination phase of the magnesium thermodynamic cycle takes place at a much lower temperature and is therefore more efficient. – Magnesium minerals are generally more fibrous and acicular than calcium minerals and hence add microstructural strength. Ü Water forms part of the binder minerals that forming making the cement component go further. In terms of binder produced for starting material in cement, eco-cements are much more efficient. Ü Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some extent the carbonates are less reactive and mobile and thus much more durable. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 70

Eco-Cements Ü Have high proportions of reactive magnesium oxide Ü Carbonate like lime Ü Eco-Cements Ü Have high proportions of reactive magnesium oxide Ü Carbonate like lime Ü Generally used in a 1: 5 -1: 12 paste basis because much more carbonate “binder” is produced than with lime Mg. O + H 2 O <=> Mg(OH)2 Mostly CO 2 and water Mg(OH)2 + CO 2 + H 2 O <=> Mg. CO 3. 3 H 2 O 58. 31 + 44. 01 <=> 138. 32 molar mass (at least!) 24. 29 + gas <=> 74. 77 molar volumes (at least!) Ü 307 % expansion (less water volume reduction) producing much more binder per mole of Mg. O than lime (around 8 times) Ü Carbonates tend to be fibrous adding significant micro structural strength compared to lime As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F. , 2002), “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 71

Carbonation is Proportional to Porosity Carbonation Rate Macro Porosity Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. Carbonation is Proportional to Porosity Carbonation Rate Macro Porosity Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 72

Carbonation is Proportional to Time 100 % % Carbonation 180 days Time Presentation downloadable Carbonation is Proportional to Time 100 % % Carbonation 180 days Time Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 73

CO 2 Abatement in Eco-Cements For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Eco-cements in CO 2 Abatement in Eco-Cements For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Eco-cements in pervious products absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Brucite carbonates forming lansfordite, nesquehonite and an amorphous phase, completing thermodynamic cycle. Portland Cements 15 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate Emissions. 32 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately. 299 tonne to the tonne. No Capture 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 37 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately. 241 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO 2 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 25 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately. 140 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO 2. Fly and Bottom Ash 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 126 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately. 113 tonne to the tonne. Greater Sustainability. 299 >. 241 >. 140 >. 113 Bricks, blocks, pavers, mortars and pavement made using eco-cement, fly and bottom ash (with capture of CO 2 during manufacture of reactive magnesia) have 2. 65 times less emissions than if they were made with Portland cement. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 74

Eco-Cement Strength Development Ü Eco-cements gain early strength from the hydration of PC. Ü Eco-Cement Strength Development Ü Eco-cements gain early strength from the hydration of PC. Ü Later strength comes from the carbonation of brucite forming an amorphous phase, lansfordite and nesquehonite. Ü Strength gain in eco-cements is mainly microstructural because of – More ideal particle packing (Brucite particles at 4 -5 micron are under half the size of cement grains. ) – The natural fibrous and acicular shape of magnesium carbonate minerals which tend to lock together. Ü More binder is formed than with calcium – Total volumetric expansion from magnesium oxide to lansfordite is for example volume 811%. From air and water Mg(OH)2 + CO 2 Mg. CO 3. 5 H 2 O Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 75

Eco-Cement Strength Gain Curve Eco-cement bricks, blocks, pavers and mortars etc. take a while Eco-Cement Strength Gain Curve Eco-cement bricks, blocks, pavers and mortars etc. take a while to come to the same or greater strength than OPC formulations but are stronger than lime based formulations. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 76

Chemistry of Eco-Cements Ü There a number of carbonates of magnesium. The main ones Chemistry of Eco-Cements Ü There a number of carbonates of magnesium. The main ones appear to be an amorphous phase, lansfordite and nesquehonite. Ü The carbonation of magnesium hydroxide does not proceed as readily as that of calcium hydroxide. – Gor Brucite to nesquehonite = - 38. 73 k. J. mol-1 – Compare to Gor Portlandite to calcite = -64. 62 k. J. mol-1 Ü The dehydration of nesquehonite to form magnesite is not favoured by simple thermodynamics but may occur in the long term under the right conditions. Ü Gor nesquehonite to magnesite = 8. 56 k. J. mol-1 – But kinetically driven by desiccation during drying. Ü Reactive magnesia can carbonate in dry conditions – so keep bags sealed! Ü For a full discussion of thermodynamics see our technical documents. Tec. Eco technical documents on the web cover the important aspects of carbonation. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 77

Eco-Cement Reactions Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 78 Eco-Cement Reactions Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 78

Eco-Cement Micro-Structural Strength Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 79 Eco-Cement Micro-Structural Strength Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 79

Carbonation Ü Eco-cement is based on blending reactive magnesium oxide with other hydraulic cements Carbonation Ü Eco-cement is based on blending reactive magnesium oxide with other hydraulic cements and then allowing the Brucite and Portlandite components to carbonate in pervious materials such as concretes blocks and mortars. – Magnesium is a small lightweight atom and the carbonates that form contain proportionally a lot of CO 2 and water and are stronger because of superior microstructure. Ü The use of eco-cements for block manufacture, particularly in conjunction with the kiln also invented by Tec. Eco (The Tec-Kiln) would result in sequestration on a massive scale. Ü As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F. , 2002), “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Ancient and modern carbonating lime mortars are based on this principle Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 80

