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Part 3 : Social Inequality Dr. Sadaf Sajjad
What does Social Inequality Mean? Differential Access to Ø Wealth Ø Power Ø Prestige
On What bases is Differential Access Based Ø Gender Ø Race Ø Age Ø Ethnicity Ø Religion Ø Kinship I. e. anything that can be used to differentiate people
Classification of Societies Based on the Equality-Inequality Ø Egalitarian Societies Ø Ranked Societies Ø Stratified Societies
Egalitarian societies ØEg. Hadza of Tanzania, !Kung bushmen of the Kalahari, and Batek of Malaysia Ø Foragers with few possessions, no land ownership, and little specialization, other than a division of labour based on gender and age Ø lack any clear organisational structure ØThere is a continuing debate as to whethere is inequality between men and women in foraging societies. Hadza of Tanzania
Simple Horticultural Societies surplus gives rise to resources privileges
ranked societies Øpeople are divided into hierarchically ordered groups that differ in terms of prestige and status Øbut not significantly in terms of access to resources (wealth) or power. Øit is possible to identify persons we can label as chiefs whose inherited position has prestige ØThis is often linked to the redistribution of goods. Little Big Man Tribe : Oglala Lakota )
ØWith ranked societies comes the need to organize labor beyond the household level and the potential for major construction projects (cooperative labor) ØIndividuals can achieve power and prestige
Agricultural Societies agricultural tools increase surplus, reduce labour. slavery is possible, private property, inheritance.
Industrial Societies depend on educated workers Consumerism more democracy less equality.
Stratified Societies ØSocieties divided into horizontal layers of equality and inequality. ØMarked inequalities in access to wealth, power, and prestige Øpassed on from generation to generation. ØHas a significant effect on individuals’ “life chances. ” (Weber) ØFound almost exclusively within complex societies with centralised political systems and large populations
What is Class? Ø Class is essentially a theoretical concept Ø Classes are strata of a particular kind. Ø defined primarily in terms of roles and economic relationships.
Caste What is Caste?
Caste ØA stratification system wherein cultural or racial differences are used as the basis for ascribing status ØCastes are named, territorially delimited, and membership is determined by birth and unchanging ØCaste is a rigid system of occupationally specialized, interdependent groups Ø Caste is the fundamental social institution in India Ø Most developed form is among Hindus although it is also found with Muslims and Christians and Sikhs ØCastes are ranked by purity and pollution customs. Ø Caste organises political, economic and ritual life
ØHas existed among Hindus for at least 2000 years ØThe term caste was given by Portuguese travellers and comes from the Latin castus meaning pure Ø The original Sanskrit for the caste system was "varna", which means color. Ø Some believe that the caste system was originally based upon color lines between the conquering Aryans and the darker, native Dravidians. ØThe first three castes may have originated with the classes of Aryan society who used the darker, native population as their servants.
What is race? We all know that people look different. Anyone can tell a Czech from a Chinese. But are these differences racial? What does race mean?
Prejudice Definition: “A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members”. Prejudice is an attitude and therefore has an affective component, a behavior tendency, and a cognitive component.
Prejudice The root word of prejudice is "pre-judge. " It is “a set of attitudes which causes, supports, or justifies discrimination. Prejudice refers to a tendency to "over categorize. " Prejudiced people respond to others in a more or less fixed way (Farley, 2000: 18).
Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual based solely on the individual’s membership of a social group. For example, • A person may hold prejudiced views towards a certain race or gender etc. (e. g. sexist). • A family may preach its children some prejudiced belief about some other family in order to make up the minds of their children against them due to some classicism or racism factors.
Prejudice A prejudiced person might dislike those different from themselves, behave in a discriminatory manner, and believe they are ignorant and dangerous. While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgments (usually negative) about members of a group.
Cont. …. Prejudice is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group. Common features of prejudice include: • Negative feelings, • Stereotyped beliefs, and • A tendency to discriminate against members of the group.
