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Part 1 Remembering Our Past Together The Philippines *1521 - 1946 *The Philippines was Part 1 Remembering Our Past Together The Philippines *1521 - 1946 *The Philippines was discovered in 1521 by Portugese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and colonized by Spain from 1565 to 1898. Following the Spanish – American War, it became a territory of the United States. On July 4, 1946, the United States formally recognized Philippine independence which was declared by Filipino revolutionaries from Spain. NOTE Information and images used in the preparation of the Philippine segment of this presentation are retrieved from on-line references. Prepared for the Filipino-American Cultural Association of North San Diego County, Rica Derosier, President February 2010 By Felix Saguing Presentation Title by Dejah Urbanovitch, Miss Fil-Am 2009 Manila skyline at night viewed from Manila Bay Press ENTER to continue

1 The early history of the Philippines predates Oceanside’s by more than 200 years. 1 The early history of the Philippines predates Oceanside’s by more than 200 years. The Philippines as it is known today, because of its geographical location, became embroiled in what historians will refer to as a search for new lands to expand European empires – thinly disguised as the search for exotic spices. In the early 1400’s, Portugese explorers discovered the abundance of many different resources in these “new lands” heretofore unknown to early European geographers and explorers. The Portugese are quickly followed by the Dutch, Spaniards, and the British, looking to establish colonies in the East Indies. The author’s objective is to provide an “abbreviated” historical background in lieu of an in-depth, comprehensive historical presentation. That is what textbooks and other references are for. The presentation is done in timeline format to conserve space and at the same time provide, in as much as possible, an accurate chronological order of historical events, dates, names and places. Photos and images are selected for relevancy to the event or subject. Press TAB key to advance to the next slide

2 Ferdinand Magellan Although not the first to set foot on Philippine soil, the 2 Ferdinand Magellan Although not the first to set foot on Philippine soil, the first well document arrival of Europeans in the archipelago was the Spanish expedition led by Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan, which first sighted the mountains of Samara. At Masao, Butuan, (now in Augustan del Norte), he solemnly planted a cross on the summit of a hill overlooking the sea and claimed possession of the islands he had seen for Spain. Magellan befriended Raja Humabon, the chieftain of Sugbu (present day Cebu), and converted him to Catholicism. After getting involved in tribal rivalries, Magellan, with 48 of his men and 1, 000 native warriors, invaded Mactan Island. Magellan seriously underestimated the strength of Datu Lapu-Lapu’s forces. Grossly outnumbered he and 14 of his soldiers were killed. Born 1480 Sabrosa, Portugal Died April 27, 1521 (aged 40– 41) Cebu, Philippines Other names Portugese: Fernão de Magalhães Spanish: Hernando de Magallanes Known for: Captained the first circumnavigation of the world. 1521 – (March 17) Magellan sighted the mountains of what is now Samar while on a mission for Spain to find a westward route to the Moluccas Islands. On Easter Sunday, March 31, 1521, at Masao, Butuan, (now in Augusan del Norte), he solemnly planted a cross and claimed the island for Spain, naming them Islas de San Lazaro. Reference Bergreen, Lawrence (October 14, 2003). Over The Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. Reference Zweig, Stefan, "Conqueror of the Seas – The Story of Magellan", 2007, ISBN 1406760064 On the morning of April 27, 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan to confront the rebellious Datu Lapu-Lapu. During the resulting Battle of Mactan with hostile natives led by Lapu-Lapu, Magellan was killed. His body was never recovered. A shrine has been built in his honor near the battle site. Reference Statue of Lapu-lapu Agoncillo, Teodoro (2006) Introduction to Filipino History. Garotech Publishing, and David Hawthorne (1964). Ferdinand Magellan. Doubleday & Company, Inc.

3 1543 – Ruy Lopez de Villabos led an expedition to the islands and 3 1543 – Ruy Lopez de Villabos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name Las Islas Filipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. Reference Noone, Martín J. The Discovery and Conquest of the Philippines 1521 -1581, 1983 1565 – Colonization of the Philippines began with the arrival of Spanish Miguel Lopez de Legaspi First Governor and Captain-General Of the Philippines In office April 27, 1565 – August 20, 1572 Born 1502 Zumarraga, Guipuzcoa, Spain Died August 20, 1572 Manila, Philippines explorer Miguel Lopez de Legaspi from Nueva España (present day Mexico) and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. The colony was administered through the Viceroyalty of Nueva España until 1821 when Mexican patriots seceded from the Spanish Empire. After 1821, the colony was governed directly from Spain. Reference De Morga , Antonio. (2004). “History of the Philippine Islands". Volume 1 and 2. The Project Gutenberg, or go to http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Miguel_Lopez_de_Legazpi Manila galleon or Galeones de Manila-Acapulco service was inaugurated providing passage once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila and Spain via Nueva España. This was made possible with the discovery of the ocean passage by Andrés de Urdaneta, and continued until 1815 when the Mexican Revolution put a permanent stop to the galleon trade route. Reference Kamen, Henry (2004). Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492 -1763. Harper, Collins ISBN 0060932643 Galleon

 Filipinos were the earliest Asians to cross the Pacific Ocean for the New Filipinos were the earliest Asians to cross the Pacific Ocean for the New Saint Malo Settlement as appeared in Harper's Weekly, 1883 World because of the Manila galleon trade between Nueva España and Las Islas Filipinas from 1565 to 1815. Many jumped ship to escape brutal treatment after having been “exploited and impressed into service” and “forced to become woodcutters, shipbuilders, crewmen and munitions workers. ” Filipinos, the majority entering Louisiana directly by galleons from Mexico, followed the mule trail to Veracruz and other Mexican ports and crossed the Gulf of Mexico to Louisiana where they established settlements such as St. Malo on the swamps south of Lake Borgne in St. Bernard County, and Manila Village on the marshland on Barataria Bay in the Mississippi Delta by the Gulf of Mexico. Reference FILIPINOS: Forgotten Asian Americans by Fred Cordova 1762 – (October 30) Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio y Vieyra, Bishop of Sir William Draper Born 1721, Bristol, United Kingdom Died January 8, 1787 Known for: Conquer of Manila, losing Minorca Manila and representative of the Spanish Real Audencia, following the death of the Gobernador-General, Don Pedro Manuel de Arandia, surrendered the Philippines to the British pursuant to the agreement of Treaty of Paris at the end of Seven Years War. The British ended their rule on April, 1762. Reference Tracy, Nicholas (1995), Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Year War, University of Exeter Press, ISBN 0859894266, ISBN 9780859894265 Martín de Goiti was a Spanish Basque Conquistador and founder of the city of Manila. Goiti was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies in 1565. He was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel Lopes de Legaspi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim chieftain, Rajah Sulaiman III of Manila for control of lands and settlements. Goiti is laid to rest in a tomb inside the San Agustin Church, in Intramuros. Reference Artist sketch of Manila Bay, circa 1800 s Noone, Martín J. The Discovery and Conquest of the Philippines 1521 -1581, 1983 4

