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PASSIVE (edilgen) (be V 3) event-habit –ıl, -n state -ılmış, -nmış, -mış PASSIVE (edilgen) (be V 3) event-habit –ıl, -n state -ılmış, -nmış, -mış

ATTENTION! 1) Nerede passive, orada olay. 2) Olayı yapan(doer) ya bilinmiyordur ya önemli değildir ATTENTION! 1) Nerede passive, orada olay. 2) Olayı yapan(doer) ya bilinmiyordur ya önemli değildir ya da önceden bahsedilmiştir. Örnek: Were the clothes washed? My car was stolen last night. Sarah has been invited to the party. 3) Nesne alan (transitive) (T) (geçişli) fiiller edilgen olur. Örnek: They stole my car. = My car was stolen. O

4) Ancak nesne alan bazı fiiller edilgen yapıda kullanılamaz ve ya çok az kullanılır. 4) Ancak nesne alan bazı fiiller edilgen yapıda kullanılamaz ve ya çok az kullanılır. Örnek: fit, have, lack, resemble, suit, like, let. . . They have a nice house. My shoes don’t fit me. Jane resembles a goddess. 5) Nesne almayan fiiller (geçişsiz-intransitive) (I) edilgen olmaz. Örnek: rise, die, arrive. . .

6) Edilgen cümlenin öznesi cansız olmak zorunda değildir. Örnek: I was asked to send 6) Edilgen cümlenin öznesi cansız olmak zorunda değildir. Örnek: I was asked to send a CV. Mr. Ross is said to be a millionaire. 7) Bazı fiillerin iki nesnesi olabilir. Bunlar iki türlü edilgen yapıda kullanılabilir. Örnek: give, send, offer, show, pay, teach, promise, tell. . . Give somebody something. Give something to somebody. • Someone gave John the money. John was given the money. YA DA The money was given to John. • They sent me a telegram. I was sent a telegram. YA DA A telegram was sent to me.

8) BY + AGENT (doer) WITH + INSTRUMENT WITH + MATERIAL by The radio 8) BY + AGENT (doer) WITH + INSTRUMENT WITH + MATERIAL by The radio was invented. . . Marconi. by A number of trees were blown down. . . the strong wind. by with I was hit. . . . an umbrella. . . . an old lady. with The room was filled. . . . smoke. with Irish coffee is made. . . . whiskey.

9) Deserve Need Require Want Ving (Passive sense) His article deserves reading. (His article 9) Deserve Need Require Want Ving (Passive sense) His article deserves reading. (His article deserves to be read. ) Your hair needs cutting. (Your hair needs to be cut. ) The car wants servicing. (The car needs to be serviced. )

10) BE V 3 = GET V 3 A) BE V 3 DURUM BİLDİRİRKEN 10) BE V 3 = GET V 3 A) BE V 3 DURUM BİLDİRİRKEN GET V 3 EYLEM BİLDİRİR. Örnek: He got dressed/washed/lost/drowned. B) KAZARA OLAN VEYA BEKLENMEYEN OLAYLARDA. (PLANSIZ) Örnek: Our flat got burgled when we were on holiday. My parents’ fence got blown down in the storm.

PASSIVE YAPILAR 1) Present Passive Present Tense Passive (V 1) (be V 3) am PASSIVE YAPILAR 1) Present Passive Present Tense Passive (V 1) (be V 3) am is V 3 are The office is locked every evening. Ofis her akşam kilitlenir. . . . . English is spoken here. Burada İngilizce konuşulur. . . . . The house is cleaned by him everyday. Ev hergün onun tarafından temizlenir. . . .

2) Present Progressive Passive Present Tense (V 1) Progressive Passive (be Ving) (be V 2) Present Progressive Passive Present Tense (V 1) Progressive Passive (be Ving) (be V 3) am is are being V 3 Ev şu anda boyanıyor. Çantalar onun tarafından taşınıyor. The house is being painted now. The bags are being carried by him.

3) Past Passive Past Tense Passive (V 2) (be V 3) was V 3 3) Past Passive Past Tense Passive (V 2) (be V 3) was V 3 were Arabam dün gece çalındı. Davet edilmedim fakat gene de gittim. My car was stolen last night. I wasn’t invited but I went anyway.

4) Past Progressive Passive (V 2) (be Ving) (be V 3) was being V 4) Past Progressive Passive (V 2) (be Ving) (be V 3) was being V 3 were Köprü geçen hafta tamir ediliyordu. İzleniyormuşum gibi hissettim. The bridge was being repaired last week. I felt as if I was being watched.