Aggregate Requirements for Carbonation Ü The requirements for totally hydraulic limes and all hydraulic Aggregate Requirements for Carbonation Ü The requirements for totally hydraulic limes and all hydraulic concretes is to minimise the amount of water for hydraulic strength and maximise compaction and for this purpose aggregates that require grading and relatively fine rounded sands to minimise voids are required Ü For carbonating eco-cements and lime mortars on the hand the matrix must “breathe” i. e. they must be pervious – requiring a coarse fraction to cause physical air voids and some vapour permeability. Ü Coarse fractions are required in the aggregates used! Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 81

CO 2 Abatement in Eco-Cements For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Eco-cements in CO 2 Abatement in Eco-Cements For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Eco-cements in pervious products absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Brucite carbonates forming lansfordite, nesquehonite and an amorphous phase, completing thermodynamic cycle. Portland Cements 15 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate Emissions. 32 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately. 299 tonne to the tonne. No Capture 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 37 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately. 241 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO 2 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 25 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately. 140 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO 2. Fly and Bottom Ash 11. 25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3. 75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions. 126 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately. 113 tonne to the tonne. Greater Sustainability. 299 >. 241 >. 140 >. 113 Bricks, blocks, pavers, mortars and pavement made using eco-cement, fly and bottom ash (with capture of CO 2 during manufacture of reactive magnesia) have 2. 65 times less emissions than if they were made with Portland cement. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 82

Tec. Eco Cement LCA Tec. Eco Concretes will have a big role post Kyoto Tec. Eco Cement LCA Tec. Eco Concretes will have a big role post Kyoto as they offer potential sequestration as well as waste utilisation The Tec. Eco LCA model is available for download under “tools” on the web site Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 83

Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared (Gaia Engineering Assumed) Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 84 Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared (Gaia Engineering Assumed) Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 84

Rosendale Concretes – Proof of Durability Ü Rosendale cements contained 14 – 30% Mg. Rosendale Concretes – Proof of Durability Ü Rosendale cements contained 14 – 30% Mg. O Ü A major structure built with Rosendale cements commenced in 1846 was Fort Jefferson near key west in Florida. Ü Rosendale cements were recognized for their exceptional durability, even under severe exposure. At Fort Jefferson much of the 150 year-old Rosendale cement mortar remains in excellent condition, in spite of the severe ocean exposure and over 100 years of neglect. Fort Jefferson is nearly a half mile in circumference and has a total lack of expansion joints, yet shows no signs of cracking or stress. The first phase of a major restoration is currently in progress. More information from http: //www. rosendalecement. net/rosendale_natural_cement_. html Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 85

A Post – Carbon Age We all use carbon and wastes! Presentation downloadable from A Post – Carbon Age We all use carbon and wastes! Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 86

Eco-Cement compared to Carbonating Lime Mortar. Ü The underlying chemistry is very similar however Eco-Cement compared to Carbonating Lime Mortar. Ü The underlying chemistry is very similar however eco-cements are potentially superior to lime mortars because: – The calcination phase of the magnesium thermodynamic cycle takes place at a much lower temperature – Magnesium minerals are generally more fibrous and acicular than calcium minerals and hence a lot stronger. – Water forms part of the binder minerals that forming making the cement component go further. – Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some extent the carbonates are less reactive and mobile and thus much more durable. – A less reactive environment with a lower long term p. H. (around 10. 5 instead of 12. 35) Ü Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO 2 is captured. Ü Carbonation in the built environment would result in significant sequestration because of the shear volumes involved. Ü Carbonation adds considerable strength and some steel reinforced structural concrete could be replaced with fibre reinforced pervious carbonated concrete. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 87

A More Sustainable Built Environment CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds A More Sustainable Built Environment CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteria CO 2 GREENSOLS MAGNESIUM CARBONATE “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Fred Pearce, New Scientist Magazine TECECO KILN Mg. O ECO-CEMENT CONCRETES RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS OTHER WASTES PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material) Pareto’s principle 80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by Eco. Cements SUSTAINABLE CITIES Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 88

Conclusion Ü Pervious pavements made with Tec. Eco-Cements would utilise a considerable proportion of Conclusion Ü Pervious pavements made with Tec. Eco-Cements would utilise a considerable proportion of wastes such as fly ash and as they would carbonate, provide substantial abatement. Water entering aquifers, streams and rivers would be of higher quality and carry less macro pollutants. Ü Cities with pervious pavements would be safer for traffic, be cleaner and have less pollution Ü Fresh water replenishment of aquifers would reduce salinity and reverse falling water tables. Ü Pervious pavements could provide a means for water capture with in situ cleansing thereby solving the water crisis in our cities Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 89