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Perfect Active Indicative A. K. A perf. act. ind.
What is perf. act. ind. ? Simply, it is the simple past The subject _____ed The subject has_______ed The subject did ____ I walked, you walked, he/she/it walked, etc. I have walked, you have walked, he/she/it has walked, etc. I did walk, you did walk, he/she/it did walk
How do I form the Latin perf. act. ind. ? Step 1: go to the 3 rd principal part of the verb Step 2: drop the “I” = perfect active stem Step 3: add the appropriate ending
So how do I know which ending? • • • I ISTI IT IMUS ISTIS ERUNT 1 st person sg. = I 2 nd person sg. = you 3 rd person sg. = he/she/it 1 st person pl. = we 2 nd person pl. = you [all = ya’ll] 3 rd person pl. = they
The Chart rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus--- perf. act. stem = ROGAV- 1 st s. rogavi I asked, I have asked, I did ask 2 nd s. rogavisti You asked, you have asked, you did ask 3 rd s. rogavit He/she/it asked, he/she/it has asked, he/she/it did ask 1 st pl. rogavimus We asked, we have asked, we did ask 2 nd pl. rogavistis You asked, you have asked, you did ask [or as we say in the South, “ya’ll” ] 3 rd pl rogaverunt They asked, they have asked, they did ask
Your turn translate these verbs • • • amavisti you loved [have loved, did love] duxerunt They led [have led, did lead] scripsi I wrote [have written, did write] vidit He/she/it saw [has seen, did see] monuistis You [pl] reminded [have reminded, did remind] cogitavimus We thought [have thought, did think]
…and the other way • • • I guarded servavi They did frighten terruerunt You all have helped iuvistis You [s] dined cenavisti It has come venit We did understand
Perfect vs. Imperfect • Perfect tense represent a COMPLETED PAST action • Imperfect tense represents and ONGOING or REPEATED PAST action. In your mind’s eye, draw a picture to illustrate this sentence: The boulder was falling on Marcus’ head! Did you picture something like this? Now, imagine this sentence: The tree fell on the house. Did you picture something like this?
SO, just what is the difference? • In the picture where the boulder IS FALLING on Marcus’ head, the action is INCOMPLETE --- it is IMPERFECT – if he is really fast, Marcus might dodge and escape the boulder; although fairly obvious, we do not know the absolute outcome • BUT in the second image, the tree has fallen on the house --- it is over COMPLETED or PERFECT[ED]