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Performance Based Design for Fleet Affordability ASNE Day 2009 April 9, 2009 Session 7 Performance Based Design for Fleet Affordability ASNE Day 2009 April 9, 2009 Session 7 Joe Famme Chuck Gallagher Ted Raitch ITE NGS ITE

Agenda 1. Affordability Imperative 2. Performance Tools for Design & HSI 3. The Road Agenda 1. Affordability Imperative 2. Performance Tools for Design & HSI 3. The Road to Integrated CAD-Physics tools for Design & HSI 4. Examples in Design and HSI 5. Summary 2

OMB, GAO, CBO Findings OMB disclosed in its 2004 Report on shipbuilding, the average OMB, GAO, CBO Findings OMB disclosed in its 2004 Report on shipbuilding, the average over-cost of new ship classes is 30% and the major reason is release to production of premature designs. (Whitehouse 2004) GAO : LPD-17 findings include … ship design incomplete before production causing cost over run & deficient systems (Report 05 -183, 3/05) Also see INSURV MSG: PREINSURV Norfolk VA 181811 Z July 05 LPD-17 Incomplete … CBO As Navy officials have stated, lead ships are often very difficult to build and typically have many problems in construction. The problems with the first littoral combat ships (for which costs doubled) and the lead ship of the LPD-17 class amphibious transport dock (for which costs increased by 80 percent and construction time more than doubled) illustrate the difficulties the Navy has encountered recently in constructing lead ships. 16 CBO March 2008 3

ONR 2004: Model Should be the Specification Guidance to reduce risk by ONR during ONR 2004: Model Should be the Specification Guidance to reduce risk by ONR during the development of a Ship-Smart System Design (S 3 D) tool development project for IPS recommended that “the model should become the specification. ” If a component cannot be modeled the shipyard should not buy it. If a system cannot be modeled it is not understood sufficiently to release the design to production. (Ericsen 2004) 4

Affordability Imperative Panama City 10/08 & SNA Symposium 1/09 • Affordability = Biggest Challenge Affordability Imperative Panama City 10/08 & SNA Symposium 1/09 • Affordability = Biggest Challenge in Shipbuilding • Discussed Solutions: – – – Support steady-state production Design for production Requirements stability Lifecycle tool to get full life from each hull Reliability, maintainability, sustainability Embedded Readiness Assessment and Training EOSS, OCC, EOCC Need to know “age” of our ships Design out excess margin Commonality of Parts and Systems Use the model as a specification Produce a stable design in four dimensions 5

ASNE Meeting NAVSEA Presentation December 2008 Capt Doerry Opening Thoughts • Decisions are made ASNE Meeting NAVSEA Presentation December 2008 Capt Doerry Opening Thoughts • Decisions are made based on PREDICTED COST and PREDICTED PERFORMANCE … • PREDICTIONS HAVE UNCERTAINTY …. • RISK HAS A COST … • REQUIREMENT RISKS ARE REAL (AKA Market Risk) – Risk that the requirements you are designing / building to will change. • Not mitigating this risk can be expensive if the risk is realized late in design, in production, or in-service. (Extreme: retirement before design service life) – Preserving flexibility in design can reduce the cost of this risk. Capt Doerry Approved for Public Release December 2008 6

NAVSEA: Integrated Design Tools To this end, NAVSEA is developing a Ship Design Tools NAVSEA: Integrated Design Tools To this end, NAVSEA is developing a Ship Design Tools Roadmap and is collaborating with ONR and the Office of the Secretary of Defense OSD) High Performance Computing (HPC) Modernization Office on the Computational Research & Engineering for Acquisition & Tools Environment (CREATE) Ship Project. There a growing number of experienced ship design leaders who strongly believe that HPC is an enabling technology with significant benefits similar to those of 3 -D CAD in the 1970's-80's: increased productivity of the knowledge workforce, reduced product development cycle times, and improved quality of the products. The vision of these experienced ship design leaders that is evolving is a highly integrated, physics-based analysis "design system“ where the technical specialist knowledge workforce concentrates on developing the physics-based analysis capabilities such that the design knowledge workforce can effectively execute the "design system" to develop more products that the customers want in shorter cycle times. As previously mentioned, we need to get the right people together with a vision of the future "design system", and get a shared vision and consensus on an approach to realizing the shared vision. The emphasis of the vision needs to be on the total ship and total ship design capability needs. (R. Keane, H. Fireman … “Ready to Design a Naval Ship? Prove It!”, SNAME, P 19, 2008, 7

