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Part 2: Is Recovery Profitable? p Savings associated with pressure reduction p Costs of Part 2: Is Recovery Profitable? p Savings associated with pressure reduction p Costs of manual and automated regulation p Economics of options p Discussion Questions Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 1

Steps to Identify Opportunities Identify Excessive Leakage Characteristics Estimate Potential Pressure Reduction Estimate Volume Steps to Identify Opportunities Identify Excessive Leakage Characteristics Estimate Potential Pressure Reduction Estimate Volume of Gas Saved and O&M Savings Summarize Total Savings Compare the Cost of Pressure Reduction Options Conduct Economic Analysis Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 2

Excessive Leakage Characteristics p Determine current operating characteristics of your system u Frequency and Excessive Leakage Characteristics p Determine current operating characteristics of your system u Frequency and method of setting pressures p Objective is to achieve the right balance between savings and costs u Older systems with cast iron lines are more leak- prone and can benefit from continuous pressure adjustment u Newer systems with plastic lines are less leakprone and may be more suitable for manual adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 3

Set-Point/Demand Relationship p Estimate your system DR set-points characteristics from peak demand minimum meter Set-Point/Demand Relationship p Estimate your system DR set-points characteristics from peak demand minimum meter calibration condition IDEAL SET POINT AS A FUNCTION OF AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 4

Pressure Reduction Using Manual Adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 5 Pressure Reduction Using Manual Adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 5

Pressure Reduction Using Automatic Adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 6 Pressure Reduction Using Automatic Adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 6

Estimate Volume of Gas Savings p Estimate gas leakage p Estimate reduced gas leakage Estimate Volume of Gas Savings p Estimate gas leakage p Estimate reduced gas leakage u One Partner found leakage rate in their low pressure system to be linearly proportional to system pressure u Apply percent pressure reduction to leakage rate to estimate gas savings Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 7

Maintenance Cost Reduction p Estimate Maintenance Cost u Average of 56 leaks repaired / Maintenance Cost Reduction p Estimate Maintenance Cost u Average of 56 leaks repaired / mile / year u Average leak repair cost reported by Gas STAR partners is $1, 010 / leak repair (based on data from 19 companies) u Average leak repair cost reported by 1995 GRI/GTI study is $1000 / repair (including costs to pinpoint leak and evacuate pipe) p Estimate Repair Savings u Percent leak reduction is linearly proportional to percent pressure reduction u 50% factor applied to relationship between % reduction in leaks and % reduction in system pressure Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 8

Summarize Total Savings Based on a hypothetical system delivering 1 Bcf/yr through 50 miles Summarize Total Savings Based on a hypothetical system delivering 1 Bcf/yr through 50 miles of cast iron, 25 miles of protected steel, 25 miles of plastic pipe; 10 district regulators; 10 low pressure points. Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 9

Compare the Cost of Pressure Reduction Options p Increase frequency of manual DR adjustment Compare the Cost of Pressure Reduction Options p Increase frequency of manual DR adjustment u Primary cost is labor p Install automatic control systems u Capital costs: system hardware u Operating costs: communications and power Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 10

Manual Adjustment Costs p Total implementation cost u Additional set point changes per regulator Manual Adjustment Costs p Total implementation cost u Additional set point changes per regulator (3) u Number of visits per set point change (4) u Hours per visit (0. 5) u Labor cost ($60/hr) u Number of regulators adjusted (10) p Manual adjustment cost example u Implementation cost = 3 x 4 x 0. 5 x $60 x 10 u Total cost = $3, 600/yr Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 11

Is Recovery Profitable with Manual Adjustment? p Manual DR adjustment, annual to quarterly Reducing Is Recovery Profitable with Manual Adjustment? p Manual DR adjustment, annual to quarterly Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 12

Compare the Cost of Pressure Reduction Options Based on GRI-93/0039 and “Methods and Benefits Compare the Cost of Pressure Reduction Options Based on GRI-93/0039 and “Methods and Benefits for Automation of DRs Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 13

Example: Automation Capital Costs Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 14 Example: Automation Capital Costs Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 14

Example: Automation Operating Costs p Power Cost u DR and LPP power requirements (10 Example: Automation Operating Costs p Power Cost u DR and LPP power requirements (10 W) u Electricity cost ($0. 06/k. Wh) u System annual hours of operation (8, 760) u Number of DRs and LPPs (10 + 10) u Example cost = $105/year p Communication Cost u Number of calls to reset controllers (2 per day) u Number of set point adjustments (365 days/year) u Cost per call ($0. 10/call) u Number of DRs and LPPs (10+10) u Example cost = $1, 460/year p Total Operating Cost = $1, 565 per year Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 15

Is Recovery Profitable with Automated Adjustment? p Automated DR adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Is Recovery Profitable with Automated Adjustment? p Automated DR adjustment Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 16

Discussion Questions p To what extent are you implementing this opportunity? p Can you Discussion Questions p To what extent are you implementing this opportunity? p Can you suggest other alternatives? p What additional information would you need for a better analysis of this opportunity? p What are the barriers (technological, economic, lack of information, regulatory, focus, manpower, etc. ) that are preventing you from implementing this practice? Reducing Emissions, Increasing Efficiency, Maximizing Profits Page 17