 1781 – One of the forty-six early settlers of Pueblo de Nuestra Señora 1781 – One of the forty-six early settlers of Pueblo de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles, now the City of Los Angeles, probably was a Filipino by the name of Antonio Miranda Rodriguez. Reference FILIPINOS: Forgotten Asian Americans by Fred Cordova 1863 – Queen Isabella of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system in the Spanish model leading to an increasing number of educated indios and criollos or Insulares, (Spaniards born in the Philippines), creating a class of citizens called Ilustrados. Three most celebrated Ilustrados at the end of 19 th century: Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar and Mariano Ponce The Ilustrados originally clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. Jose Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical Ilustrado of the era, wrote the novels “Noli mi Tangere", and “El Filibusterismo", which greatly inspired the movement for independence. The Katipunan, a secret militant society, was founded by Andres Bonifacio. Its primary purpose was the overthrow of Spanish rule in the Philippines. On-line reference http: //people. cohums. ohiostate. edu/grimsley 1/milhis/phil. htm http: //www. megaessays. com/viewpaper/28063. html 1872 – Mass deportation occurred of nationalists to the Isla los Ladrones (present day Guam) and Europe creating a Filipino expatriate community of reformers abroad. The community grew within the next generation of Ilustrados taking graduate studies in European universities. They allied themselves with Spanish liberals, most notably a certain Spanish senator named Morayta of Madrid and formed La Solidaridad was an organization created in 1888 in Spain to represent and advocate the Filipino cause at the Spanish parliament. They published a newspaper, La Solidaridad, headed by Graciano Jaena. Reference Schumacher, John N. (1973). The Propaganda Movement, 1881 -1896: The creation of a Filipino Consciousness (1997 ed. ) Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9789715502092 5

Graciano Lopez Jaena The desire to form a purely Filipino organization was fulfilled on Graciano Lopez Jaena The desire to form a purely Filipino organization was fulfilled on December 13, 1888 with the establishment in Barcelona of La Solidaridad. This organization was sort of a rival of Morayta's Madrid group although the two organizations joined together in a petition addressed to the Minister of the Colonies asking for representation in the Cortes, abolition of censorship of the press, and prohibition of the practice of deporting citizens merely through administrative orders. The president of La Solidaridad in Barcelona was Rizal's cousin, Galicano Apacible. Among the other officers were Graciano Lope Jaena, vice president, and Mariano Ponce, treasurer. Rizal, in London at the time, was named Honorary President. Unfortunately, Apacible could not hold the wrangling reformists together. It took the prestige of Rizal and the political wisdom of Marcelo del Pilar to unite the Filipinos in Spain and to coordinate their efforts. Reference Mariano Ponce Marcelo del Pilar Schumacher, John N. (1973). The Propaganda Movement, 1881 -1896: The creation of a Filipino Consciousness (1997 ed. ) Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9789715502092 1896 – In the last days of August, Bonifacio called Katipunan members to a mass gathering in Caloocan, where they decided to start a nationwide armed revolution against Spain. The event was marked by a mass tearing of cedulas (community tax certificates) accompanied by patriotic cries. The exact date and location are disputed, but two possibilities have been officially endorsed by the Philippine government: August 26 in Balintawak and later, August 23 in Pugad Lawin. Thus the event is called the "Cry of Balintawak" or "Cry of Pugad Lawin". However the issue is further complicated by other dates such as August 24 and 25 and other locations such as Kankong. Reference First Katipunan (Bonifacio’s) flag first flown July 7, 1892 Cristobal, Adrian (2005) [1997], The Tragedy of the Revolution, University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 971 -542 -471 -6 6

 1892 – (July) Jose Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent 1892 – (July) Jose Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion, was deported to Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga, a peninsula of Mindanao. There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture. José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda Born June 19, 1861 1896 - the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan had become a full blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising and leading to the first proclamation of a democratic republic in Asia. To dissociate himself, Rizal volunteered and was given leave by the Gobernador-General, Ramon Blanco, to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Blanco later was to present his sash and sword to the Rizal family as an apology for the arrest of Rizal. Before he left Dapitan, Rizal issued a refraction disavowing the revolution and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom. Ramón Blanco y Erenas, marqués de Peña Plata (1833 – 1906) Term: 1893 -Dec 13, 1896 Jose Rizal was imprisoned in the fort before his execution. . The site features his cell and other artifacts. Embedded onto the ground in bronze, his final footsteps representing the walk from his cell to the location of the actual execution. Photography is prohibited inside the building that houses artifacts of Rizal’s imprisonment. Rizal was arrested en route to Havana, imprisoned in Barcelona, and sent back to Manila to stand trial. He was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan and was to be tried before a military tribunal for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so. Rizal was convicted on all three charges and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of office, and the friars had intercalated Camilo de Polavieja in his place, sealing Rizal's fate. He was found guilty of all charges and sentenced to die by firing squad. While awaiting execution, he was held in a cell at Fort Santiago where he wrote Mi Ultimo Adios. Reference Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Manila: National Bookstore. ISBN 9710805207 7

8 1896 – (December 30) Execution of Jose Rizal at Bagumbayan (Luneta), present day 8 1896 – (December 30) Execution of Jose Rizal at Bagumbayan (Luneta), present day site of Rizal Park, in the City of Manila. 1897 – The Katipunan-Magdalo movement of Cavite Record Photograph of the Execution of Jose Rizal (encircled) under self-appointed general, Emilio Aguinaldo and another Cavite faction, the Magdiwang, was embroiled in a power struggle as to who would lead the formation of a Revolutionary Government. Andres Bonifacio, the original founder of the Katipunan, considered his movement to be the Revolutionary Government, but nevertheless, he acquiesced and presided over elections held during the Tejeros Convention held in Tejeros, Cavite on March 22, 1897. Andres Bonifacio y de Castro Nov 30, 1863 - May 10, 1897 Away from his power base, Bonifacio lost the leadership to Aguinaldo and was appointed by him to a lesser position in the revolutionary cabinet. Insulted, Bonifacio declared the Convention null and void, and sought to return to his power base in Morong (present-day Rizal Province), He and his party were intercepted by Aguinaldo's men and violence resulted which left Bonifacio seriously wounded. Bonifacio was charged, tried and found guilty of treason by a Cavite military tribunal, and sentenced to death. After some vacillation, Aguinaldo confirmed the death sentence and Bonifacio was executed on May 10, 1897 in the mountains of Maragondon in Cavite, even as Aguinaldo and his forces were retreating in the face of Spanish assault. Aguinaldo is officially considered the first President of the Philippines. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy Mar 22, 1869 – Feb 6, 1964 Reference Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984) Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press

9 The Pact Filipino Revolutionary Soldiers Encampment Biak-na-Bato, Bulacan Dec 27, 1897 of Biak-na-Bato, 9 The Pact Filipino Revolutionary Soldiers Encampment Biak-na-Bato, Bulacan Dec 27, 1897 of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 14, 1897, created a truce between Spanish Colonial Governor - General Fernando Primo de Rivera and Emilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish government in return for which the Revolutionary Government would go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo would later use the money to purchase firearms. Delegates to the Pact of Biak-na-Bato Seated. L to R, Pedro Paterno, mediator, and General Emilio Aguinaldo. Standing, L to R, rebel leaders Isabelo Artacho, Baldomero Aguinaldo, Severino de las Alas, Antonio Montenegro and Vito Belarmino. (Paterno became one of the founders, and Montenegro a founding member, of the pro-American Partido Federal when it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900. ) Filipino exiles in Hong Kong, photo taken in early 1898: Emilio Aguinaldo (arrow) led 36 other revolutionary leaders including Gregorio del Pilar into exile in the British colony 1898 – (April 21) Start of Spanish-American War following the sinking, on February 15 in Havana Harbor, of the battleship USS Maine. On-line reference Arnaldo Dumindin, Spanish-American War http: //philippineamericanwar. webs. com/ Hulk of USS Maine, Havana, Cuba, 1898