Performance Based Design Continuum has been developed over 14 years through Navy Funded Programs Performance Based Design Continuum has been developed over 14 years through Navy Funded Programs • Ship Design – Dynamic systems V&V in design phases to assure PERFORMANCE, REDUCE RISK, REDUCE COST AND SCHEDULE – Integrated CAD – PHYSICS TOOLS incorporating common parts and pre-validated systems to SAVE TIME, INCREASE ACCURACY and … – CAPTURE the INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY of the design for REUSE • Human Systems Integration – – – REUSES VALIDATED MODELS for: Ship – Crew Model V&V for Dock and Sea Trials & Live Fire Testing Models Training Afloat Embedded and Ashore Operational & Battle Decision Aids for Engineering & DC (DARPA PROA) – Distance Support – Modernization / Ship. Alts 8

The Road to Performance Based Design Tools The Road to Performance Based Design Tools

NAVSEA Use of Physics-Based Model Design In 1996 NAVSEA began using multi-discipline Physics Based NAVSEA Use of Physics-Based Model Design In 1996 NAVSEA began using multi-discipline Physics Based Design (PBD) tools for HM&E process and control systems and to support ship design along with CAD as a core element of the Integrated Product Data Environment (IPDE): • The physics based design tool suites included: • Liquids • Gases • HVAC • AC/DC electrical generation and distribution • Logic and analog machinery control systems • Propulsion • CAD – Physics Integration: • 2001 – 2004 NAVSEA NSRP demo XML Integrated CAD - Physics • 2001 – 2009 DDG-1000 production API Integrated CAD - Physics 10

Overview of a Physics Based Model Design Tool To create flow sheets just drag Overview of a Physics Based Model Design Tool To create flow sheets just drag & drop the desired equipment and control icons on the screen from selected model libraries, link them and enter their characteristics 11

NSRP 2001, 2002. 2003 SIMSMART™ Key Enabling Technology: XML Electronic Data Integration CAD to NSRP 2001, 2002. 2003 SIMSMART™ Key Enabling Technology: XML Electronic Data Integration CAD to Physics Modeling SIMSMART™ . . . Performance Metrics Run-Time Data Trend

Ship Firemain Process Detail A user may drill into any configured ship process system Ship Firemain Process Detail A user may drill into any configured ship process system to the smallest level of detail for process engineering Design and Training. I/ITSEC Paper 1564 12/7/04 13

Ship Electric Plant Process Detail and then, navigate within the ancillary process connections of Ship Electric Plant Process Detail and then, navigate within the ancillary process connections of the multi-discipline SIMSMART™ environment. I/ITSEC Paper 1564 12/7/04 14

Ship Compartments / Tanks Ballast & Drain Process Details Ship compartments may be modeled Ship Compartments / Tanks Ballast & Drain Process Details Ship compartments may be modeled for flooding and progressive flooding, fire and smoke spread The SIMSMART™ flooding model may be linked to dynamic ship stability calculations for draft, GM, etc. . . I/ITSEC Paper 1564 12/7/04 15

CAD Ship Design (New and Mod. ) Using Dynamic Physics Models to Validate & CAD Ship Design (New and Mod. ) Using Dynamic Physics Models to Validate & provide Metrics for Ship and Crew Performance Total Ship Model Integrated Product Data Environment (IPDE 16