Discrimination “is the behavior or actions, usually negative, towards an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of sex/race/social class, etc. ” Example of Discrimination World War II - In Germany and German-controlled lands, Jewish people had to wear yellow stars to identify themselves as Jews. Later, the Jews were placed in concentration camps by the Nazis.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Crime and Deviance
CRIME Societies define crime as the violation of one or more rules or laws for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a punishment. What constitutes a crime tends to alter according to historical, cultural and power dimensions
Types of Crime Preliminary Crimes Victimless crimes Offences against the person Economic Offences Types of Crime Traffic Offences against the State Drug Offences Public Order Offences
Examples of Criminal Acts Robbery. Traffic Offenses. White Collar Crime: be committed by professional people in the context of business e. g. non payment of tax. Larceny: the removal of another person’s property without consent. Hacking. Threatening a person. Assault: causing physical harm to the person. Death by irresponsible driving. Murder.
Criminal Behavior Crime is time and culture bound. Examples: Attempted suicide was regarded as a criminal offence until 1961. Incest was NOT regarded as a crime until 1908. More recently – smoking in public places.
Criminal Behavior Criminal behaviour is designated according to age and intention – thus the same behaviour can be seen as criminal in one case and not in another. The age of criminal responsibility varies from country to country: in Scotland it is 8, in England Wales it is 10, in France it is 13 and in Sweden it is 15. Individuals are deemed to have committed a criminal act only if they can be shown to have had the intention of doing so. Those suffering from some forms of psychiatric illness are considered incapable of this aspect of criminal behaviour.
Criminal Sociology Criminal sociology is a field of study which focuses on criminals. To study the psychological factor of the criminal e. g: motivation; to examine the character, environment of the criminal and the process of the criminal behavior. Use of psychology in order to hold back crimes. Using theoretical explanations and method to explain crime itself and then bring evidence of a crime to light in order to help investigation, justice, and correction.
Motivation of Crime § Desire § Ability § Opportunity
Criminal/Forensic Psychologist VZ Forensic Scientist Criminal psychologist Analyze, compare, identify & Apply Psychiatry to the Law interpret physical evidence Identify evidence & link it to the suspect, victim & crime scene Expert witnesses in court Application of medical treatment in forensic settings
Personality And Crime Is there a criminal personality? Personality: characteristics of an individual that predisposes one to act in certain ways in certain situations Way one perceives, thinks about and relates to oneself and one’s environment
Deviance Norms: standards or rules regulating behavior in a social setting; shared expectations The pressure to conform stems from the fact that in most situations, if not all, there are unspoken yet explicit rules of how we should behave
What is Deviance? Deviant behavior: behavior that violates the social norms and values shared by most people in a particular culture or social setting Crime: a violation of official, written criminal law Is all deviance crime? Is all crime deviant?
Deviance/conformity we have many social mechanisms in place to ensure a high degree of conformity socialization, role expectations, laws, patterns of rewards and sanctions *No single act is universally deviant
Deviance is normal, it happens all the time! How can something be deviant if it happens all the time? When behavior becomes public knowledge When a group decides to treat something deviant *An act in itself is not deviant; it is how the act is treated which makes it deviant
Deviance is… normal. EVERYONE deviates sometimes Not deviant in itself; instead, it is the reaction. Rule/norm breaking Time, place, circumstance Social, happens in the social context
What is Aggression?
Aggression Behavior intended to injure another individual It is behavior (not angry feelings) It is intended (not accidental harm) It is aimed at hurting Example: behaviours that exhibit aggression: murdering for money, verbally and physically assaulting someone, accidentally injuring someone, working persistently to sell a product, and many, many more
Types of Aggression Indirect Aggression Direct Aggression Emotional Aggression Instrumental Aggression
Indirect Aggression Attempt to hurt another without obvious face-to-face conflict Example: spreading a rumor about some one.
