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Perspectives in Computer Science and its Industry Linking Prof. Dr. -Ing. habil. Herwig Unger Perspectives in Computer Science and its Industry Linking Prof. Dr. -Ing. habil. Herwig Unger University of Rostock, Department of Computer Science Phone: +49 172 3811795, Fax: +49 381 4987642 Email: Herwig. [email protected] de Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 1/40

Overview Computer science and engineering at universities and research institutes C Partners or Competitors Overview Computer science and engineering at universities and research institutes C Partners or Competitors ? Changes driven by technology • Ubiquity • Interconnecting Computers/GRIDS • WWW („global brain“) • Artificial Intelligence • Cost reduction and enhancing productivity 12 Visions Application and research done by Industry Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 2/40

Vision 1 - going global ● ● ● Rapid growth of the Internet Impact Vision 1 - going global ● ● ● Rapid growth of the Internet Impact in all areas of daily life Adoption of Internet technology Convergence of data, voice, video in the Internet WWW as global database / brain Growing dependency on the “e-world” BUT ● ● Infrastructures are at a risk Need for collaborative and cooperative (international) approach/action Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 3/40

Internet growth: Hosts and Websites Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 4/40 Internet growth: Hosts and Websites Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 4/40

Introduction of new technology Time to reach 25% of US population Date Invented Invention Introduction of new technology Time to reach 25% of US population Date Invented Invention Years to Mass Use 1873 Electricity 46 1876 Telephone 35 1886 Gas automobile 55 1906 Radio 22 1926 Television 26 1953 Microwave oven 30 1975 PC 16 1983 Mobile phone 13 1991 The World Wide Web 7 Source: Newsweek Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 5/40

Size reduction Desktop PC‘s (since 1981) More processor in one machine: Parallel computer Mainframe Size reduction Desktop PC‘s (since 1981) More processor in one machine: Parallel computer Mainframe (since ca. 1960) More machines connected: The GRID Universität Rostock PDA‘s (since ca. 1995) © Herwig Unger Next ? 6/40

Sensor networks ● ● Tiny sensor for some physical property (“computational dust”, “Nanites”) Ad-hoc Sensor networks ● ● Tiny sensor for some physical property (“computational dust”, “Nanites”) Ad-hoc wireless network UC Berkeley “mote” Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 7/40

Sensor network applications ● Smart floors ● Smart “skin” for robots, vehicles, etc ● Sensor network applications ● Smart floors ● Smart “skin” for robots, vehicles, etc ● Heating and ventilation systems ● Space exploration ● Traffic monitoring and control ● Battlefield reconnaissance ● … Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 8/40

Vision 2 – being fully mobile Dynamic and location dependent data with different access Vision 2 – being fully mobile Dynamic and location dependent data with different access rights Local informationexchange ? Universität Rostock Mobile users with different interests © Herwig Unger 9/40

Vision 3 – working interdisciplinary x Example: Energy supply • Several environmental energy harvesting Vision 3 – working interdisciplinary x Example: Energy supply • Several environmental energy harvesting modalities viable • Particularly useful for outdoor sensor networks http: //nesl. ee. ucla. edu Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 10/40

Vision 4 - convergence of media IP v. 6 – Network Universität Rostock © Vision 4 - convergence of media IP v. 6 – Network Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 11/40

Integration within operating systems DOS + Application with GUI Windows + WWW / Web-browser Integration within operating systems DOS + Application with GUI Windows + WWW / Web-browser Windows XP + Google (Contents) TV ? Radio? Mobile phones? Microsoft „The Longhorn Project“ Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger + 12/40

IT infrastructure today LAN’s Desktops Systems WAN Applications Chaos Security Databases Storage Universität Rostock IT infrastructure today LAN’s Desktops Systems WAN Applications Chaos Security Databases Storage Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 13/40

IT infrastructure today LAN’s Applications Service Desktops Databases Systems WAN Security Storage Universität Rostock IT infrastructure today LAN’s Applications Service Desktops Databases Systems WAN Security Storage Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 14/40

Vision 5 – solving complexity • • • Banking / Finance / Insurance Transportation Vision 5 – solving complexity • • • Banking / Finance / Insurance Transportation Telecommunications Education Government Healthcare Sports and Entertainment Industry / Manufacturing Retail Utilities Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger Everthing is connected !! Everybody is affected !! But theory cannot handle problems in practical relevant size ! 15/40

Vision 6 - ensuring quality of service …which is measured from the users point Vision 6 - ensuring quality of service …which is measured from the users point of view ! q Users will consider a Service unavailable when: Ø The service is not accessible Ø The service is running too slow Ø The service is intermittently having problems Ø The service requests more knowledge than the users have q IT Structures must be efficiently managed even and especially in the case of emergencies. Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 16/40