The Domains of Single and Multi-Discipline Physics Based Design Tools Domain of Single Discipline The Domains of Single and Multi-Discipline Physics Based Design Tools Domain of Single Discipline Tools Domain of Multi-discipline Real-time Tools Characteristics (Typical): • Models essentially custom built HSI Support • Modeling SW does not come with Navy HM&E models • Virtual Ship Model • Usually non-real time • Manpower – Automation Analysis • Usually single discipline: Electrical or Fluid or HVAC • Embedded Training or Gas or … • Plant Performance Monitoring, Distance Support • Used for: sizing, transient / fault analysis, protective device settings … Operating Doctrine / Human-in-Loop Performance Models • EOSS • EOCC • CSOSS • Human Task-Skill Actions: Time and Event based • Operational Decision Aids • Used for R&D, EDM development, Analysis • In general, do not interface to ship production CAD - CAM process (see notes) MATLAB™ EASY 5™ Mentor Graphics™ ROSE™ ACSL™ EDSA™ 1 SPICE™ RTDS™ VTB SIMSMART™ 2 Saber™ PSCAD™ EASYPOWER™ Multi-Discipline Real-Time, Multi-discipline, Cascading Effects of HM&E operations & damage Total Ship Model Transition to Smart Product Model / Total Ship Model when Design Verified by Engineering Analysis, PE Certified & Defined in CPC Format Part Numbers for Acquisition NAVSEA CPC Based Libraries & Multidiscipline for Total Ship Modeling: Smart Product Model (CPC Based) (PBD - CAD By ship / class) • Electrical • Fluid CPC Compliant Components • Gas • HVAC • Controls FLOWMASTER™ 1. EDSA is associated with CATIA for electrical design 2. SIMSMART supports systems engineering as well as total ship models using CPC parts with electronic data exchange with shipyard CAD-CAM systems. Ship / Class 2 D/3 D CAD-Physics Dynamic V&V Ship Design / Production & Lifecycle Support Modeling Domains should be Complementary throughout the Design & Life Cycle Support Process 17

History and Applications Performance Based Design for Fleet Affordability Integrated Ship Design Tools www. History and Applications Performance Based Design for Fleet Affordability Integrated Ship Design Tools www. NSRP. org (Maritech) Integrated Shipbuilding Environment ONR Smart Ship System Design Common Parts Catalog CAD = Design “FITS” Integrated PBD = Design ‘WORKS” Tools for Dynamic Design Program Mgmt IV&V and HSI Spiral Design Process IV&V • Conceptual • Preliminary • Contract • Program Control • Performance Assessment • Automation • Reduced Crew • Survivability • Safety • Detail • • XML or API Data Exchange • Create 4 -D IPDE CAD-Physics Smart Product Model Objectives: • Deliver a Full Ship PBD Model to support Tests & Trials Dynamic Validation Ship Systems & Model Tests & Trials T&T using the PBD model “Virtual Ship” Before & During Dock Trials All Systems, Separately & Together • Electrical • Fluid • Gas • HVAC • Controls T&T of the “Actual Ship” Before & During Sea Trials All Systems, Separately & Together • Electrical • Fluid • Gas • HVAC • Controls Deliver To the Navy • The Ship • Real-time Validated Dynamic Model of the Ship • CAD Lifecycle use CAD - Physics Model for HSI Objectives of: • Shore & Afloat Dynamic Eng / DC & Total Ship Training (BFTT) • Real-time Readiness Assessment ship systems (ICAS) Drawings • Update all configuration part numbers to the ERP – TDKM IPDE Programs Assess Program METRICS & PERFORMANCE, Reduce RISK & COST • Engineering & DC Operational Decision Aids • Distance Support • Future Ship Modernization 18

NAVSEA LEAPS Today Physics Based Design Tools for Concurrent Dynamic V&V, Performance Model, Systems NAVSEA LEAPS Today Physics Based Design Tools for Concurrent Dynamic V&V, Performance Model, Systems to Total Ship Level CFX RTS T T ASSET 6 Surface/Sub CAD T T LEAPS Product LEAPS Model Product Model STEP(214) IGES Version 4 • Generic Class Structure FORAN TRIBON FASTSHIP T SHIP AP’s T T STEP(216) STEP(215) T HLA Federate(s) • Product Model Schema – NAVSEA Ship Focus Object Model • Product Model Data Presentation Manager DOORS In Development LEAPS Editor IRENE FKS SDWE SMP VERES T T SVM/ASAP T CONTAM T EMENG T GMULT/GCPL RTC BAM NCCM M-OPT OAR SHCP T Translator STEP/IGES EXCEL Cogent Beta Code Existing 19