Direct Aggression Behavior intended to hurt someone “to his or her face” Example: aggression in sports; a hockey player punches another player
Emotional Aggression Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings. Emotional aggression is : Harm inflicted for its own sake, to cause pain Often impulsive Example: A child throws a temper tantrum after mom refuses to buy candy
Instrumental Aggression: Cont… Immediate conditions Threat to self-esteem, status, or respect, particularly in public situations Aggression to save face Long term conditions Repeated threats to self-worth or status Threat to self esteem Anger Aggression as an end
Instrumental Aggression • Hurting another to accomplish another (non-aggressive) goal • Harm inflicted as a means to some goal other than causing pain • Goals include: • • • Personal gain Attention Self-defense • Example: a bully who gains respect of his/her peers • A mother spanks a child to discourage him from repeating a tantrum •
Instrumental Aggression: Cont… Immediate conditions Opportunity for gain with high reward and low perceived risk Long term conditions Poverty or other challenging economic factors Perceive crime as primary means to resources/respect Norms foster aggression as way to achieve resources Opportunity Rewards /Costs Aggression as means
Is There Cultural Aggression? Variation in Aggression varies greatly across cultures A study done in 2002 show that the countries with the most murders were the Russian Federation, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Ukraine. The United States were very high on the list, while Canada was quite low Subcultures exist within countries, and these subcultures are often aggressive towards each other based on attributes like age, race, gender, religion, social status, wealth etc. Teenagers aged 14 -24 were found to be involved in the most crime, and Aboriginal peoples had the highest percent of race involved in crime
Does Gender Play A Role in Aggression? Universally, men are more violent than women. Females feel the same amount of anger as males, however they are much less likely to act upon that anger Important to note that most of these gender-related studies have been done only on physical aggression Boys are overtly aggressive, while girls are indirectly, or relationally aggressive. “Boys may use their fists to fight, but at least it’s over with quickly; girls use their tongues, and it goes on forever” (Britt Galen and Marion Underwood, 1997)
Aggression: Innate or Learned? Are we born aggressive or is aggressiveness Learned through experience? Innate aggression: an inevitable, biological inclination to violence Learned aggression: aggression taught through experience and imitation
Factors Increasing Aggressive Behavior
Influences of Aggression Neural Influences Genetic Influences Blood Chemistry Psychological Influences Environmental Influences
Environmental Influence Painful incidents Heat Aggression Attacks Crowding
Environmental Influence : Heat An uncomfortable environment heightens aggressive tendencies. Offensive odors, cigarette smoke, and air pollution have all been linked with aggressive behavior (Rotton & Frey, 1985) But heat is the most-studied environmental irritant.
Environmental Influence : Heat William Griffit (1970) found that compared to students who answered questionnaires in a room with a normal temperature, those who did so in an uncomfortable hot room reported feeling more tired and aggressive, and experienced more hostility. Follow-up experiments revealed that heat also triggers retaliate actions (Bell, 1980; Rule & others, 1987).
Environmental Influence : Attack Being attacked or insulted by another is especially conducive to aggression. Experiments confirm that intentional attacks breed retaliatory attacks.
Environmental Influence : Crowding The subjective feeling of not having enough space—is stressful Packed in the back of the bus, trapped in a slow moving freeway traffic, or living three to a small room in a college dorm diminishes one’s sense of control (Baron & others, 1976; Mc. Neel, 1980) The stress experienced by animals allowed to overpopulate a confirmed environment that heighten aggressiveness (Calhoun, 1962; Christina & others, 1960)
Other factors There are some other factors that are the major cause of causing aggression in people and societies. Media Video games in children
How to reduce aggression Catharsis Social Learning • If a person “bottles up his rage, we have to find an outlet. We have to give him an opportunity of letting of the steam. ” (Fritz Perls, 1973) • Catharsis means letting out, purging, cleansing • We should reward cooperative, nonaggressive behavior • In experiment, children become less aggressive when caregivers ignore their aggressive behavior and reinforce their non-aggressive behavior (Hamblin & other, 1969)