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Persuasive Techniques How advertising influences consumers
Virginia English SOLs • • • 6. 2 The student will listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations. Distinguish between fact and opinion. Compare and contrast viewpoints. Present a convincing argument. 7. 3 The student will describe persuasive messages in nonprint media, including television, radio, and video. Identify persuasive technique used. Distinguish between fact and opinion. Describe how word choice conveys viewpoint. 8. 3 The student will analyze mass media messages. Evaluate the persuasive technique being used. Describe the possible cause-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. Evaluate sources, including advertisements, editorials, and feature stories, for relationships between intent and factual content.
What is persuasion? • An attempt to change opinions and attitudes • An attempt to change your behavior • EX. : politicians, advertisements, parents. friends
Sources of Persuasion • • T. V. Radio Internet Magazine Snail mail advertisements People Billboards……. And more
Persuasion & Propaganda • Both attem pt to c feeling hange s to ca your t use a c chang hough e in co hange t proce in beh nsump ss or avior ( tion of using a goods or ser vices)
Persuasion vs. Propaganda • Propaganda is defined as the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. • Persuasion is defined as a form of social influence, the act of influencing the mind by arguments or reasons offered, communication intended to induce belief or action.
Persuasive/Propaganda Techniques • • glittering generality exaggeration/ overstatement repetition bandwagon/group appeal expert testimony/testimonial citing statistics loaded words/slanted words
Persuasive/Propaganda Techniques § § § buzz words transference name-calling plain folks emotional appeals something for nothing/ bargain
Glittering Generality • Offering general information or description that uses words like New! Improved! Powerful! • Glittering generalities play to emotions without making any commitments or putting the speaker in a position where they may be challenged or criticized.
Exaggeration • Making something seem better or more important than it is; generalizations that can’t be backed up by facts. • “Brand X clothing makes you look 20 pounds lighter and 20 years younger”
Loaded Words/Slanted Words • Words that tend to cause favorable or unfavorable reactions such as “home” and “family”, that you probably have strong feelings about. • Loaded words like “dishonest” and ‘wasteful” can be used to attack the competition since people don’t like dishonesty and waste. • Carefully chosen words to evoke a particular feeling such as “sweat” vs. “perspiration” or “frugal” vs. “cheap” can influence the audience.
Repetition • Repeating a name, slogan or product over and over in the same advertisement or campaign; it seems to become more believable the more times it is used. • Hitler was a master at this game.
Bandwagon/Group Appeal • Convincing us to accept someone or something because of its popularity. • “All the kids on the block wear X brand jeans”. Everybody’s buying it and if you don’t, you’ll be left out. • “Everybody else’s parents are letting them go. ”
Expert Testimony/Testimonial • Famous people or someone you respect or like says the product is good and advertises the product.
Citing Statistics, facts and figures • Using tests, statistics or information that sounds “scientific” to prove that one product or person is better than another • “Four out of five dentists recommend brand X toothpaste. ” (How many total dentists were polled? Just 5? ) • Fails to give important data about the dentists, such as if they are paid to promote band X.
Citing Statistics, facts and figures • “ 85% of Americans polled believe this candidate will do a better job – can they all be wrong? ” (Which Americans were polled? Her immediate family? ) • “ 200 doctors recommend brand X…” (but maybe 400 doctors prefer brand Z. )
Vague Comparisons • Comparing a product or person to another, without providing the other half of the comparison. • “Brand X cleans better. ” (Better than what? Soot and dirt? ) • “Candidate X – the best choice. ” (Best for whom? Himself? )
Buzz Words • Words that have suddenly become popular with consumers… words like “pure”…”all natural”… • Advertisers may also use buzz words from a particular industry to suggest to the consumer that they are part of the “in crowd”.
Transference • Suggesting that buying product X is associated with positive situations, people or events. • May feature symbols such as an American flag • Advertisements for alcohol use pictures where people are having a good time, not pictures of drunks in an alley or people fighting or being taken advantage of.
Snob Appeal /Transference • Suggesting that association with a person or product can make you better than average or part of an elite group. • May feature pictures of successful people in luxurious settings.
Name Calling • Calling a product or person a negative name like “liar” or using adjectives like flimsy, poor quality or slow when talking about the competition, without providing proof.
Plain Folks • People just like you, are buying it, so why don’t you? Picture in the ad will feature “down home” kind of folks, like you. • An ordinary looking family sits together at a table to eat brand X or play with brand Z.
Plain Folks • Politicians show pictures of themselves playing with a dog or with their children, wearing casual clothing.
Emotional Appeals/ Hidden Fears • Advertisers scare consumers into buying the product. They imply that something awful will happen if you fail to buy their product. They may use pictures to illustrate negative consequences. • “Don’t let this (terrible thing) happen to you. ” • OR • “Don’t be embarrassed by body odor. Buy Brand X”
Emotional Appeals/ Hidden Fears • Buy a certain toothpaste or breath mint to avoid rejection. • Often advertisers prey on the insecurity of not knowing you have a problem that is effecting you in a negative manner for example “Even your best friend won’t tell you…”
Emotional Appeals/ Flattery • Appealing to consumers with flattery. For example: an advertiser will tell consumers they demonstrate good sense or wisdom if they buy the product. • “Brand X is the choice of the discerning shopper” Or • “Smart shoppers choose Brand X”
Free or Bargain • A speaker suggests that consumers can get something for nothing or almost nothing.
Testimonial • Using a famous person or an expert to convince consumers to buy product X or support a particular candidate or cause. • “Tiger Woods chooses Nike. ” or “Got Milk? ”
Consumer questions about facts • Before buying ask yourself these questions • Is the evidence sufficient in volume? (Is there enough evidence to present a strong or indisputable case. ? ) • Is the evidence trustworthy? (Does it come from reliable, informed sources? ) • Is the evidence verifiable? (Can you corroborate it through other sources. )
Consumer questions about experts • Is the expert a current authority on the specific subject in question? (Tiger Woods may know golf, but does he know toothpaste or life insurance? ) • How is the expert viewed by their peers? Is he/she respected in the field? • Is the expert associated with reputable organizations? • How free of bias is the expert? •
Review Games • • • Matching http: //www. quia. com/mc/638412. html Advertising terms matching http: //www. quia. com/mc/1297929. html Hangman http: //www. quia. com/hm/384859. html
Additional resources • Read Write Think has a terrific lesson plan with many printable handouts at • http: //www. readwritethink. org/lessons/lesso n_view. asp? id=1166 • PBS lesson plan • http: //www. pbs. org/newshour/extra/teacher s/lessonplans/october 01/warads/