Periodic Dynamic Performance Collaboration HM&E Component and Systems Designers – P&IDs … CAD: It Periodic Dynamic Performance Collaboration HM&E Component and Systems Designers – P&IDs … CAD: It Fits Physics: It Works LEAPS Team. Center Environment Periodic Dynamic V&V Performance Reviews System and Total Ship Every Phase / Step of Design Shipbuilder Smart Product Model Integrated CAD - Physics CAD-Physics Combined Libraries NAVSEA Technical Total Ship Model Will ship’s HM&E plant support ship & all missions / modules dynamically thru all scenarios? CAD & Physics by Deck All Systems Work Together PEO Ships 20

NAVSEA SBIR 2000 – 2001 PMS 430 – BFTT - Total Ship Training & NAVSEA SBIR 2000 – 2001 PMS 430 – BFTT - Total Ship Training & Operational Decision Aids Architecture BOPC Debrief Products Scenario Generation & Control Performance Monitoring, Training & Assessment DATA COLLECTION LAN STOW LAN USN & Coalition Combat Systems Training TPTS IT 21 LAN / SWAN IT 21 SWAN & 2 -Way Wireless LAN Platform Simulation Two-way Central Control Station (CCS), Damage Control Central (DCC), Machinery Spaces, Repair Stations 2, 3, 5, 8, … PERCIEVED TRUTH MCS GROUND TRUTH Trainer Wearable Computers DCAMS Trainee Training Flags Trainer Perceived Truth Ground Truth Trainee Perceived Truth Ship Interior Communications 21

TPTS Instructor Station (1) 22 TPTS Instructor Station (1) 22

Future Shipboard Training & Readiness Assessment Navy DCAMS / DCTMS Wireless TSTS Demo Dec Future Shipboard Training & Readiness Assessment Navy DCAMS / DCTMS Wireless TSTS Demo Dec 2001 Army Embedded Sim-Center in a Box SBIR 6 to 12 X PC, Signal, Mar. 2009 23

Application Across Training Continuum CNET 2007 (Revolution in Training and Task Force Excel Concept) Application Across Training Continuum CNET 2007 (Revolution in Training and Task Force Excel Concept) Performance and Debrief Products - Can be printed out or downloaded to floppy - Performance history, test scores, module completion status, etc. downloaded to floppy and imported into training database on arrival at ship Total Ship Training System LAN Based Training - Uses same models as CD-ROM and Total Ship Training System - Updates training database - Provides performance and debrief products Enroute Training Initial Qualification Accession Training Refresher Training CD-ROM with Dynamic Engineering Models Tailored to assigned ship - Actual system configurations - Actual EOSS, EOCC, EOP, CSOSS, etc. Contains: Computer Based Training Lessons - Cognitive Learning Principles Incorporated Simulation Based Training Scenarios -Simulation Engine for interactive training 24 www. ITEinc. US

Post-NAVSEA SBIR: ANZAC Frigate M&S Model 25 Post-NAVSEA SBIR: ANZAC Frigate M&S Model 25

Benefits of Performance Based Design • Anchor what you know • Share what you Benefits of Performance Based Design • Anchor what you know • Share what you know • Standardize Systems in addition to parts • Let Systems “see” each other early in the design (electric – fluid …) • “Age” systems in different environments • Capture the design intellectual property electronically 26