10 Filipino Revolutionary Soldiers, 1898 Soldiers in dark uniforms were formerly indigenous Spanish colonial 10 Filipino Revolutionary Soldiers, 1898 Soldiers in dark uniforms were formerly indigenous Spanish colonial troops who crossed over to the revolutionary side. Spanish Colonial Soldiers Prisoners of War Cavite, 1897 1898 - (May 19) Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and he immediately resumed revolutionary activities against the Spaniards, now receiving verbal encouragement from emissaries of the U. S. In a matter of months, revolutionary forces conquered nearly all of Spanish -held territories, with the exception of Manila, which was completely surrounded. The Filipinos now controlled the Philippines. Aguinaldo also turned over 15, 000 Spanish prisoners to the Americans, offering them valuable intelligence. June 12 - Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain at his house in Cavite El Viejo. The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. Tensions between the Philippine Revolutionary Government and the American government existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization, aggravated by feelings of betrayal on the part of Aguinaldo. 1899 – (March 23) The insurgent First Philippine Republic formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Convention in Malolos, Bulacan. June 2 – The Malolos Congress declared war on the United States, with Pedro Paterno, President of Congress, issuing a Proclamation of War. The date marked the beginning of the Philippine. American War, which ensued between 1899 and 1902. On-line reference Malolos Convention Arnaldo Dumindin, Spanish-American War http: //philippineamericanwar. webs. com/

11 1899 – (February 4) Armed conflict began when a Filipino soldier was shot 11 1899 – (February 4) Armed conflict began when a Filipino soldier was shot by an American sentry at San Juan Bridge. In 2003, the Philippine National Historical Institute found the incident actually happened in Sociego and Silencio streets in Santa Mesa, Manila. 1901 – (March 23) Capture and surrender of Emilio Aguinaldo Present day corner of Sociego and Silencio Streets, Santa Mesa District, Manila. The National Historical Institute placed two plaques (in English and in Filipino) marking this spot as the scene of the first shot that sparked the Philippine -American War. The plaque in English states: "Here at 9: 00 in the evening of February 4 th, 1899, Private William Grayson of the First Nebraska Volunteers fired the shot that started the Filipino-American War. ” to the American forces in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Philippine Republic. Official end to the war. The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 approved, ratified, and confirmed by U. S. President Mc. Kinley's Executive Order establishing the Philippine Commission and stipulated that a legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission. The act also provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos. On July 2 the Secretary of War telegraphed that the insurrection against the sovereign authority of the U. S. having come to an end, and provincial civil governments having been established, the office of U. S. Military governor was terminate Artist rendition of the capture of Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela On July 4 Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the U. S. Presidency after the assassination of President Mc. Kinley on September 5, 1901, proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all people in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict. This date marked the beginning of American annexation of the Philippines. On-line reference Macabebe Scouts who helped capture Emilio Aguinaldo Arnaldo Dumindin, Spanish-American War http: //philippineamericanwar. webs. com/

 From the very beginning, United States presidents and their representatives in the islands From the very beginning, United States presidents and their representatives in the islands defined their colonial mission as tutelage: preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Except for a small group of "retentionists, " the issue was not whether the Philippines would be granted self-rule, but when and under what conditions. President William Mc. Kinley William Howard Taft 25 th. President In office Mar 4, 1897 – Sep 14, 1901 First Civil Governor In office Jul 4, 1901 - Feb 1, 1904 Cultural Impact. Then U. S. President Mc. Kinley, in his instructions to the First Philippine Commission in 1898 (more popularly known as the Taft Commission), ordered the establishment of a public school system and the use of the Philippine languages as well as English for instructional purposes. The American administrators, finding the local languages to be too numerous and too difficult to learn and write teaching materials in, ended up with a monolingual system in English with no attention paid to the other Philippine languages except for the token statement concerning the necessity of using them eventually for the system. The Thomasites arrived in the Philippines on August 12, 1901 Filipino students and Thomasite teacher (arrow), 1901 to establish a new public school system in the American model, to teach basic education and to train Filipino teachers. The Philippines had enjoyed a public school system since 1863, when a Spanish decree first introduced public elementary education in the Philippines. The Thomasites expanded and improved the public school system, and switched to English as the medium of instruction. The name “Thomasite” was derived from the transport vessel, the USS Thomas that brought them to the shores of Manila Bay. By 1902, there will be a total of about 1, 074 stationed in the Philippines. Students, Philippine Normal High School, ca. 1900 s The public school system introduced after the passage of the “Taft Commission” in 1902 made it possible for a large number of school-age Filipino to acquire education beyond the 6 th grade. Before the arrival of the Thomasites, some American soldiers were used as teachers. Reference On-line reference http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Thomasites Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines, Ballantine Books, Random House, Inc. , March 3, 1990, ISBN 0 -345 -32816 -7 12

 1932 – (December) United States Congress passed the Hare-Hawes- Herbert Clark Hoover 31 1932 – (December) United States Congress passed the Hare-Hawes- Herbert Clark Hoover 31 st President of the United States (R) In office March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt 32 nd President of the United States (D) In office March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Signing of the Constitution of the Philippine Commonwealth, Washington, DC, March 23, 1935 Seated left to right: George H. Dern, Secretary of War; President Franklin Roosevelt, signing documents; Manuel L. Quezon, Philippine Senate President. Cutting Act with the premise of granting Filipinos independence. Provisions of the bill included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. Finding it too restrictive, it was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover but Congress overrode his veto in 1933 and passed the bill. The bill, however, was opposed by then Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate. 1934 – (March 24) The Tydings–Mc. Duffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73 -127) was approved, a United States federal law, which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of 10 years. It was authored by Maryland Senator Milard Tydings and Alabama Representative John Mc. Duffie. Philippine Senate President Manuel Quezon headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, DC that successfully secured the act's passage in Congress. The act provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10 -year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the United States would maintain military forces in the Philippines. Furthermore, during this period the President of the United States was granted the power to call into military service all military forces of the Philippine government. The act also permitted the maintenance of US naval bases within this region, for two years after independence. The act reclassified all Filipinos that were living in the United States as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. Filipinos were no longer allowed to come legally to the US as migrant workers, and a quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Reference Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All Nations Publishing Co. ISBN 971 -642 -071 -4 13

 Manuel Quezon won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of Manuel Quezon won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Bishop Gregorio Aglipay. 1935 – (November 15) The Commonwealth of the Philippines was Emilio Aguinaldo Gregorio Aglipay officially inaugurated with Quezon as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and Sergio Osmeña as Vice President. During this period, the Commonwealth exercised semi-independence in its territories. It marked the end of the colonial eras as well as the transition of the name of the Philippines from the plural "Las Islas Filipinas" or "Philippine Islands" of the Spanish and American colonial periods, to the singular, "Philippines. “ Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina Sergio Osmeña y Suico Pre-World War II Years (1939 -40). The new government Born Aug 19, 1878 Baler, Tayabas Died Aug 1, 1944 Saranac Lake, New York Born Sep 9, 1878 Cebu City Died Oct 19, 1961 Quezon City, Philippines embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence. These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the “colonization” of Mindanao, which up to this time have resisted any outside control of the predominantly muslim population. However, other uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and President Manuel L. Quezon deliver his inaugural address, November 15, 1935. The ceremonies were held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300, 000. Reference Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All Nations Publishing Co. ISBN 971 -642 -071 -4 military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U. S. commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon, especially after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after one six-year term. 14