5) Present Perfect have has V 3 Passive (be V 3) have V 3 5) Present Perfect have has V 3 Passive (be V 3) have V 3 has been Sarah partiye davet edildi. Durum defalarca tarif edildi. Mary’e söylendi mi? Sarah has been invited to the party. The situation has been described several times. Has Mary been told?

6) Past Perfect (had V 3) Passive (be V 3) (had been V 3) 6) Past Perfect (had V 3) Passive (be V 3) (had been V 3) Haberin sana söylendiğini düşünmüştüm. Niye seçildiğimi biliyordum. I thought that you had been told the news. I knew why I had been chosen.

7) Modality will have to should will should have to Passive (be V 3) 7) Modality will have to should will should have to Passive (be V 3) be V 3 Zamanı gelince sana söylenecek. Kim davet edilecek? Bilgisayarın kurulumu tamamlanmalı. You will be told when the time comes. Who is going to be invited? The installation of the computer should be completed.

8) Modal (will) Phrasal Modal (have to) Passive (be V 3) (will have to 8) Modal (will) Phrasal Modal (have to) Passive (be V 3) (will have to be V 3) Bu ödev yarına yapılmalı. Sorun çözülebilmeli. This homework will have to be done for tomorrow. The problem must be able to be solved.

9) Modality Will Must Shall Progressive (be Ving) Passive (be V 3) (get V 9) Modality Will Must Shall Progressive (be Ving) Passive (be V 3) (get V 3) (will be getting V 3) Bu akşam sorgulanıyor olacak. Ev boyanıyor olmalı. She will be getting questioned this evening. The house should be getting painted.

10) Modality Perfect Passive A) REAL may must can’t seem to appear to (have 10) Modality Perfect Passive A) REAL may must can’t seem to appear to (have V 3) (may have been V 3) Bu yol inşaa edilmiş olmalı. Bu ev boyanmış olabilir. The road must have been built. The house may have been painted. (be V 3)

B) UNREAL could would should might (have V 3) (might have been V 3) B) UNREAL could would should might (have V 3) (might have been V 3) Bu yol inşaa edilmeliydi. Araba yıkanacaktı. The road should have been built. The car would have been washed. (be V 3)

PASSIVE TEST 1 1. Some of the objects in the attic ____ for twenty PASSIVE TEST 1 1. Some of the objects in the attic ____ for twenty years. So, a layer of dust _____ everything. A. B. C. D. E. haven't touched / covered haven't been touched / covers didn't touch / had covered weren't touched / has been covered aren't being touched / is being covered

PASSIVE TEST 1 2. The answers ____ on one side of the paper only PASSIVE TEST 1 2. The answers ____ on one side of the paper only and in ink. A. B. C. D. E. has to be written should be being written must write ought to write must be written

PASSIVE TEST 1 3. I ____ for something I ____. That was most unfair. PASSIVE TEST 1 3. I ____ for something I ____. That was most unfair. A. B. C. D. E. was punished / didn't do have punished / wasn't done have been punished / haven’t done punished / hadn't been done was punished / haven’t been doing

PASSIVE TEST 1 4. The first group of prisoners ____ to stand up, and PASSIVE TEST 1 4. The first group of prisoners ____ to stand up, and to get into the trucks waiting for them. A. B. C. D. E. were ordering was ordered are ordering has ordered were being ordered

PASSIVE TEST 1 5. I ____ a new doctor by my dentist the other PASSIVE TEST 1 5. I ____ a new doctor by my dentist the other day. A. B. C. D. E. was recommended have recommended am recommended

PASSIVE TEST 1 6. The student ____ a very difficult question, but he ____ PASSIVE TEST 1 6. The student ____ a very difficult question, but he ____ it immediately. A. B. C. D. E. asked / has answered has asked / was answered was asked / answered is asked / has been answering was asking / had answered

PASSIVE TEST 1 7. The knives ____ long ago. Look! They do not cut PASSIVE TEST 1 7. The knives ____ long ago. Look! They do not cut at all. A. B. C. D. E. ought to have sharpened must be sharpened should have been sharpened must have been sharpening might be sharpening

PASSIVE TEST 1 8. No one ____ out of this glass, so you ____ PASSIVE TEST 1 8. No one ____ out of this glass, so you ____ it. A. B. C. D. E. has been drunk / used has drunk / can use is drinking / can be used is drunk / use was drunk / could use

PASSIVE TEST 1 Books ____ from the public library on loan basis for a PASSIVE TEST 1 Books ____ from the public library on loan basis for a fortnight. 9. A. B. C. D. E. can be obtained may obtain was obtained must obtain are to obtain