Smart rooms e. g. the Stanford i. Room Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 17/40 Smart rooms e. g. the Stanford i. Room Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 17/40

Many devices Mobile phone Wall-size display Interactive Wall-size display Video camera Palm-top Tablet Keyboard Many devices Mobile phone Wall-size display Interactive Wall-size display Video camera Palm-top Tablet Keyboard Wireless mouse Interactive table Laptop PDA Trackball Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 18/40

Many apps Web browser 3 D Model viewer Interactive conferencing email CAD tool Room Many apps Web browser 3 D Model viewer Interactive conferencing email CAD tool Room controls Model viewer Calendar Universität Rostock Solitaire © Herwig Unger 19/40

Vision 7 – being invisible but always available Today: Computers and computational devices are Vision 7 – being invisible but always available Today: Computers and computational devices are everywhere. Tomorrow: Computers are everywhere, but they fade into the environment Also called ● ● ● Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger “ubiquitous computing” “pervasive computing” “invisible computing” 20/40

Vision 8 - being smart Applications must learn themselves to adapt themselves to and Vision 8 - being smart Applications must learn themselves to adapt themselves to and integrate in the context in which they are used. • User – Identity – Location • Social – “Usual behavior” – “Connections” and relations – Laws and Rules • Physical – Temperature, pressure … – Light and noise levels • Computational – Network bandwidth – CPU speed – Display size Learning, Adaptation and Self-Organization Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 21/40

t : Gov for Third Day Sites tack Top Web Hackers At 0 e t : Gov for Third Day Sites tack Top Web Hackers At 0 e - Feb 13, 200 b Launches Pro Hackers Cause Costly Slowdown for E-Trade February 10, 2000 0 ary 8, 200 bru HOO - Fe t YA ers Disrup Hackers Break Into Associated Press Site - Nov 1, 1999 tes United Sta ing l for Hack srae 998 rested in I arch 18, 1 -M n Ar omputers aeli Citize t. C Isr overnmen i. G and Israel Top Secret Nuclear Weapons Design Downloaded From Lab’s Computers - Dec. 28 1999 Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 22/40

The changing cyber threat ● Hackers, Crackers, Phreaks ● Individual criminal acts - $ The changing cyber threat ● Hackers, Crackers, Phreaks ● Individual criminal acts - $ Gain ● Organized crime ● Terrorists ● State sponsored espionage Cyber Criminals ts s rrori Te Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 23/40

Natural desasters and physical events Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 24/40 Natural desasters and physical events Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 24/40

Vision 9 – ensuring safety and security 1: Identify critical infrastructures 2: Detect attacks Vision 9 – ensuring safety and security 1: Identify critical infrastructures 2: Detect attacks and possible emergencies and react respectively 3: Develop robust systems and intelligence 4: Share attack warnings 5: Create response, reconstitution, and recovery capability 6: Train and employ information security specialists 7: Make people aware of cyber-security 8: Adopt legislation and appropriations for points 1 -7 9: Ensure the protection of citizens and their rights Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 25/40

e. Science ● ● ● Science is used to have test tubes, wet labs e. Science ● ● ● Science is used to have test tubes, wet labs and big instruments, but science is increasingly moving to networks and computers More and more science is based on networks and large computations Science is no longer bound by bricks and mortar or geography NSF has announced “Cyber Infrastructure” initiative DOE started the Sci. DAC “Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing” program Economical reasons make complex research difficult to finance for one organization only Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 26/40

What are the problems of science? ● With globalization and the evolution of the What are the problems of science? ● With globalization and the evolution of the society, the wish expressed in the 1920’s by Albert Einstein « Science should be performed in isolated communities away from economic pressures » is no longer on the agenda for science. The same applies to the university system that becomes more closely integrated in the socio-economic environment. Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 27/40

Consequences ● ● The University is subjected to strong external pressures. Their impact on Consequences ● ● The University is subjected to strong external pressures. Their impact on the University structures is inescapable Keywords for describing these external pressures are: ● A broader demand for higher education impacting on teaching ● An increased role in research and innovation ● ● ● A greater involvement in building the local social tissue, in the life of the city A stronger cooperation between Universities associated to an increasing competition among them and from other institutions An unstable financing Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 28/40

Vision 10 – linking with industry Distributed simulation and „global maintainance“ of complex technical, Vision 10 – linking with industry Distributed simulation and „global maintainance“ of complex technical, systems like the Airbus A 380 Space exploration (Global) weather forecast and simulation Universität Rostock Virtual drug design and the „Human Genom Project“ © Herwig Unger 29/40

Tomorrow’s Technology Today ● Question: In your opinion, what is the biggest obstacle in Tomorrow’s Technology Today ● Question: In your opinion, what is the biggest obstacle in getting a new technology into market? 1= biggest obstacle; 6= smallest obstacle. Q 4: Base = “total” (845) * Percentage ranked 1 st or 2 nd ** Percentage ranked 5 th or 6 th Universität Rostock Source: © Herwig Unger 30/40