 1941 – (July 25) U. S. Secretary of War Henry Stimson Philippine Scouts 1941 – (July 25) U. S. Secretary of War Henry Stimson Philippine Scouts Soldiers, Fort Mc. Kinley, 1937 Established as an integral part of the United States Army, they fought valiantly alongside American troops in WWII. requested that President Franklin D. Roosevelt issue orders calling the military forces of the Commonwealth into active service for the United States. Stimson explained, "All practical steps should be taken to increase the defensive strength of the Philippine Islands. “ On July 31, 1941 the Philippine Department had 22, 000 troops assigned, 12, 000 of whom were Philippine Scouts. The main component was the Philippine Division, under the command of Major General Jonathan Wainwright. Between July and December 1941 the garrison received 8, 500 reinforcements consisting of additional aircrafts and crews for air defense of the islands. December 7 - Japan launched surprise attack at Pearl Harbor. Ten hours later, on December 8, Japanese aircrafts bombed Clark Airbase, Sangley Point Naval Station and other military targets in the Philippines. Gen Douglas Mac. Arthur during ceremonies inducting the Philippine Army Air Corps into the USAFE. Camp Murphy, August 15, 1941 The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U. S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese invasion. President Quezon declared Manila an open city to prevent its destruction, and was eventually occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, and parts of the Visayan Islands until the final surrender of United States and Philippine forces. Reference On-line reference Manila declared “open city” to save it from destruction. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Military history of the Philippines Duffy, Bernard K; Carpenter, Ronald H. (1997), Douglas Mac. Arthur: Warrior as Wordsmith, Greenwood Press 15

 February 1942 – President Quezon and Vice President Osmeña were escorted by troops February 1942 – President Quezon and Vice President Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later they were evacuated to Australia and then to the United States. During this exile, Quezon became ill with tuberculosis and died August 1, 1944 in in Saranac Lake, New York. Vice President Osmeña replaced him as president. General Edward P. King surrenders American and Filipino forces on Bataan. April 9, 1942 Image retrieved from http: //www. history. Army. mil/books/ /wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm 1942 – (March 12) As the Battle of Bataan raged on, General Mac. Arthur, his family, and several USAFFE staff officers left Corregidor for Mindanao aboard four PT boats and was eventually flown to Australia where he broadcasted to the Filipino people his famous "I Shall Return" promise. Mac. Arthur's departure marked the end of the USAFFE and by 22 March, the defending army was renamed United States Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) and Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright was placed in command. The Battle of Bataan represented the most intense phase of Japanese soldiers guard Allied prisoners of war captured after the fall of Bataan. April 9, 1942 Image retrieved from http: //www. history. Army. mil/books/ /wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm Japan’s invasion of the Philippines. The capture of the Philippine Islands was crucial to Japan's effort to control the Southwest Pacific, seize the resource-rich Dutch East Indies, and protect its Southeast Asia flank. 1942 – (April 9) Fall of Bataan – Maj Gen. Edward P. King met with Maj Gen. Kameichiro Nagano and after several hours of negotiations, the remaining weary, starving and emaciated American and Filipino defenders on the battle-swept Bataan peninsula surrendered. It was the largest surrender in American and Filipino military history, and was the largest American surrender since the American Revolution. The Bataan Death March: All told, approximately 5, 000 – 10, 000 Filipino and 600 – 650 American prisoners of war died. Image retrieved from: http: //www. history. army. mil/books/wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm Reference Morton, Louis (First Printed 1953) War in the Pacific: THE FALL OF THE HILIPPINES For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office Washington, D. C. 20402 On-line reference http: //www. history. army. mil/books/wwii/5 2/5 -2_Contents. htm 15 16

 Fall of Corregidor - (May 6, 1942 - After weeks of constant Japanese Fall of Corregidor - (May 6, 1942 - After weeks of constant Japanese bombardment, Lt. Gen Jonathan Wainwright finally surrendered the Corregidor garrison at about 1: 30 pm. Corregidor, the “Gibraltar of the East” has fallen and marked the fall of the Philippines. More than two brutal years occupation follows. General Jonathan Wainwright negotiating with Japanese General Homma the surrender of Corregidor and all American forces in the Philippines. Image retrieved from http: //www. history. Army. mil/books/ /wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm Japanese soldiers hauling down the American flag after the fall of Corregidor. Image retrieved from http: //www. history. Army. mil/books/ /wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm American and Filipino soldiers surrenders in front of Malinta Tunnel on Corregidor. Image retrieved from http: //www. history. Army. mil/books/ /wwii/52/5 -_Contents. htm Many American and Filipino soldiers evaded capture and will continue to fight as guerillas. Their efforts made a significant contribution to the eventual retaking of the Philippines. The most notable American guerilla leader in the Philippines during World War II was Colonel Wendell Fertig whose guerilla forces operated and controlled large areas of Mindanao. The other is Commander Charles “Chick” Parsons, USN, who was instrumental for organizing a spy network, and for means to supply the resistance in the Philippines by submarines. He was the connection between General Douglas Mac. Arthur’s GHQ in Australia and the guerrillas in the Philippines. Brig Gen Wendell Fertig Cdr Charles Parsons Reference Keats J. 1990. They Fought Alone. Time Life. ISBN 08099485559 (reissue of 1963 book on Fertig's guerrilla operation) On-line reference http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chick_Parsons 17

Jose P. Laurel 1943 – (October 14) The Second Philippine Republic, otherwise known as Jose P. Laurel 1943 – (October 14) The Second Philippine Republic, otherwise known as the “Puppet Government” was established in October 14, 1943 under Japanese occupation. The Japanese-sponsored government headed by President Jose P. Laurel with Benigno Aquino, Sr. as Vice President proved to be unpopular. Laurel was not subsequently officially recognized as a Philippine president until the administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961 -1965) 1944 – (October 20) The campaign to liberate the Philippines began with the landing of U. S. forces on the eastern shore of Palo, Leyte. south of Luzon. General Douglas Mac. Arthur came ashore to fulfill his promise to the Filipino people of “I Shall Return. ” The campaign, which included fierce, and decisive land naval battles in and around the Philippines continued until the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945. General Mac. Arthur returns to the Philippines Bombing of Manila by American aircrafts. The Battle of Manila from 3 February to 3 March 1945 was part of the Philippines' 1945 campaign. The one-month battle, which culminated in a terrible bloodbath and total devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater, and ended almost three years of Japanese military occupation. Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders all Japanese forces in the Philippines. General Yamashita was tried and found guilty of war crimes. On 23 February 1946, at Los Baños Prison Camp, 30 miles south of Manila, Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged. Reference Filipinos welcome the liberators On-line reference http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Manila_(1945) Retaking the Philippines: America's Return to Corregidor and Bataan, October 1944 -March 1945 by William B. Breur (1986) St. Martin’s Press 18

