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PERCH Air Quality Study An Assessment of Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Air Toxics in PERCH Air Quality Study An Assessment of Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Air Toxics in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties

PERCH Air Quality Study Team Principal Investigator: Dr. Michael E. Chang Co-Principal Investigators: Dr. PERCH Air Quality Study Team Principal Investigator: Dr. Michael E. Chang Co-Principal Investigators: Dr. Karsten Baumann Professor Armistead Russell Investigators: Dr. Carlos Cardelino Dr. Yongtao Hu Dr. Talat Odman Ms. Azin Sahabi Professor Rodney Weber Professor Ann Bostrom Mr. Ryan Gesser Ms. Laura King Dr. Richard Peltier Dr. Rama Mohana R Turaga Mr. Wes Younger

The Question: Does a connection exist between air pollution / air toxics and adverse The Question: Does a connection exist between air pollution / air toxics and adverse human health outcomes in the Pensacola area?

3 Phases of the PERCH Air Quality Study 1. Assess and prioritize local, urban, 3 Phases of the PERCH Air Quality Study 1. Assess and prioritize local, urban, and regional threats to human health associated with air toxics and criteria pollutants. 2. Investigate the relationship between regional-scale measures of air quality provided by the existing regulatory-based air quality monitoring network, and neighborhood-scale measures of air quality that may be more representative of human exposures in the Pensacola area. 3. Identify the primary contributors to PM, ozone, and air toxics pollution and quantify their relative contributions to local ambient concentrations (and hence potential exposures).

Phase I: Identify the problem August 26, 2001 In 2001 – 2002 interests and Phase I: Identify the problem August 26, 2001 In 2001 – 2002 interests and concerns were varied among the study’s stakeholders: “…[the American Lung Association] ranked Escambia as having the worst ground-level ozone problem in Florida. ” Ground-level Ozone: Chief concern of Local Community, Business, and Industry “The Pensacola area has the highest recorded concentrations of fine particle pollution in Florida. ” Fine Particulate Matter: Primary intellectual interest of investigators “…Escambia County ranks among the nation’s leaders in toxic air pollution. ” Air Toxics: Leading interest of sponsors

Phase I: Identify the problem At concentrations observed contemporarily (1996 -2002) in Pensacola: Costs Phase I: Identify the problem At concentrations observed contemporarily (1996 -2002) in Pensacola: Costs of Health Impacts from PM, Ozone, and Air Toxics in Pensacola $/year/person PM $1838. 21 Ozone $952. 69 Air Toxics (Total) $1. 02 Incommensurate Benefits of reduced risks from PM, Ozone, and Air Toxics in Pensacola $/year/person PM $34. 00 Ozone $0. 70 Air Toxics (Total) $3. 50 Key Findings: particulate matter likely presents the greatest risk to human health generally related to air quality in the Pensacola region. Implications: Of the three classes of pollutants, ozone is the most well understood pollutant, though it may not pose the greatest health risk. Less is known about particle pollution and air toxics. In terms of allocating PAQS resources, the investigation’s ensuing primary focus (i. e. in Phases II and III) will be on PM, secondary on air toxics, and tertiary on ozone.

2009 Update All of FL meeting 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O 2009 Update All of FL meeting 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O 3 But several areas may not meet 2008 NAAQS

2009 Update All of FL meeting 1997 and 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards 2009 Update All of FL meeting 1997 and 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM 2. 5 Designations for 2006 PM 2. 5 NAAQS

Phase II: Filling in the knowledge gaps “Pensacola 32503” Mobile Air Quality Laboratory at Phase II: Filling in the knowledge gaps “Pensacola 32503” Mobile Air Quality Laboratory at the OJ Semmes Elementary School, July 15 – August 14, 2003

Trends of the major air pollutants measured at OJS and other sites between July Trends of the major air pollutants measured at OJS and other sites between July 15 and August 15, 2003

Fine particulate matter composition measured at OJS between July 18 and August 12, 2003 Fine particulate matter composition measured at OJS between July 18 and August 12, 2003

Relative Composition (%) Total Mass (ppbv) Mass (top) and fractional (bottom) VOC contributions from Relative Composition (%) Total Mass (ppbv) Mass (top) and fractional (bottom) VOC contributions from each source at the OJS site.