PASSIVE TEST 1 10. Of the four war journalists, three ____ uninjured, but the PASSIVE TEST 1 10. Of the four war journalists, three ____ uninjured, but the one that ____ in the chest died. A. B. C. D. E. have escaped / shot were escaping / is shot escaped / was shot are escaping / shoots had escaped / was shooting

PASSIVE TEST 1 His 11. works ____ at with suspicion in the 70 s, PASSIVE TEST 1 His 11. works ____ at with suspicion in the 70 s, but things _____ so far. A. B. C. D. E. may have looked / would change were looking / were being changed were looked / have changed looked / had changed have been looked / had been changing

PASSIVE TEST 1 12. The refugees ____ to a new camp outside the village. PASSIVE TEST 1 12. The refugees ____ to a new camp outside the village. The tents _____ up overnight. A. B. C. D. E. are being taken / were put are taking / put will take / have been put could be taking / have put may take / will be put

PASSIVE TEST 1 13. This exit ____ by the general public. A. B. C. PASSIVE TEST 1 13. This exit ____ by the general public. A. B. C. D. E. doesn't use shouldn't use must not be using isn't using is not to be used

PASSIVE TEST 1 14. Unfortunately, many beautiful old buildings in cities ____ by modern PASSIVE TEST 1 14. Unfortunately, many beautiful old buildings in cities ____ by modern ones. A. B. C. D. E. replace are replaced were replacing should replace

PASSIVE TEST 1 15. The hall ____ with thousands of bouquets. It just _____ PASSIVE TEST 1 15. The hall ____ with thousands of bouquets. It just _____ amazing. A. B. C. D. E. decorated / had looked was decorated / looked has decorated / looks has been decorated / was looked had been decorated / has been looking

PASSIVE TEST 1 16. Many houses ____ in the storm last Tuesday. A. B. PASSIVE TEST 1 16. Many houses ____ in the storm last Tuesday. A. B. C. D. E. damage was damaged had to damage had damaged got damaged

PASSIVE TEST 1 17. During World War II, more than two thousand V 2 PASSIVE TEST 1 17. During World War II, more than two thousand V 2 rockets ___ against Belgium and the UK. A. B. C. D. E. were launched have been launched are launched have launched

PASSIVE TEST 1 18. Some television programs ____ live, the others ____. A. B. PASSIVE TEST 1 18. Some television programs ____ live, the others ____. A. B. C. D. E. can transmit / are to be prerecorded could have transmitted / prerecord were to transmit / prerecorded are transmitted / have been prerecorded transmit / are prerecorded

PASSIVE TEST 1 19. Empty bottles must not ____ away, but ____ to special PASSIVE TEST 1 19. Empty bottles must not ____ away, but ____ to special containers. A. B. C. D. E. throw / take be throwing / took to be thrown / taking be thrown / taken have thrown / have taken

PASSIVE TEST 1 20. Why are you late? ____ you _____ to be here PASSIVE TEST 1 20. Why are you late? ____ you _____ to be here by six o’clock? A. B. C. D. E. Weren’t / to tell Didn’t / tell Hadn’t / been telling Aren’t / telling Haven’t / been told

PASSIVE TEST 1 21. The use of the word “china” as a general term PASSIVE TEST 1 21. The use of the word “china” as a general term for any porcelain or porcelain-like products shows how closely the country ____ with ceramics. A. was identifying B. has identified C. is identified D. will be identified E. had to be identified

PASSIVE TEST 1 22. Anticipation of food by the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment ____ PASSIVE TEST 1 22. Anticipation of food by the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment ____ by the sight and smell of food, but also by other associated stimuli such as sounds of their keeper’s approach. A. are aroused B. have aroused C. must arouse D. would have been aroused E. could be aroused

PASSIVE TEST 1 23. Smoking ____ to cause lung cancer and cancers of the PASSIVE TEST 1 23. Smoking ____ to cause lung cancer and cancers of the mouth, larynx, and esophagus, chest diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema, and to contribute to heart disease. have proved A. has proved B. would prove C. has been proved D. E. will have been proved

PASSIVE TEST 1 24. Beans ____ principally as annual plants in the warm temperate PASSIVE TEST 1 24. Beans ____ principally as annual plants in the warm temperate and subtropical areas of the world for their large, protein-rich seeds. A. are grown B. grow C. are growing D. were being grown E. have grown

PASSIVE TEST 1 25. The earliest surviving examples of calligraphy are in Egyptian papyri PASSIVE TEST 1 25. The earliest surviving examples of calligraphy are in Egyptian papyri of the third millennium BC, and the art ____ in most civilizations since then. A. has practised B. was practised C. are practised D. practises E. has been practised