Likely Savings from Performance Based Design Table 2 PBDC Savings First Ship in Class Likely Savings from Performance Based Design Table 2 PBDC Savings First Ship in Class Table 2 Design and Life. Cycle Phases Non. Recurring Cost Today Ship Requirements Provided Concept Design $95 M Preliminary Design $300 M Automation Design $25 M Contract Design $400 M Detail Design $900 M Construction First Ship $800 M V&V-Tests-Trials. Live Fire $85 M Training Afloat Ashore $45 M Decision Aids $20 M Distance Support $20 M Modernization Ship. Alts $200 M Program Cost $2, 890 M First Ship Savings Using PBDC Percent and Value ($M) -25%/ ($24 M) -25% = ($75 M) -40% = ($10 M) -10% = ($40 M) -10% = ($90 M) -5% = ($40 M) -10% = ($9 M -30% = ($14 M) -50% = ($10 M) -30% = ($60 M) Savings = ($378 M) Table 3 PBDC Lifecycle Savings 30 Ship in Class Table 3. Design and Lifecycle Phases Projected Savings Reuse PBDC Models 30 Ships in Class over Life Cycle of 30 Years ($M) Ship Requirements Concept Design Preliminary Design Given Complete Automation Design Updates - Full Reference Model Avail. ($0. 5 M) Contract Design Complete Detail Design Construction Tests-Trials - Full reference Model Available as Performance Standard Complete ($1 M) Training PBD models embedded for Eng-DC training reduces travel/time lost ($30 M) Decision Aids PBD models improve efficiency - support CSOSS-EOSSEOCC Distance Support PBD models support NAVSEA trouble repair for reduced crews ($50 M) Modernization Ship. Alts - PBD Ref Models used to pre-validate modernization Savings per Ship 30 Yrs ($60 M) Life Cycle Savings: 30 ships in Class ($60 M) ($202 M) Savings = ($6, 060 M) 27

Conclusions • … Navy and industry have not achieved a PERFORMANCE based ship design Conclusions • … Navy and industry have not achieved a PERFORMANCE based ship design continuum because the focus is on the individual phases in design and lifecycle support and not the design and lifecycle phases of a ship as a holistic continuum. • … aggravated by different colors of money being used for shipbuilding, readiness and training. • … and lack of a top level policy that requires supporting operational systems and HSI metrics throughout the entire ship life cycle. • … will NAVSEA have the support necessary to bring ALL elements of the shipbuilding together including HSI / CNET training including the ship systems CAD & Performance (Physics) models into reusable 28 repositories?

Summary: Applications of Performance Based Design • • SECNAV – NAVSEA Shipbuilding Objectives: • Summary: Applications of Performance Based Design • • SECNAV – NAVSEA Shipbuilding Objectives: • Demonstrate dynamic “performance” during RDT&E and all design phases – System to total ship level • Demonstrate Mission and HSI Performance Requirements • Eliminate Risk • Reduce Costs • Model can be used as the specification • Model can be re-used for all HSI Lifecycle Support Applications Mature tools: 20 year Performance Tools development to TLR-9 • 14 years Support to NAVSEA, Shipbuilders and Marine Engineering Companies – Numerous ship design programs • API Integrated CAD – Performance V&V DDG 1000 • XML Integration of CAD-Physics under NSRP - ASE Phase II: – CATIA, Ship. Constructor, Intergraph, Simsmart • HSI Applications Demonstrated to the Total Ship Level: – NAVSEA SBIR Total Ship Model for Training (BFTT CS with HME&DC Model • Captures all physics models (basis of design) associated with CAD • Currently Builder delivers only drawings, none of the “performance”” (intellectual property) • ASNE-SNAME HSI Tech. Papers 2003 -4: continuous IV&V / Ship-Crew Model • • • Recommended all designs use continuous IV&V Resulting Validated Ship Model Supports the Full Ship Lifecycle Training Decision Aids Modernization Distance Support / SORTS 29

End ASNE Day 2009 “Performance Based Design Continuum” End ASNE Day 2009 “Performance Based Design Continuum”