19 On July 4, 1946, representatives of the United States of America and of 19 On July 4, 1946, representatives of the United States of America and of the Republic of the Philippines signed a Treaty of General Relations between the two governments. The treaty provided for the recognition of the independence of the Republic of the Philippines as of July 4, 1946, and the relinquishment of American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands. The Philippines celebrates its Independence Day in recognition of June 12, 1898, when the Philippines declared its independence from Spain, although its independence was not recognized until July 4, 1946, by the United States. From 1946 to 1962, the Philippines observed Independence Day on July 4 each year. In 1961, President Diosdado Macapagal reverted the holiday to the June 12 date, which up to that time had been observed as Flag Day in the Philippines. In place of the former Independence Day, Macapagal created Filipino-American Friendship on July 4. The lowering of the Stars and Stripes and the raising of the Philippine National Flag, Luneta Park (now Rizal Park, Manila) July 4, 1946 Author’s note: I witnessed this event as a seven-year old while waiting for my father who marched, as part of the U. S. Army contingent, in the parade. The event had a carnival-like atmosphere. Later on in the evening, my father gave me a metal “dragon tray” he had won at a shooting gallery. It was stamped “Made in Occupied Japan. ” It remains with me to this day. In 1961, while with the Marine Barracks at Subic Bay, on June 12, 1962, I marched in the parade when the Philippines switched their Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. Filipino historians point out that independence in 1946 came with numerous strings attached. The U. S. , for example, retained dozens of military bases, including a few major ones. In addition, independence was qualified by legislation passed by the U. S. Congress to ensure that the Philippines would remain an economic ward of the U. S. , for the time being. Another burning issue is the Bell Trade Act, which prohibited the Philippines from manufacturing or selling any products that might "come into substantial competition" with U. S. -made goods. It further required that the Philippine Constitution be revised to grant U. S. citizens and corporations equal access to Philippine minerals, forests, and other natural resources. But the Philippine government had little choice but to accept these terms for independence. The U. S. Congress was threatening to withhold post-World War II rebuilding funds unless the Bell Act was ratified. The Philippine Congress obliged on July 2, 1946.

 EPILOGUE: The Philippines, throughout its recorded history, had endured colonization, wars, including a EPILOGUE: The Philippines, throughout its recorded history, had endured colonization, wars, including a World War; natural disasters with tragic consequences, and its own internal strife, which continue to the present time. It rose from the ashes and ruins of WWII to slowly, but surely, gain its footing and takes its rightful place in the community of free nations and people. The Filipinos are very much aware that freedom and the democratic process are crucial factors in nation-building. They are a proud people, proud of their heritage, culture, their country, and the legacy of their forbearers that is for them to safeguard. This is true of any race of people. Press ENTER to view 5 images of old Philippines Cabildo Street, Manila, 1862 Spanish and a Filipina upper class, ca. 1890 s Town Fiesta, ca. 1898 Ermita Street Scene, ca. 1900 San Miguel Brewery, Manila, 1910 Press TAB key to advance to the next slide 20

20 The General’s Sons Maj Gen Frederick Funston Sep 11, 1865 – Feb 29, 20 The General’s Sons Maj Gen Frederick Funston Sep 11, 1865 – Feb 29, 1917 (51) Emilio Aguinaldo Mar 22, 1869 - Feb 6, 1964 (94) General and independence leader of Chinese and Spanish descent. He played an instrumental role in Philippine independence during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Phil-American War that resisted American occupation. He eventually pledged his allegiance to the U. S. government. He is considered to be the country's first and the youngest president, and the longest living Philippine President. General Funston, then a Colonel in the 20 th Kansas Volunteers, was awarded the Medal of Honor during the Philippine-American War for gallantry during the Battle of Rio Grande de la Pampanga , on April 27, 1899. Gen Frederick Funston (seated) and the four officers who helped capture Aguinaldo: (Left to right) Captains Harry W. Newton and Russell T. Hazzard, and First Lieutenants Oliver P. M. Hazzard and Burton J. Mitchell. Frederick Funston, Jr. , son of the general who captured Emilio Aguinaldo, shakes hands with Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr. , son of the Revolutionary General and first Philippine President, at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, July 2, 1923. Frederick Funston, Jr. served in the United States Air Force; Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr. ’s military career is not known. Press ENTER to continue to Part 2, Oceanside American actor Douglas Fairbanks visiting the 62 -year-old Aguinaldo at his home in Kawit, Cavite. March 26, 1931

Part 2 Remembering Our Past Together Oceanside 1888 - 1988 Ocean Side or Oceanside, Part 2 Remembering Our Past Together Oceanside 1888 - 1988 Ocean Side or Oceanside, as it is known today, grew from a “dusty, shrub-covered little frontier town” to what it is today. When it was founded as a township the population was estimated at just over 200. The early pioneers and settlers were then concentrated in the flat land of San Luis Rey Valley, but in the years that followed, many would move up the “bluff” and the township would grown into the third largest city in San Diego County. Information and images used in the preparation of the Oceanside segment of this presentation are from the following references: Oceanside Historical Society Website: http: //www. oceansidehistoricalsociety. org/ Oceanside High School Alumni Foundation Website: http: //www. ohsfoundation. org/history. htm Oceanside: Where Life is Worth Living, Kristi Hawthorne, Author Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Langdon Sulley and Lawrence Bigelow, Authors Oceanside Beach Press ENTER to continue to Part 2, Oceanside

21 Oceanside is the third-largest city in San Diego County. As of 2007, the 21 Oceanside is the third-largest city in San Diego County. As of 2007, the city has a population of about 179, 68. Together with neighboring Carlsbad to the south and Vista to the east, it forms the Tri-City area. Just to the north is Camp Pendleton, the busiest military base in the United States. Oceanside has experienced dramatic growth since the 1970 s, when its population was 45, 000. Much of the city's area was developed into single-family home tracts during the 1970 s and 1980 s. Since the 1990 s, increased commercial and industrial development have diversified Oceanside's economic base. Located below the mesa five miles to the east of downtown is a valley where the history of Oceanside had its beginning. Let us explore how the city that many of us call “my town” came to be. Press TAB key to advance to the next slide

22 Hernan Cortés Fortún Ximénez is the first European known to have landed in 22 Hernan Cortés Fortún Ximénez is the first European known to have landed in what is now known as Baja California. Ximénez was the pilot of a ship, La Concepción, sent by Hernan Cortés in 1533 to travel north along the coast of Nueva España (present-day Mexico), in search of two ships that had been lost without a trace on a similar voyage the previous year. The previous voyages had been in search of the "Strait of Anián" (the muchhoped-for Northwest Passage) and the Islas California, named for the mythical places in the romance novel, Las sergas de Esplandián, popular among the conquistadores. The fictional Islas California was a “terrestrial paradise” populated only by dark-skinned women. During the voyage, Ximénez lead a mutiny during which the captain was killed. The mutineers then landed near present day La Paz, on the southern tip of Baja California Peninsula, which the mutineers believed to be Islas California. Ximénez was killed in a clash with the local natives. The survivors returned to Nueva España with tales of having found black pearls, which prompted further exploration of the "Island" of Santa Cruz, as Cortés named the peninsula. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California. Cabrillo shipped for Havana as a young man and joined forces with explorer Hernan Cortés in Nueva España. His entrepreneurial skills, mining gold in Guatemala, made him one of the richest of the conquistadores. Reference On-line reference http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hern%C 3%A 1 n_Cort%C 3%A 9 s Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain – available as The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico: 1517 -1521 ISBN 030681319 X