PASSIVE TEST 1 26. Spain ____ for at least 20, 000 years, and _____ PASSIVE TEST 1 26. Spain ____ for at least 20, 000 years, and _____ at least two early cultures. A. B. C. D. E. is inhabited / is supporting was inhabiting / supporting had inhabited / has supported has inhabited / was supporting has been inhabited / supported

PASSIVE TEST 1 27. Slavery ____ closely ____ with racial prejudice, the belief that PASSIVE TEST 1 27. Slavery ____ closely ____ with racial prejudice, the belief that one race is superior to another. A. B. C. D. E. has / been associating were / associated is / associated had / been associated was / associating

PASSIVE TEST 1 28. Some deaf children need special education in separate units, while PASSIVE TEST 1 28. Some deaf children need special education in separate units, while others ____ successfully ____ into normal schools. A. B. C. D. E. could be / to integrate were / integrating must be / integrate are / been integrating can be / integrated

PASSIVE TEST 1 29. Most plastics ____ from organic chemicals originally derived from petrochemicals, PASSIVE TEST 1 29. Most plastics ____ from organic chemicals originally derived from petrochemicals, or from natural gas or coal. A. B. C. D. E. have synthesized are synthesized synthesize had synthesized were synthesizing

PASSIVE TEST 1 30. Biological weapons ____ under the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, PASSIVE TEST 1 30. Biological weapons ____ under the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, but research production _____ for defensive purposes. A. have been banned / permitted B. are banned / permits C. is banned / has been permitted D. were banned / was permitted E. have banned / will permit

PASSIVE TEST 1 31. The prisoner said that he _____in a dark room; he PASSIVE TEST 1 31. The prisoner said that he _____in a dark room; he _____ to stand or sit on a small bench without moving for hours. A. B. C. D. E. is tortured / is making was tortured / was made has been tortured / made had tortured / had been made tortured / has been made

PASSIVE TEST 1 32. After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in PASSIVE TEST 1 32. After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement and he ______ the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he ______. A. had offered / was declined B. has been offered / had declined C. was offered / declined D. had been offered / has declined E. is being offered / declines

PASSIVE TEST 1 33. The presence of some conditions _____ that your memory functioning PASSIVE TEST 1 33. The presence of some conditions _____ that your memory functioning _____ beyond the normal aging process. A. İ B. C. D. E. may indicate / is being influenced ndicates / influences may be indicated / was influenced indicated / is influenced indicate / has been influencing

PASSIVE TEST 1 34. The driver, who ______ of drink driving, ______ a fine PASSIVE TEST 1 34. The driver, who ______ of drink driving, ______ a fine of $20, 000 to be paid in four years. A. B. C. D. E. have been accused / had given accused / will be given was accused / was given had been accused / has given had accused / has been given

PASSIVE TEST 1 35. All children _____ about how to avoid being poisoned and PASSIVE TEST 1 35. All children _____ about how to avoid being poisoned and how to help in a poisoning emergency; this is the aim of today’s session. A. had better inform B. could have informed C. must have been informed D. should be informed E. may be informing

PASSIVE TEST 1 36. When male and female Native American students _____, no statistically PASSIVE TEST 1 36. When male and female Native American students _____, no statistically significant differences _____. A. B. C. D. E. are compared / have found had compared / have been found compared / found were compared / were found compare / are found

PASSIVE TEST 1 37. The prisoners ______ to get undressed and given a towel PASSIVE TEST 1 37. The prisoners ______ to get undressed and given a towel before they ______ to the shower room. A. B. C. D. E. had been told / have been taken were told / were taken told / had been taken have been told / were taking were being told / are being taken

PASSIVE TEST 1 38. The Oath of Hippocrates _____ by physicians and surgeons of PASSIVE TEST 1 38. The Oath of Hippocrates _____ by physicians and surgeons of every race for over 2000 years. A. B. C. D. E. respects has been respected is being respected was respected had respected

PASSIVE TEST 1 39. In a recent survey, respondents who were victims of a PASSIVE TEST 1 39. In a recent survey, respondents who were victims of a crime ______ a number of questions about the support they ______ to cope with the effects of the crime. were asked / were given A. asked / had been given B. had been asked / gave C. had asked / have been given D. have been asked / had given E.

PASSIVE TEST 1 40. Compared to children, adult learners are more successful in applying PASSIVE TEST 1 40. Compared to children, adult learners are more successful in applying what they learn to new situations when they ______ with abstract symbols rather than concrete objects. had been taught A. taught B. have taught C. are taught D. were teaching E.