Phase II: Filling in the knowledge gaps Key findings: sulfate was a large fraction Phase II: Filling in the knowledge gaps Key findings: sulfate was a large fraction of the observed ambient PM 2. 5 loading; organic carbon was likewise found also to be a large fraction of the ambient PM 2. 5 loading; gasoline related sources are the dominate contributors to ambient gaseous VOC concentrations (suggesting also that they are the primary contributors to organic PM). Implications: coal and gasoline combustion were observed to account for most of the Pensacola atmosphere’s particle load during a high pollution event. Additional analyses (see Phase III) are needed to discern between local and regional sources, however.

Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 1 FAQS Model Reanalysis July 5 Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 1 FAQS Model Reanalysis July 5 -18, 2001

Modeled PM 2. 5 Components Model tells same general story as measurements: sulfate, ammonium, Modeled PM 2. 5 Components Model tells same general story as measurements: sulfate, ammonium, and organics most prevalent From where do they come?

Emissions from FL, AL, GA, TN, NC, and SC NOx SO 2 VOC Emissions Emissions from FL, AL, GA, TN, NC, and SC NOx SO 2 VOC Emissions (tons per day) NH 3 100 00 90 00 80 00 70 00 60 00 50 00 40 00 300 0 20 00 10 00 0 North Florida Alabama 88 150 Point 166 320 Mob 267 530 Area ile 58 96 Nonroad 8385 Biogenic 3001 VOCs Geor 73 gia 554 607 151 8849 Tenne 227 ssee 271 504 89 3232 North Carolinaouth S 212 88 Carolina 400 24 741 41 8 99 89 5 3124 38 45

Sulfate Sensitivity at Pensacola Key findings: sulfate constitutes half or more of the particulate Sulfate Sensitivity at Pensacola Key findings: sulfate constitutes half or more of the particulate load, however, sulfate is most sensitive to distant sources.

Ammonium Sensitivity at Pensacola Key findings: ammonium is a significant part of the particulate Ammonium Sensitivity at Pensacola Key findings: ammonium is a significant part of the particulate load, and it is most sensitive to local sources.

Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 a RAIMI Modeling for Air Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 a RAIMI Modeling for Air Toxics – Cancer risks from Point Sources

Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 a Key Findings: Three areas Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 a Key Findings: Three areas in Santa Rosa County and one area in Escambia County were estimated to have a possible elevated risk of cancer due to emissions from point sources. Only the Pace community in Santa Rosa County had a significant residential presence in close proximity to the industrial source. The estimated risks are of a magnitude that is consistent with risks found near other industrial sources. Implications: With some exception for residential areas very near or within the industrial zones, emissions from point sources are not a widespread source of cancer risk via the inhalation pathway in the Pensacola area.

Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 b RAIMI Modeling for Air Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 b RAIMI Modeling for Air Toxics – Cancer risks from Mobile Sources

Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 b Key Findings: elevated cancer Phase III: Painting the big picture – part 2 b Key Findings: elevated cancer and non-cancer risks due to mobile sources are ubiquitous in the Pensacola area with higher risks generally along more highly traveled roadways. Risk diminishes by several orders of magnitude a few hundred meters off the roadway. Implications: residential and other populated areas immediately adjacent to busy roadways may incur significantly elevated cancer and non-cancer risks.

PERCH Air Quality Study An Assessment of Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Air Toxics in PERCH Air Quality Study An Assessment of Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Air Toxics in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties Final Report available at: http: //cure. eas. gatech. edu/~chang/perch Michael E. Chang 404 -385 -0573 [email protected] edu