Competence in universities and industry Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 31/40 Competence in universities and industry Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 31/40

Vision 11 – offering state-of-the-art education ● ● ● Education should not be a Vision 11 – offering state-of-the-art education ● ● ● Education should not be a privilege Education is an important economic factor Educating people that they ● ● ● ● can master the defiances of future and be innovative think in the global context meet the requirements of the labour market (determined by the industry) have a good theoretical foundation (higher mathematics) as well as excellent knowledge in natural sciences and engineering (Physics, Electrotechnics, …) have well balanced special, timely and interdisciplinary knowledge know at least 2 foreign languages obey moralic and ethic rules Education must use most modern methods ● ● e. Learning Distance learning Universität Rostock (e. g. http: //www. vittels. ch) © Herwig Unger 32/40

Cooperation and competition ● ● Globalization and the process of (European) integration have led Cooperation and competition ● ● Globalization and the process of (European) integration have led to a stronger competition among universities Institutions have to attract and retain professors and researchers as well as students for survival The attribution of funds for research on a competitive basis is increasingly adopted by public authorities; this factor reinforces the race between universities There is an aggressive behavior of non-university higher education institutions to compete with universities for money and influence. Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 33/40

Cooperation and competition II ● Main results of this evolution: ● ● ● The Cooperation and competition II ● Main results of this evolution: ● ● ● The cooperation has been reinforced through educational and R&D networks for the mutual benefit of the partners The mobility of professors and students has increased but the « Vacuum Cleaner Effect » encourages talented professors and researchers to conglomerate at the most prestigious places The increased competition is a stimulus for improvement in quality; evaluation schemes have been introduced. Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 34/40

Vision 12 – having stable financing ● ● ● The financing of the universities Vision 12 – having stable financing ● ● ● The financing of the universities has been a constant problem, which has come once again in the forefront in some countries (UK, Germany) However, governmental influence on research becomes stronger Financing could be obtained from 4 sources: ● ● ● The Government: it constitutes the traditional source. In most European countries, public budgets are under severe pressure. Funding is often based on the number of students, with perverse effects Students: they generally provide a (small) fraction of the corresponding cost Individuals: they provide donations, endowment Socio-economic actors (including project executing organisations): they allocate funds, with or without strings attached, rarely on a permanent base Industry: the widest range of possibility Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 35/40

Example: Germany EU Germany States DFG, DAAD, . . . EU-Institutions (CERN, ESA) Foundations Example: Germany EU Germany States DFG, DAAD, . . . EU-Institutions (CERN, ESA) Foundations Universities Research and Development Departments HGF, . . . German Institutions (BAM, PTB) Universität Rostock Fh. G, . . . State Inst. (ZIB, …) Basic Financing Project Financing © Herwig Unger Industry 36/40

Current R&D Volumes Financial sources: • R&D volume 50 Bill. € • Industry 34 Current R&D Volumes Financial sources: • R&D volume 50 Bill. € • Industry 34 Bill. € • Germany and States 8 Bill. € Universität Rostock Financial spendings: • Industrial R&D 35 Bill. € • Universities 8 Bill. € • Other Institutions 6. 7 Bill. € © Herwig Unger 37/40

Associated Institutes Industry University R&D Projects Money Flexibility Fast reactions Industrial skills Associated Institutes Associated Institutes Industry University R&D Projects Money Flexibility Fast reactions Industrial skills Associated Institutes („An-Institute“) Ideas Creativity Technology (Cheap) personal Tax advantages Governmental support Contract liberty Short term agreements Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 38/40

Open Problems ● ● Can the role of individual donators be increased (in Europe), Open Problems ● ● Can the role of individual donators be increased (in Europe), following the US example? Should a stronger involvement of socio-economic actors be sought, raising the issue of the autonomy of the university and of its impartiality? autonomy of a university: the freedom to decide on the content of education and research and the freedom to select appropriate people for this purpose. ● ● How can the university be open to broad cooperation in the meantime it retains its identity? Facing competition, what should the university do? ● ● ● Easy access vs. strict excellence? Use research as the attraction pole or privilege teaching? How should it deal with the competition from nonuniversity higher education institutions? Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 39/40

Thank you for your attention. Contact: Prof. Dr. -Ing. habil. Herwig Unger University of Thank you for your attention. Contact: Prof. Dr. -Ing. habil. Herwig Unger University of Rostock, Department of Computer Science 18051 Rostock, Germany Phone: +49 172 3811795 Fax: +49 3814987642 Email: Herwig. [email protected] de Universität Rostock © Herwig Unger 40/40