 1539 - Francisco de Ulloa, who had been commissioned by Hernan Cortés, discovered 1539 - Francisco de Ulloa, who had been commissioned by Hernan Cortés, discovered the Sea of Cortez (also known as Gulf of California). Cabrillo was then commissioned by the new Viceroy of Nueva España, Antonio de Mendoza, to lead an expedition up the Pacific Coast in search of trade opportunities, perhaps to find a way to China (for the full extent of the northern Pacific was still unknown) or to find the mythical "Strait of Anián“. Cabrillo, also a shipbuilder, had built and owned the flagship of this venture and two or three other vessels, and stood to profit from any trade or treasure from the expedition. Mapa de Mejico, 1847 Sea of Cortez (shaded area) 1542 – (June 27) Cabrillo set out from Navidad (now Acapulco). On September 28, 1542, he landed in what is now San Diego Bay and named it "San Miguel". 1602 – (November) Sebastian Viscaino was sent to map the Baja (lower) and Alta (upper) California coasts. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor of what is now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spanish saint more commonly known as San Diego. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service on record in Alta California was conducted by Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Las Californias was the name given by the Spanish to the area comprising the modern states of Baja California and Baja California Sur in Mexico, and the modern state of California. Administratively, Las Californias was part of the Viceroyalty of Nueva España. As the name is plural, it must be understood to apply from approximately 1770, when the region was divided into north and south administrative areas, until 1848 when Alta (upper) California was ceded to the United States. Note that Las Islas Filipinas (modern day Philippines) was also administered by Spain via the Viceroyalty of Nueva España. Sebastian Viscaino On-line reference http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/San_Diego_Bay 23

 1769 – During the exploration of Upper California, the Spanish missionaries under Father 1769 – During the exploration of Upper California, the Spanish missionaries under Father Junipero Serra entered what is now San Luis Rey river valley and found it settled by local Native Americans of the Quechnajuichom tribe. They became known as the Luiseños. Father Junipero Serra Father Antonio Peyri Oceanside Historical Society A Luiseño Indian proudly display his fine basket. The Luiseño Indians were the first inhabitants of the San Luis Rey Valley. Ref 2. 14 Oceanside Historical Society Artist sketch of Mission San Luis Rey and surrounding grounds, ca 1834 From the Bancroft Library Collection, UC Berkeley 1798 – (June 13) Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuén founded Mission San Luis Rey de Francia ("The Mission of Saint Louis King of France, " known as the "King of the Missions“). Father Antonio Peyri was assigned the task of administrator and served San Luis Rey for 34 years. Father Peyri supervised the construction of the Mission from the very beginning. The present church, completed in 1815, is the third to be built on this location. 1821 – Spanish colonization of California ended after the Mexican revolution after which time all territories held by Spain was ceded to Mexico. 1833 – (August 17) The Mexican Congress passed the Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California. The Act also provided for the colonization of Alta California by Mexico. In 1834, pursuant to the Secularization Act, Pio Pico, governor of Alta California, confiscated mission properties and sold them for $2, 437. 50. In 1865, during the administration of President Lincoln, the mission was returned to the church. 1846 – (April 25) Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico that ended on February 2, 1848. The Mexican Cession of 1848 ceded to the U. S. all of Alta California, and as well as other regions of present day Southwestern United States formerly claimed by Mexico. California became the 31 st to be admitted to union on September 9, 1850. Reference Pio Pico, Governor of Mexican California From the Bancroft Library Collection, UC Berkeley On-line reference http: //www. pbs. org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/serra. htm Krell, Dorothy (ed. ) (1979). The California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. 24

25 1870 s - Township of San Luis Rey established. Some of its first 25 1870 s - Township of San Luis Rey established. Some of its first inhabitants were several English and European settlers. [Ref 1. II. 23] 1882 – (September) Andrew Jackson Myers moved from San Luis Benjamin Franklin Libby came with his family to San Luis Rey in 1867. They were some of the Valley’s original settlers. Ref 2. 25 Oceanside Historical Society photo Rey Valley to his new town. In 1883 he filed for a patent on 160 acres along the right-of-way of what was then a sheep ranch where, in 1883, he will build Oceanside’s first house, which was described by Samuel Tyson, another Oceanside pioneer, as a “shanty”. [(Ref 1. III. 28] Cave J. Couts surveyed the town site, J. Chauncey Hayes sold the lots. Also a Justice of Peace, Hayes later drew up a petition to build a post office. [Ref 1. III. 30] Simon Goldbaum’s general store, San Luis Rey Valley, ca. 1872. Ref 1. 19 San Diego Historical Society photo Cave Johnson Couts J. Chauncey Hayes Oceanside Historical Society Luis Billiard Hall and J. Chauncey Hays Land Office, located at Cleveland Second (Mission Ave) in 1885. Ref 1. 32 Oceanside Historical Society photo 1885 – The greatest boon to Oceanside became a reality with the opening of the coastal railroad line between Los Angeles and San Diego by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. [Ref 1. III. 33] Oceanside’s first train station, a primitive wooden platform (arrow) built in a lot covered with bushes and shrubs, was built about 1883 -84. Ref 1. 44 San Diego Historical Society photo Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4

26 1886 –By this year Oceanside had a population of 350 people. Streets were 26 1886 –By this year Oceanside had a population of 350 people. Streets were dusty dirt roads, empty lots are covered in brush. It had the appearance and character of a “wild west” town. Churches were the saloons outnumbered them two to one. [Ref 1. III. 38] The home of Andrew Jackson Myers at Third and Hill (Pier View Way and Coast Highway), built in 1885. Ref 1. 44 Oceanside Historical Society photo Early 1888 - the township’s population was about 1, 000. A new train depot had been built on the 100 block of North Cleveland Street, where Second Street came to an end. Many of Oceanside’s citizens felt it should be incorporated. Others felt that incorporation would be a liability. J. Chauncey Hayes for one believed that incorporation will benefit only a few speculators and voiced a strong opposition to the idea. [Ref 2. 3. 32] 1888 – (May 12) The first pile was driven for what would be the first of Oceanside’s six piers at the end of Couts Street (now Wisconsin). [Ref 1. III. 35] June 25 - With J. Chauncey Hayes strongly against it, the citizens of Andrew Jackson Myers, the founder of Oceanside, came to California from Illinois and settled in San Luis Rey in 1877. Ref 1. 19 Oceanside voted for incorporation. When the ballots were counted 74 voted for incorporation while 53 opposed it. [Ref 2. 3. 32] Oceanside Historical Society photo July 3 - Eight days after the election, Oceanside became an official town. The area incorporated covered about 1, 600 acres, 10 times the size of the original townsite. Colonel. Daniel H. Horne, a pioneer, served as Oceanside’s first mayor. [Ref 1. III. 35] Reference 1 Dr. Harrison Stroud opened the first drugstore in 1888 on Second Street between Cleveland Tremont streets. Ref 2. 31 San Diego Historical Society photo Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4

 Isaac J. Frazee, one of Oceanside’s early settlers, began a petition The South Isaac J. Frazee, one of Oceanside’s early settlers, began a petition The South Pacific Hotel, ca, 1890. Built in 1877 near Pacific and Third (Pier View Way) streets it was destroyed by fire in June 13, 1896 leaving Oceanside without a resort-type hotel. Ref 3. 41 Oceanside Historical Society Mission San Luis Rey in ruins, ca. 1892 Ref 1. 14 Oceanside Historical Society to restore the Mission. in the 1880 s. Following secularization in 1833, no religious services were held at the Mission. By the 1860 s, the Mission has fallen into a sad state of disrepair. In 1892, a group of Franciscans from Zacatecas, Mexico arrived to take up residence and were given permission to restore the Mission. Father Joseph O'Keefe, an Irish born, Spanishspeaking Franciscan, came shortly thereafter to supervise the Mexican Franciscans and began the arduous task of restoring the Mission with hopes of making it a Franciscan Missionary college. [Ref 1. I. 12] 1893 - (May 12) After preliminary repairs, the Mission church building was rededicated. Father O'Keefe remained at the Mission until 1912, overseeing the first major reconstruction. Through the hard work of the Franciscans led by Father O'Keefe (the re-builder), the Mission was brought back to life. [Ref 1. I. 12] Oceanside’s growth during the 1800 s gave reasons for the city fathers and boosters assurances that the town is destined to become a major attraction between Los Angeles and San Diego. With that in mind, the people embarked upon an ambitious community building. By the time of incorporation in 1888, it was a thriving community with a several business and commercial establishments to support the local citizens and the stream of visitors that the trains brought in. The anticipated influx of tourists were not disappointed. There are now banks, stores, and several hotels to meet their needs. As Oceanside enter the 20 th century, it will do so with a continuing bright outlook for the future. Reference 1 Father Joseph Jeremiah O’Keefe Ref 1. 12 Oceanside Historical Society Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 27

