Скачать презентацию PERSUASIVE APPEALS Logos Pathos Ethos RHETORICAL MODES Скачать презентацию PERSUASIVE APPEALS Logos Pathos Ethos RHETORICAL MODES

fc80913effb0f336945e98b995f1f283.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 26

PERSUASIVE APPEALS: Logos, Pathos, Ethos PERSUASIVE APPEALS: Logos, Pathos, Ethos

RHETORICAL MODES • • • DESCRIPTION NARRATION (anecdotes) ILLUSTRATION (examples) PROCESS-ANALYSIS DIVISION and CLASSIFICATION RHETORICAL MODES • • • DESCRIPTION NARRATION (anecdotes) ILLUSTRATION (examples) PROCESS-ANALYSIS DIVISION and CLASSIFICATION (roles, types) COMPARISON and CONTRAST (similarities, differ. ) DEFINITION REFUTATION PARADOX CAUSE and EFFECT ANALOGY 2

TYPES of EVIDENCE • • • FACTS STATISTICS FIGURES, NUMBERS, DATES EXAMPLES REASONS DETAILS TYPES of EVIDENCE • • • FACTS STATISTICS FIGURES, NUMBERS, DATES EXAMPLES REASONS DETAILS ANECDOTES EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY (first-hand, primary) EXPERT TESTIMONY 3

HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE • • TIMELINESS (relevance) INTENT (to entertain, to persuade) CREDIBILITY HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE • • TIMELINESS (relevance) INTENT (to entertain, to persuade) CREDIBILITY (sincerity, agendas) CONTEXT (circumstance, situation) 4

EVIDENCE • LOGICAL: • reasons, examples, details, facts, stats, figures • EMOTIONAL: • examples, EVIDENCE • LOGICAL: • reasons, examples, details, facts, stats, figures • EMOTIONAL: • examples, anecdotes, eye-witness testimony • CREDIBLE: • details, facts, stats, figures, expert testimony 5

BACKGROUND: ARISTOTLE and the RHETORICAL TRIANGLE • In Rhetoric (350 BC), the Greek philosopher BACKGROUND: ARISTOTLE and the RHETORICAL TRIANGLE • In Rhetoric (350 BC), the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 -322 BC) suggests that the fundamental human characteristics include: • logic, reasoning • emotion, empathy, compassion • credibility • Thus, he divided the persuasive appeals of rhetoric into 3 parts: • Logos, • Pathos, • Ethos 6

LOGOS • “logic” • SUPPORT, PROOF, “GROUNDS”: • • • logic, reasons, examples, details, LOGOS • “logic” • SUPPORT, PROOF, “GROUNDS”: • • • logic, reasons, examples, details, facts 7

EVALUATING LOGOS • PURPOSE= to stir readers’ thoughts, to offer readers different perspectives, for EVALUATING LOGOS • PURPOSE= to stir readers’ thoughts, to offer readers different perspectives, for readers to see something in a new way • THESIS= reasonable • EVIDENCE= accurate; clear, convincing; relevant, appropriate • REASONS= make sense, no fallacies 8

LOGOS in everyday life • to win an argument on any subject: • • LOGOS in everyday life • to win an argument on any subject: • • • receipts, ticket stubs photos, video text or phone or e-mail messages witnesses, quotes examples, instances, incidents, anecdotes weather, financial, medical, legal reports 9

LOGOS in everyday life FRIENDS: • to win an argument on sports (e. g. LOGOS in everyday life FRIENDS: • to win an argument on sports (e. g. ): • use reasons supported by statistics, highlights (examples), details, facts, spectator (witness) SCHOOL: • to argue a grade: • refer (rationally) to the syllabus, assignment sheet, textbook, test question, lecture notes, handouts 10

LOGOS in everyday life PARENTS: • to argue for a raise in allowance • LOGOS in everyday life PARENTS: • to argue for a raise in allowance • to argue to borrow the car • to argue to extend curfew • refer to “record” (stats) or make a bargain CAR: • to buy a car, to repair/keep vs. trade/sell/junk • use a debit sheet, refer to an advertisement • Kelley Blue Book, NADA, Edmunds. com, Lemon Law 11

LOGOS in everyday life WORK (with your boss): • to argue for a raise, LOGOS in everyday life WORK (with your boss): • to argue for a raise, day off • employment file, service, dedication, time card, schedule WORK (with a customer): • refer to circular, advertisement, sign, computer, register WORK (as a customer): • with the cashier, customer service representative • refer to circular, advertisement, sign, register receipt 12

PATHOS • “sympathy, ” “empathy, ” “pathetic” • appeal to emotions (*fear, pity, guilt) PATHOS • “sympathy, ” “empathy, ” “pathetic” • appeal to emotions (*fear, pity, guilt) • human emotions= affection, anger, contempt, delight, despair, disgust, embarrassment, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor, jealousy, joy, love, royalty, passion, pity, pride, remorse, ridicule, sadness, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance • *often stronger than LOGOS 13

