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Perspectives on international communications in the Mediterranean basin IGU Mediterranean Renaissance Program (MRP) Workshop Perspectives on international communications in the Mediterranean basin IGU Mediterranean Renaissance Program (MRP) Workshop Rome, February 2009

Question What is the geographical pattern of international telecommunications in the Mediterranean basin? Can Question What is the geographical pattern of international telecommunications in the Mediterranean basin? Can the Mediterranean basin be considered a single, well-integrated, information space?

National information societies are growingly based on the adoption and use of information technologies National information societies are growingly based on the adoption and use of information technologies in all spheres of life, leading to: enhanced interpersonal communications; extended uses of information; and an increasing production of knowledge.

National information societies: Measurement levels of IT adoption and use n n n National: National information societies: Measurement levels of IT adoption and use n n n National: Comparative national measures (e. g. mobile telephones per population). Intra-national: Interregional digital divide or digital gap (e. g. Internet penetration by region). International: International information interaction (e. g. telephone calls to other countries).

Data Complex patterns of international communications with the introduction of e-mail, mobile telephony and Data Complex patterns of international communications with the introduction of e-mail, mobile telephony and Vo. IP. n Data on common-carrier fixedline communications collected by Telegeography. n

Possible patterns for international telecommunications Pattern Call destinations Traditional (T) Neighboring countries Global (G) Possible patterns for international telecommunications Pattern Call destinations Traditional (T) Neighboring countries Global (G) G 8 countries Contemporary (C) Wide selection of countries Neighboring and G 8 countries Mixed (M)

Possible patterns for intl. telecom. in the Mediterranean basin Call pattern Global (G) Call Possible patterns for intl. telecom. in the Mediterranean basin Call pattern Global (G) Call destinations Geog. Med. pattern Neighboring 1. Adjacency countries 2. One-way cross sea So. To No. , Ea. to We. G 8 countries Contemporary (C) Wide selection of countries Mixed (M) Neighboring and G 8 countries Traditional (T) Two-way cross sea

Euro-Med. countries outgoing intl. telephone minutes: Most frequently called countries (in % of total Euro-Med. countries outgoing intl. telephone minutes: Most frequently called countries (in % of total minutes) (Telegeography, 97/98; 2007) Country 1996 2006 Cyprus (T) UK (25. 3); GR (23. 9); RU (5. 0) GR (25. 0); UK (23. 5); RU (5. 2) France (T=>C) DE (11. 0); UK (10. 9); IT (8. 6) UK (7. 4); MO (7. 2); DE (6. 8) Greece (G =>M) DE (17. 4); UK (13. 8); IT (8. 9) AL (14. 9); DE (12. 6); UK (12. 3) Italy (G =>M) DE (16. 8); FR (11. 8); US (9. 1) DE (9. 0); FR (7. 9); UK (5. 3) Spain (T) DE (15. 7); FR (15. 4); UK (14. 3) UK (11. 3); DE (10. 5); FR (9. 4) Turkey (G) DE (33. 5); UK (8. 5); US (5. 9) DE (30. 4); UK (9. 7); US (5. 7)

Euro-Med. countries: 1996 -2006 trends n n n In 1996 only two patterns (T Euro-Med. countries: 1996 -2006 trends n n n In 1996 only two patterns (T and G); in 2006 all four: change in 3 out of 6 countries. Early international Mediterranean ties emerge (France and Greece). Immigration and tourism as reshaping forces of international communications ties.

Non Euro-Med. countries outgoing intl. telephone minutes: Most frequently called countries (in % of Non Euro-Med. countries outgoing intl. telephone minutes: Most frequently called countries (in % of total minutes) (Telegeography, 97/98; 2007) Country 1996 2006 Egypt (1998) SA (15. 7); US (10. 8); UK (10. 7) (M) SA (25. 6); US (11. 0); AE (9. 0) (M) Israel US (32. 4); UK US (26. 3); UK (9. 1); CA (7. 4) (G) (7. 6); RU (6. 0) (G) Morocco (1998) FR (44. 3); ES (9. 5); IT (5. 7) (G) Syria (1997; 2005) LB (26. 0); SA (15. 6); AE (6. 6) (T) N/A LB (39. 5); SA (21. 0); AE (10. 2) (T)

Non-Euro-Med. countries: 1996 -2006 trends n n n More complex macro trends. The role Non-Euro-Med. countries: 1996 -2006 trends n n n More complex macro trends. The role of culture. Changing patterns?

Conclusion n International telephone calls through common carriers: From dominance to sharing with other Conclusion n International telephone calls through common carriers: From dominance to sharing with other channels/media. Lack of data. A division of the Med. basin into EU and non-EU countries?