Levels of Definition for the Design Process Reference Model (DPRM) Distributive Systems Illustration ADFAFDAFA Levels of Definition for the Design Process Reference Model (DPRM) Distributive Systems Illustration ADFAFDAFA adfjk f da f addf aa age 1 32 ADFAFDAFA adfa 13 1 da 31 addf aa age 1 32 adfjk f 1 f 4 14 ajadfkl; a dafjkl; adfjk 1 da 31 addf aa age 1 32 adfa dfajfkl; afjfl; da 13 f 1 4 14 ajadfkl; a dafjkl; dfajfkl; a 31 4 14 adfa 13 1 1 jfl; da a jfdk; ajfkld; aajadfkl; a dajkfl; dfajfkl; a jfl; da fjkl; dsa dafjkl; afjlajoqie gnmlsm a jfdk; ajfkld; a fjkl; dsa dajkfl; ajfia; fj dajfka; sjfdk; ajfkld; agfjkl; dsa dajkfl; afjlajoqie gnmlsm a adjfkla; fa ajkl; dajf ajfia; fjjask a kd lfadjfkla; fa g a ja a dajfka; s a ka gnmlsm afjlajoqie a kdjfjka a alajask a kd lfadjfkla; fa g ajkl; dajf ajfia; fj al a a ja a dajfka; s a ka f jaklewie ksajkl; dajf wle alajask a kd lf a ka a kddlw a ja a kdjfjka a a al a a kldjl; as zkek ekoxa kddlw wle ala al a f jaklewie ks owl a ka a a kdjfjka a kldjl; as zkek ekoxa kddlw wle f jaklewie ks owl eakejkl; a a dkkewal al a al e azo ekox owl a kldjl; as zkek aldla fe l alal e aial al ewal a al e azo eakejkl; a a dkkewal aldla fe l alal e aial al ew -Gross level definition of system characteristics based on ship size or similar designs. Parametric The amount of data and detail increases as engineers work with smaller areas of the ship. -System network layout and topology Schematic Diagramatic -3 D system layout and routing Space Reservation -Schematic level information laid out in 3 D ship space Distributive systems provide the utilities and infrastructure for the individual subsystems and equipment. -Assembly drawings -Work packages Assembly, Builders Definition, Clearance -Maintenance Guides -Operational Manuals Full Component Breakdown, Maintenance Procedures Capt Doerry Approved for Public Release December 2008 31

Design Process Reference Model Based on Design Structure Matrix methods Design Process Reference Model Design Process Reference Model Based on Design Structure Matrix methods Design Process Reference Model intended characteristics: • Model information development and flow during design • Model application of engineering labor during design • Granularity coarse enough for human comprehension (eg < 1000 elements) yet adequately fine to provide process insight Design Process Reference Model intended use: • Capture current/historical process • Identify capability gaps • Use as design efforts planning aid for different future ship types • Estimate cost/benefit of design process improvement investments • Identify critical path for design development • Use as point of departure for alternate design strategies Capt Doerry Approved for Public Release December 2008 32

ASNE Meeting NAVSEA Presentation December 2008 Capt Doerry Opening Thoughts • Decisions are made ASNE Meeting NAVSEA Presentation December 2008 Capt Doerry Opening Thoughts • Decisions are made based on PREDICTED COST and PREDICTED PERFORMANCE – Ability to Predict is Important to making good decisions – Analysis is predicting performance of a design – If the cost model is not sensitive to an attribute, then making decisions on that attribute based on cost is not prudent. • PREDICTIONS HAVE UNCERTAINTY – Requirements, Acquisition Strategies, Systems Architectures and Design should account for this uncertainty • RISK HAS A COST – You can not generally reduce cost by “assuming” risk. – The cost of risk is what one would pay in insurance to cover the risk. – Risk Mitigation should have a Return on Investment (reduce cost of risk) • Cost of Risk Mitigation should be less than the reduction in the “insurance” payment. • Risk Mitigation must be aligned with design • REQUIREMENT RISKS ARE REAL (AKA Market Risk) – Risk that the requirements you are designing / building to will change. • Not mitigating this risk can be expensive if the risk is realized late in design, in production, or in-service. (Extreme: retirement before design service life) – Preserving flexibility in design can reduce the cost of this risk. Capt Doerry Approved for Public Release December 2008 33