 1889 – (February) Plagued with financial problem from the beginning, Oceanside’s first pier, 1889 – (February) Plagued with financial problem from the beginning, Oceanside’s first pier, made entirely of wood, was finally finished. It extended more than 1, 200 feet out to sea. [Ref 1. III. 35] 1891 – (January) Oceanside was dealt a blow when the winter storm destroyed all but 300 feet of the pier. [Ref 2. 2. 48] The pier shown here was built in 1903. Located at the end of Third Street (Pier View Way), it was Oceanside’s third pier. It was known as the “iron wharf” for the four-inch iron pipe used for piling. Ref 2. 35 San Diego Historical Society Ticor Collection 1904 – Pacific Telephone and Telegraph opened an office in Oceanside. It might have come sooner had it not been for Cave Couts, Jr. , who in 1903, refused to have telephone poles installed across his property. The office was located on Second Street (now Mission Avenue). Miss Sarah Clewett was the chief operator, a position she held until she retired in 1923. [Ref 1. IV. 66] El San Luis Rey Hotel was built in 1904 near Third Street (Pier View Way) and Pacific Streets. It was built facing the ocean and would change names twice, to Beach Hotel, then the Colonial Inn. It has fallen into disrepair by the mid-1950 s and declared an eyesore. It was finally demolished in 1966. [Ref 2. 3. 37] The El San Luis Rey Hotel Built in 1904, it filled Oceanside’s need for a resort hotel after the South Pacific burned down in 1896. The hotel would later be known as the Beach Hotel and then the Colonial Inn Oceanside Historical Society Traffic light at the corner of Second Street and Hill (Coast Highway). The First National Bank is located in the northwest corner of Second Street (Mission Avenue). ca. 1890 s. San Diego Historical Society/ Oceanside Historical Society Electrification was another great boon to Oceanside. It happened when the bathhouse below the bluff was torn down and in its place a plunge and electric plant was built. The Oceanside Electric Light Plant and Bathhouse provided electricity for the town and the plunge provided heated seawater for swimming. With electricity, a modern hotel, heated pool, and a new pier, Oceanside’s resort status was restored. By 1905 Oceanside Electric was providing power to downtown residences and stores. It also made possible electric streetlights and incandescent lamps at major intersections in town. [Ref 2. 3. 44] Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 28

1906 – Ten outlaying school districts were joined to form the Oceanside-Carlsbad High School, 1906 – Ten outlaying school districts were joined to form the Oceanside-Carlsbad High School, ca. 1907 Oceanside Historical Society photo The paving of Hill Street (Coast Highway) and its integration into Highway 101, ca. 1919 Oceanside Historical Society Oceanside-Carlsbad High School. Classes were held in the two-story school on Horne and Second Street (Mission Avenue); grammar school was on the first floor, high school classes on the second floor. In 1909 five young women made up the first graduating class, receiving their diplomas in ceremonies held at the Mildred Opera House, situated on the east side of Tremont Street. A new building was erected in 1913 to house four class rooms, a study hall, a ground floor office and a Home Economics room in the basement. There were 55 students, a principal and 3 teachers. [Ref 2. 3. 45] 1913 – Oceanside’s Hill Street (Coast Highway) became part of Highway 101 from Oregon to the Mexican Border. The coming of automobiles and improved roads contributed to the growth that Oceanside was experiencing as the town became more easily accessible. [Ref 1. V. 75] Oceanside’s third 1400 -foot pier, built in 1903 on steel pilings and second-hand railway steel, proved no match to the ravages of nature and will be heavily damaged by the 1916 storm. The remaining undamaged section would played a crucial role for the survival of Oceanside during one of its desperate moments. 1916 – (January) Oceanside experienced it most devastating catastrophe when almost 11 inches of rain fell on the city. Close to 10 inch fell between the 14 th and 30 th of January. Torrential rains caused severe flooding, and loss of lives. Of 22 deaths in San Diego County, three are from the San Luis Rey Valley. Water inundated the entire valley from hill to hill, extending for a mile and a half and covering an area of over 1, 000 acres. [Ref 2. 4. 55] Herbert Crouch (right) is seen crossing the San Luis Rey River after the flood of 1916. The exact location where the photo was taken is not specified. Oceanside Historical Society Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 29

 The first storm surge destroyed the Highway 101 bridge over the San Luis The first storm surge destroyed the Highway 101 bridge over the San Luis Rey River. The swollen river displaced or wiped out railway tracks and trestles up and down the coast. Oceanside was completely isolated. [Ref 1. V. 74] Oceanside’s third pier, with only 800 of its former 1, 400 remaining, became a center of activity as boats dropped off emergency supplies, and construction materials to sustain the rebuilding efforts that soon followed and will continue through 1918. [Ref 1. V. 75] The bridge over the San Luis Rey River was wiped out during the flood of 1916 (The exact location is not specified) Mc. Callum Photo/ Oceanside Historical Society The Wackerman family crosses the San Luis Rey River after the 1916 flood. Furniture they managed to salvaged is on the bank (left). Mc. Callum Photo/ Oceanside Historical Society Oceanside-Carlsbad High School, ca. 1921 Oceanside High School Alumni Foundation photo The barn at the right of the photo still stands today near the intersection of Highway 76 and Douglas Drive. Mc. Callum Photo/ Oceanside Historical Society 1921 – A new building for the Oceanside-Carlsbad Union High School was built to replace the old 2 -story wood frame structure. 1924 – Oceanside’s first improved subdivision, a 12 -block housing project, was laid out was out east of Ditmar Street and north of Short Street (present day Oceanside Boulevard). The subdivision was called Plumosa Heights, named after the Cocos Plumosa palm. It can still be recognized today from its concrete pavements and ornamental street lights. Deeds for the lots stipulated that sales will be to white buyers only. [Ref 2. 4. 64] Reference 1 Oceanside Train Depot, ca. 1920 s Oceanside Historical Society Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 30

