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Partners BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune Dr. Hedgewar Sewa Samiti, Nandurbar Lead Centre Partner SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD SECURITY IN BACKWARD DISTRICTS OF MAHARASHTRA Bharat Kakade, CPI & Sr. Vice President, BAIF
SUBPROJECT DETAILS Ø Target Districts: Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Yeotmal, Ahmednagar and Nandurbar Ø Budget: Rs. 2275. 12 Lakh Ø Date of start: July 1, 2007 Ø Date of Completion: June 30, 2014 Ø Major Objective: To develop a replicable and holistic approach for promoting sustainable livelihood in tribal and remote regions of Maharashtra through integration and blend of tested technologies and strategies of household-focused and area-based programmes.
BASELINE VALUES (SAMPLE SIZE 2500 FAMILIES) Open 9% 13% OBC 23% SC 45% ST NT 10% Not Reported Up to 20000 19% 4% 3% 5% 10% 20000 -25000 57% 25000 -30000 -35000 57% household - annual income below Rs. 20, 000/- 26% Literacy level: Male 66% Females 55% Non Irrigated Area 74%
Constraints identified during baseline analysis Problem Causes Strategy Adopted Inadequate use of FYM and Promotion of INM nutrients Low Agriculture Yield Lack of assured irrigation No awareness protection about Water Resource Development plant Lack of agriculture input supply Promotion of IPM Seed and seedling production Genetically inferior stock from productivity point of view Low Livestock Yield Establishment of service delivery system advance technology to the participants through breeding Poor awareness about livestock and management services at the management doorstep. Fodder scarcity Lack of Forest Based No awareness Enterprises potential Promotion of fodder cultivation about forest Introduction of tasar sericulture Poor awareness on development and Poor access to information on optimum utilization of improved practices for livelihood resources Field days, farmers’ exposure visits, TOTs Development of Community resource center as training, demonstration and technology transfer centers
SUBPROJECT COVERAGE Deliverables Improved package of agriculture practices Wadi/Orchard based livelihood Plan HH Achievement 5000 6946 HH 1200 HH 4000 4561 HH 12500 20990 HH 200 254 HH 200 acres 330 acres Processing technologies Linseed processing plant 1 1 Value added products of finger millet 2 2 Fruit processing plant 1 1 Water Resource Development Breed improvement – large and small ruminants Forest based livelihood – Tasar Sericulture Seed Production
APPROACH AND MAJOR INTERVENTIONS Integrated cluster development approach: encompassing improved agriculture, Wadi (Tree based farming), livestock development and water resource development. Agriculture and Horticulture based livelihood Introduction of improved seed varieties and improved package of practices Wadi or tree based farming as a farming system approach demonstrated where farmer plant fruit trees along with seasonal crops. Water resource development was linked with these interventions.
O UTPUTS A GRICULTURE : BASED LIVELIHOOD Increase in Crop Yield Crop Baseline Production % production after improved increase Tons/Ha Practices Tons/Ha Paddy 1. 95 3. 17 62. 78 Maize 1. 48 2. 71 83. 33 Cotton 1. 38 1. 88 36. 25 Soybean 1. 34 1. 83 36. 26 Gram 0. 82 1. 32 60 Wheat 1. 77 2. 32 31. 24 Rabi 0. 74 1. 85 150 Sorghum Finger 0. 51 0. 86 66 Millet Linseed 0. 58 2. 30 296 Overall Benefits Additional area brought under irrigation 1247 ha Average increase in productivity 65% Average Increase in cropping intensity 49% Area brought under improved seed varieties 1122 ha
LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT – CATTLE AND GOATS Cattle development: provision of breed improvement and preventive health services through TTCs along with fodder demonstrations and capacity building of farmers for improved livestock rearing Table 2: Improved Animals born through Breed Improvement Programme and Asset Worth No. Animals Number of Worth Number Worth Total (Rs calves-M (Rs) calves F (Rs) in lakh) Crossbred 3788 10000 3600 30000 1458. 8 1. cattle Graded up 954 15000 768 17000 273. 66 2. animals Buffalo 408 15000 368 24000 149. 52 3. Total 1881. 98 Milk Yield Bulk-Milk Cooler, a part of milk-value chain Annual gross income@ Rs. Work days 18/lit Local cow: 440 7920 40 days/year liters/lactation Improved cow: 28800 90 -100 1600 lit/lactation days/year
LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT – CATTLE AND GOATS Goat Development 1353 Preventive health services and monitoring Number of HH benefited Provision of quality breeding buck and goats Goat Bank Approach Total Number of kids of Average Income /unit improved breed born Number /HH (Rs/per anum) 3284 3 7200/-
FOREST BASED LIVELIHOOD – TASAR SERICULTURE Workdays created Average income 120/year Rs. 8000/- Utilization of forest potential and conservation of trees Tasar intervention includes activties from rearing of worms to reeling of thread at local level Fabric marketed through BAIF
INNOVATIVE INTERVENTION – VALUE CHAIN ON LINSEED • Introduction of improved seed Varieties of Linseed • Seed Production • Productivity Enhancement • Omega 3 Oil Extraction • Development of Omega 3 Products • Marketing of Products – Cross cutting with component 2 subproject
COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY Planning with participants Technical capacity building and formation and strengthening of people’s institutions Strategy of tapering support Community resource centers work for training, demonstrations and technology transfer managed through local committees The facilities such as Urea DAP briquetting machines, feed mix units, bulk milk coolers and shed nets are managed through these centers.
COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY Technical capacity building and drudgery reduction was the strategy adopted for effective integration of women in the process; . Women’s participation ensured in all the people’s institutions. Sustainability fund of about Rs One Crore established through people’s contribution Fund Management Committee for post project management
IMPACT Findings of Impact assessment of 10% participants Average increase in crop Production (KG/HA) Before After % Increase 1556 2287 69% Average Annual Income per family (Rs) (all interventions) % Before After Increase 49, 252 1, 00, 786 104. 6 Migration reduced by 70% No. of Families migrate Before 257 After 76
Sustainability Approach – Scope beyond Project TTC 10 -20 villages 5000 farmers Activities • Quality input supply for agriculture • breed improvement and livestock management services • Custom Hiring facility • Seed and Seedling production • Collective marketing of produce • Convergence of different schemes
IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Central team of BAIF led by CPI closely worked with partner institutes and field functionaries CIC meetings helpful in planning and discussing operational modalities A focused group including CPI created for to plan, review and follow up the project on monthly basis; helped project to expedite the matters very efficiently and timely. CMU: developed overall M & E framework of the project and periodic monitoring
IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Field level functionaries in addition to RAs and SRFs; project operations facilitated by the scientists, implemented by the field functionaries Field functionaries stationed at project locations; system of quarterly workshops for review and planning Effective communication material in local language Sustainability strategy Management Information System: matrix of participants for recording inputs; helpful in tracking the extent of inputs, helpful in limiting support as decided
LEARNINGS In-built flexibility in the project design – space for timely revisions of project activities and need-based packaging of technologies. The project design was made more intensive and inclusive rather than in the form of scattered demonstrations. The integrated approach of development: instrumental in addressing livelihood needs with agriculture, livestock, water and hence achieving higher results for the participant families. Value chain based approach provided end to end solution to the issues Consortium mode brought in synergy of expertise of SAUs, ICAR institutes and NGOs. However the performance was person specific rather than involvement of the institutions, especially in case of SAUs.
LEARNINGS Multi – disciplinary Team: technical teams were backed up by the social scientists which achieved people’s involvement in project activities. Annual review workshops organized by NAIP helped all the consortia learn from each other. Accounting and Finance: The World Bank guidelines not only build the capacity of project team but also helped improve the organizational capacity. Instrumental in keeping project control. The external audits improved the project accounting over the years. The success of this integrated approach of development has shown that the approach can be replicated in the other distressed areas with similar setting.
RECOMMENDATIONS Functionaries: important link for project implementation, necessary for effective delivery of the project activities Field Practical finance and accounting systems required for livelihood projects especially for the remote areas. Guidelines and systems required for the project activities executed by the farmers themselves. Intensive M&E through central PIU level across all the sub-projects would help improve the results. The CPIs to be involved in cross-monitoring would help through cross-learning.
RECOMMENDATIONS Timely fund releases by NAIP and better coordination and communication of NAIPfinance Such projects give scope to SAUs for better interface with farmers and hence a learning opportunity NGOs like BAIF certainly have capacity to contribute for national programmes on livelihood, develop innovative approaches should be involved by ICAR for implementation and applied research in the national projects.
AWARDS AND APPRECIATION Times of India – Social Impact Award to BAIF, New Delhi, October 2011 Appreciation Certificate to BAIF led consortium for contribution to rural livelihood - November 2012 Dr. Narayan Lambat; progressive linseed farmer honored by ‘Krishibhushan’ award of Maharashtra government BVU received Gold medal of DST-Lockheed Martin at India Innovation Growth Programme for the innovation ‘Omega-3 EGG’ - May 2013