EVALUATING PATHOS • LEGITIMATE & APPROPRIATE • NOT forced, • NOT faked, • NOT EVALUATING PATHOS • LEGITIMATE & APPROPRIATE • NOT forced, • NOT faked, • NOT manipulative • With RESTRAINT • NOT exaggerated, • NOT overdone with wild hysterics • With a SENSE of AUDIENCE 14

EVALUATING PATHOS DANGERS: • manipulative: • can lead readers from their better judgment • EVALUATING PATHOS DANGERS: • manipulative: • can lead readers from their better judgment • mob mentality • often uses loaded language • emotionally charged words or phrases • words with strong connotations 15

PATHOS in everyday life PARENTS: • guilt-trips by/to your mother • previous events or PATHOS in everyday life PARENTS: • guilt-trips by/to your mother • previous events or relationships • other siblings • playing one parent against the other RELATIONSHIPS: • guilt-trips by/to your significant other • previous events or relationships • other boy/girlfriends 16

PATHOS in everyday life CAR: • to buy or keep • attraction, sentimentality, frustration PATHOS in everyday life CAR: • to buy or keep • attraction, sentimentality, frustration • to try to get out of a speeding ticket • appeal to your bad day, death in the family, race or gender, to the officer’s race or gender • flirt, act dumb or innocent 17

PATHOS in everyday life WORK: • to argue with your boss (raise, promotion, break) PATHOS in everyday life WORK: • to argue with your boss (raise, promotion, break) • use your family, dedication, years of service, long shift • as a customer: • to argue a price, repair work, warranty coverage • use your years of customer loyalty, justifiable anger or indignation • threaten to take your business elsewhere, to write or call the supervisor, to take your issue up the “food chain” 18

PATHOS in everyday life • Sentimentality: save the children commercials • Hatred: mobs, gangs, PATHOS in everyday life • Sentimentality: save the children commercials • Hatred: mobs, gangs, voters, anti-? demonstrations • Patriotism: rallies, parades, commercialization (not just USA patriotism) • Love: Valentine’s Day, ad/commercials, Web sites • Sex: ad/commercials (cars, TAG), Web sites • Humor: stand-ups, late-night shows, cartoons (hit&run) • Religiosity: guilt-trips, hell fire & brimstone, hypocrisy, extremists, fundamentalists, cults 19

ETHOS • writer’s credibility, character • characteristics of an ethical person: benevolence, courage, credibility, ETHOS • writer’s credibility, character • characteristics of an ethical person: benevolence, courage, credibility, decency, dedication, dignity, enthusiasm, good will, honesty, honor, idealism, intelligence, morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve, respect, responsibility, seriousness, sincerity, trustworthiness, valor, wisdom 20

EVALUATING ETHOS AN ETHICAL WRITER. . . • presents both sides of the issue EVALUATING ETHOS AN ETHICAL WRITER. . . • presents both sides of the issue AND • is fair to both sides (Rogerian Method) • shows different points of view • appears well-versed on subject (accuracy) • gives biography (job, education, credentials) • uses data that’s well-researched (*authority) • has displays of intellect/knowledge • exhibits a sense of right & wrong • is not manipulative (*with PATHOS) • uses the voice of a concerned citizen addressing a serious societal issue • perhaps is challenging givens/bullies • demonstrates good will & good intentions • appears dedicated to the truth 21

ETHOS TONE: (toward the subject and the audience) • concerned, • caring, compassionate • ETHOS TONE: (toward the subject and the audience) • concerned, • caring, compassionate • interested • genuine, frank, earnest, honest • • • NOT sarcastic, NOT self-aggrandizing, self-righteous NOT condescending, NOT arrogant, NOT insincere 22

ETHOS DANGER: • exploited to serve unethical ends: • pretending to be moral, • ETHOS DANGER: • exploited to serve unethical ends: • pretending to be moral, • irresponsible/immoral persons presenting themselves as responsible/moral 23

ETHOS in everyday life FRIENDS: • your best interest, no ulterior motives • advice ETHOS in everyday life FRIENDS: • your best interest, no ulterior motives • advice from personal experiences POLITICS: • political, religious, sports scandals (who do you believe) • voting for a politician (record, accountability) SCHOOL: • request for help or argue a grade • factors: attendance, participation, preparedness, tone 24

ETHOS in everyday life PARENTS: • advice from experience • fair, consistent rulings (parents) ETHOS in everyday life PARENTS: • advice from experience • fair, consistent rulings (parents) • honesty, reliability, responsibility, accountability (you) RELATIONSHIPS: • trust • honesty, best interests, morals, values, sincerity • responsibility, accountability 25

ETHOS in everyday life CAR: • reliable dealer, quality service, good reputation • responsibility, ETHOS in everyday life CAR: • reliable dealer, quality service, good reputation • responsibility, accountability, dependability WORK: • attempt to be fair-minded, understanding, calm, rational • you, your boss, the customer 26