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Part Three: The House of Hohenzollern Part Three: The House of Hohenzollern

The Thirty Years War devastated the German speaking lands The Thirty Years War devastated the German speaking lands

Prussia laid just outside of the Holy Roman Empire and was seen as a Prussia laid just outside of the Holy Roman Empire and was seen as a meaningless territory

King Frederick William was able to organize Prussia into a unified nation, establishing the King Frederick William was able to organize Prussia into a unified nation, establishing the Hohenzollern Dynasty

Frederick was the nephew of the King of Sweden and his wife was the Frederick was the nephew of the King of Sweden and his wife was the granddaughter of William of Orange

Frederick William was very well educated and was obsessed with making Prussia into a Frederick William was very well educated and was obsessed with making Prussia into a great power

Even though he was a strict Calvinist, Frederick allowed Catholics and Jews to worship Even though he was a strict Calvinist, Frederick allowed Catholics and Jews to worship freely in Prussia

The “Great Elector” established Berlin as his capital city and allowed over 20, 000 The “Great Elector” established Berlin as his capital city and allowed over 20, 000 French Huguenots to immigrate there

His greatest achievement was developing a professional (non-mercenary) standing army His greatest achievement was developing a professional (non-mercenary) standing army

When “Great Elector” Frederick William died, he was replaced by his son Frederick I When “Great Elector” Frederick William died, he was replaced by his son Frederick I

Unlike his father, Frederick I was a weak ruler who did little but maintain Unlike his father, Frederick I was a weak ruler who did little but maintain what his father had started for over 25 years

He was replaced by his son, Frederick William I, who was a strong ruler He was replaced by his son, Frederick William I, who was a strong ruler

Due to Frederick William I’s obsession with the military he was nicknamed the “Soldier Due to Frederick William I’s obsession with the military he was nicknamed the “Soldier King”

Under him the Prussian military doubled in size and consumed 80% of the national Under him the Prussian military doubled in size and consumed 80% of the national budget

Despite this, he balanced the budget but cutting the lavishness of him imperial court Despite this, he balanced the budget but cutting the lavishness of him imperial court

Under Frederick William I the Prussian Army was molded into one of absolute obedience Under Frederick William I the Prussian Army was molded into one of absolute obedience and discipline

Frederick William I’s greatest fear was that his oldest son, Frederick II, would not Frederick William I’s greatest fear was that his oldest son, Frederick II, would not be strong enough to rule

Young Prince Frederick loved music, philosophy, and poetry Young Prince Frederick loved music, philosophy, and poetry

Frederick’s father would constantly beat and humiliate him Frederick’s father would constantly beat and humiliate him

In 1730 he ran away from home and attempted to move to England In 1730 he ran away from home and attempted to move to England

He was caught and as punishment Frederick was forced to watch his best friend He was caught and as punishment Frederick was forced to watch his best friend be beheaded

Frederick suggested to his father that he be married to Maria Theresa, but instead Frederick suggested to his father that he be married to Maria Theresa, but instead he was married to a German Princess

Young Frederick II took power at the age of 28, only six months after Young Frederick II took power at the age of 28, only six months after Maria Theresa first came to power

Shortly after taking power, Frederick II decided to began the War of Austrian Succession Shortly after taking power, Frederick II decided to began the War of Austrian Succession by attempting to remove Maria Theresa from power

After failing to both capture throne of Austria and remove Maria Theresa from power After failing to both capture throne of Austria and remove Maria Theresa from power Frederick began reworking his military startegy

Meanwhile, he studied French philosophy and the works of Machiavelli Meanwhile, he studied French philosophy and the works of Machiavelli

Frederick II came to the conclusion that Machiavelli’s statements that people were naturally wicked Frederick II came to the conclusion that Machiavelli’s statements that people were naturally wicked were incorrect

Frederick instead believed that people were both good and bad Frederick instead believed that people were both good and bad

He also wrote that the ruler existed for the benefit of the nation, not He also wrote that the ruler existed for the benefit of the nation, not the other way around as Machiavelli had argued

Frederick II watched in horror as his rival, Maria Theresa, allied Austria with France, Frederick II watched in horror as his rival, Maria Theresa, allied Austria with France, Sweden, and Russia

Frederick II was only able to form an alliance with Great Britain, but decided Frederick II was only able to form an alliance with Great Britain, but decided that it was better to fight his enemies now than wait for later

Frederick II launched a series of battles against Russia, Austria, and France that began Frederick II launched a series of battles against Russia, Austria, and France that began The Seven Years War

Britain fought France in the New World, where it was called the French and Britain fought France in the New World, where it was called the French and Indian War

While England fought France in the Americas, Frederick’s Prussia struggled against its three powerful While England fought France in the Americas, Frederick’s Prussia struggled against its three powerful enemies

Amazingly, Frederick II often fought in the battles personally! Amazingly, Frederick II often fought in the battles personally!

He even had six horses shot from under him during battles He even had six horses shot from under him during battles

Frederick II innovated many new battle techniques and formations, earning him the reputation of Frederick II innovated many new battle techniques and formations, earning him the reputation of military genius early in his rule

Despite being outnumbered 10 to 1 in the Seven Years War, Prussia held its Despite being outnumbered 10 to 1 in the Seven Years War, Prussia held its own – mostly due to Frederick’s genius

Napoleon considered Frederick to be the greatest military Genius of all time Napoleon considered Frederick to be the greatest military Genius of all time

At first the Seven Years War went very well for Frederick and his armies At first the Seven Years War went very well for Frederick and his armies were winning

But, as the years passed, Austria and Russia were able to fight their way But, as the years passed, Austria and Russia were able to fight their way towards Berlin

It was at this moment that a “Miracle” saved Prussia and Frederick II from It was at this moment that a “Miracle” saved Prussia and Frederick II from complete destruction

The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the Seven Years War, which was the The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the Seven Years War, which was the worst European war of the 18 th Century

Much later, Winston Churchill would call it the real First World War Much later, Winston Churchill would call it the real First World War

The Treaty cost France all of its American colonies, which were given to Britain The Treaty cost France all of its American colonies, which were given to Britain

Prussia reestablished itself as a great power and the map of Europe returned to Prussia reestablished itself as a great power and the map of Europe returned to where it was before the war

Near defeat did not deter Frederick II and he would go on to lead Near defeat did not deter Frederick II and he would go on to lead Prussia into numerous other wars

These later wars led to the expansion of Prussia’s land power These later wars led to the expansion of Prussia’s land power

While fighting bravely in battle, Frederick also managed to completely reform the government of While fighting bravely in battle, Frederick also managed to completely reform the government of Prussia

Frederick II could speak Ten Languages, including Ancient Greek, Latin, and Hebrew! Frederick II could speak Ten Languages, including Ancient Greek, Latin, and Hebrew!

He brought into Prussia a wealth of new ideas, making him an Enlightened Monarch He brought into Prussia a wealth of new ideas, making him an Enlightened Monarch

He built many great opera houses, libraries, universities, and palaces He built many great opera houses, libraries, universities, and palaces

Under Frederick II, Prussia went from being a backwards German nation to one of Under Frederick II, Prussia went from being a backwards German nation to one of the most educated places on Earth

He completely overhauled the entire economic and agricultural systems of Prussia, making them up He completely overhauled the entire economic and agricultural systems of Prussia, making them up to date with those of the West

He also had his capital city, Berlin, completely redesigned, making it the envy of He also had his capital city, Berlin, completely redesigned, making it the envy of many rulers

Throughout this time Frederick even found time to compose over 100 Sonatas and 4 Throughout this time Frederick even found time to compose over 100 Sonatas and 4 symphonies

All of these things earned him the title Frederick the Great All of these things earned him the title Frederick the Great

Frederick’s final goal was the conquest of the duel-nation of Poland Lithuania Frederick’s final goal was the conquest of the duel-nation of Poland Lithuania

In order to accomplish this, Frederick allied Prussia with its old enemies – Sweden, In order to accomplish this, Frederick allied Prussia with its old enemies – Sweden, Austria, and Russia

The four nations gobbled up Lithuania and Poland, both of which vanished as free The four nations gobbled up Lithuania and Poland, both of which vanished as free nations for over a century

This is known as the Partition of Poland This is known as the Partition of Poland

Frederick the Great ruled Prussia for 46 years and died at the age of Frederick the Great ruled Prussia for 46 years and died at the age of 74

Prussia’s throne passed to Frederick’s nephew, Frederick William II Prussia’s throne passed to Frederick’s nephew, Frederick William II

Even though Prussia was now a major new power, an old/larger power to the Even though Prussia was now a major new power, an old/larger power to the East was about to reach new heights of power…