 1927 – (January) Work commenced on the fourth pier. The U-shaped concrete approach 1927 – (January) Work commenced on the fourth pier. The U-shaped concrete approach still stands today The 1, 274 -feet long structure was dedicated on July 4, 1927. Three days of festivities leading up to the official opening brought between 15, 000 to 20, 000 visitors to Oceanside. [Ref 2. 4. 66] 1928 – Construction of a swank settlement of exclusive homes, Saint Malo, began in an unincorporated area south of Oceanside. In 1955 the 27 acre subdivision will be annexed to the city. [Ref 1. V. 86] Grand opening of Oceanside’s fourth pier. Oceanside Historical Society Brothers Paul and Harold Beck arrived in Oceanside in 1929 from Iowa. The Beck family purchased the local newspapers, the Oceanside News and merged it with a weekly publication, the Oceanside News, creating the Oceanside Daily Blade Tribune. This daily publication served as a chronicler for many of Oceanside’s achievements and some of its “bad news” as well. [Ref 1. V. 65] 1930 s-1940 s – From the end of World War I and the Great Depression, Oceanside enjoyed one of its greatest period of growth. From 1920 to 1930 the population had grown from 1, 161 to 3, 508, a gain of more than 200 percent. The number of square miles in the incorporated area grew 2. 6 to 8. 6, an increase of more than 300 percent. This is due largely to promotional efforts and improvements on the infrastructure. The decades between 1930 and the 1940 s will be known as Oceanside’s “years of innocence. ” [Ref 1 & 2] The First National Bank was built in 1927 on the northeast corner of Second and Hill streets (Mission and Coast Highway). It replaced the ornate Bank of Oceanside building which was demolished in January of that year. This building still stands today and now houses King’s Men Clothing Store. Oceanside Historical Society February 14, 1933 - in the darkest days of the Depression, the 27 year old First National Bank in Oceanside went under. According to newspaperman Paul Beck, “it was a bitter Valentine’s Day present that took down a number of wealthy residents. ” [Ref 2. 4. 64] Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 31

 John Landes, a native of Bavaria, came to Oceanside in 1922. he Aerial John Landes, a native of Bavaria, came to Oceanside in 1922. he Aerial view of Oceanside in 1918. View shows the intersection of Second and Hill Streets (Mission and Coast Highway). Oceanside Historical Society served as Oceanside’s city clerk for over thirty years and retired in 1956. Landes was acclaimed for having kept the city in the black during the Depression and instrumental in conserving money, which was used to build the first city hall in 1934 without raising taxes. The building, which still stands today, is located on Third Street (Pier View Way). John Landes Park is named in his honor. [Ref 1. V. 77] John F. Martin came to Oceanside around 1900. He served several terms on the City Council, the Oceanside School Board and the Chamber of Commerce. He was Oceanside’s Mayor from 1931 -1934. (Ref 1. V. 65] The City Hall and Public Library built in 1934. It is now the home of Oceanside’s Museum of Art and Oceanside Historical Society Oceanside’s Fire and Police Leaders, 1940 Left to right: Fire Chief Walt Johnson, Police Captain Harold Davis, and Police Chief William Coyle. Oceanside Historical Society Ernest Addison Taylor came to Oceanside with his parents in 1926 from Colorado. On August 9, 1926 “Ernie”, as he was widely known, went to work for Ruel L. Loucks, city engineer, as a chain carrier and soon worked his way up into drafting. In 1938 Taylor was street superintendent. He went on to become director of planning until 1962 when he was replaced by Larry Bagley, who will become mayor in the latter part of 1970 and 1980 s. (Mayor Bagley was the guest of honor during the first inaugural and induction of Fil-Am officers in 1977). [Ref 1. V. 83] By the end of 1930 federal census showed that Oceanside had a population of 4, 651. Within 10 years the still growing little city would be bursting at the seams. To the city fathers and citizens of Oceanside, there will be no looking back. In Europe, the aggressive actions of one country’s leader towards neighboring countries, is beginning to escalate into another World War. [Ref 2. 4. 70] Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 32

 1942 – (August) Joseph “Buddy” Todd became one of Oceanside’s first residents to 1942 – (August) Joseph “Buddy” Todd became one of Oceanside’s first residents to die in WWII when his ship, the USS Astoria, was sunk in waters off the Solomon Islands. Buddy Todd Park on Mesa Street was named in his honor. [Ref 1. VI. 126] September 25 - Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton was Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton Main Gate, ca. 1950 s. The gate shown here is on Vandergrift Road near the present commissary. Oceanside Historical Society The 101 Café at the corner of Wisconsin and Hill (Cost Highway Built in 1943, it is oldest of Oceanside’s restaurants still operating. Oceanside Historical Society dedicated. President Franklin D. Roosevelt attended the ceremonies. At 125, 000 acres, Camp Pendleton was the largest Marine Corps installation in the world, until 1957, when Twentynine Palms, at 720, 000 acres became an independent Marine Base. [Ref 1. VI. 127 & Ref 2. 4. 70] With the sudden influx of civilian workers and military families, housing created a serious housing shortage in Oceanside. Sterling Homes was built in response to the housing demand. It will be the only military housing to be built with the city limits. Sterling Homes, located off Mission Avenue, was demolished in 1988. An apartment complex now stands in the same site. [Ref 1. VI. 128] John Balderrama was killed in action in Belgium, October 13, 1944. Balderrama Park was named in his honor. [Ref 1. VI. 128] (The Fil-Am Association was founded at Balderrama Community Center in 1976) In the period between 1941 and 1946, Ray Wilcox and Ted Holden, respectively were the city’s mayors. [Ref 1. VII. 136] 1953 – (November) The Carlsbad-Oceanside Freeway, eventually to become part of Interstate 5, was opened. This alleviated the heavy, bumper-to-bumper traffic on the 101 Highway that ran through Hill Street. The city will hang on to its historical past when Hill Street was renamed Coast Highway in 1988. [Ref 1. VII. 138] In November 1951 a ribbon-cutting ceremony was held celebrating the opening go a segment of Interstate 5 from Buena Vista to Brooks Street near Oceanside. Note the West Vista Way overpass. Oceanside Historical Society Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 33

 1956 – Sales tax money was used to built the Beach Community Center. 1956 – Sales tax money was used to built the Beach Community Center. The $143, 000 stucco and concrete building became venue for many community activities. [Ref 2. 5. 76] Oceanside’s fifth pier was dedicated in July 1957. At 1, 900 feet was the longest on the Pacific Coast. This pier was heavily damaged by storms during the 1970 s and was finally replaced in September 1987. Oceanside Historical Society 1957 - Although the Marine base dominated the forties in Oceanside, once the war was over, the people once again took steps to shore up their hold on the tourist trade. The old steel pier, dedicated in 1927, had been damaged by storms in 1943 and 1945. It will not be until 1946 that a $200, 000 -bond issue will be passed to finance the cost for a new pier. Oceanside’s fifth pier was dedicated in June 1957. [Ref 1. VII. 136 -137 & Ref 2. 4. 66] 1958 – The Oceanside-Carlsbad Union High School on Horne Street, with 700 students, was becoming congested. This year Carlsbad withdrew from the school district, which eased crowding for a while. [Ref 2. 5. 77] Late 1959 - Groundbreaking ceremonies took place for Tri-City Hospital, the first public hospital in the north coastal area serving Oceanside, Carlsbad and Vista. [Ref 1. VIII. 158] The Tri-City Medical Center provides comprehensive medical services for the North County. Ref 2. 112 By the end of the 1950 s the population of Oceanside will be just shy of 25, 000. With the growth in population the demand for housing began to rise as well. The focus now changed from downtown to its eastern limits. [Ref 2. 5. 76] 1960 -1970 s – The demand for higher education, which had been met up to 1964 by then Oceanside High School and Junior College. By 1960 there were 300 junior college students, which created a crowding problem with the swelling high school enrollment. Construction of a new high school (El Camino High School) began. [Ref 2. 5. 77] The Colonial Inn, formerly El San Luis Rey Hotel and Beach Hotel, as it appeared before being demolished in 1966. Oceanside Historical Society Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 34

 Erwin Sklar served on the city council from 1956 to 1968, during which Erwin Sklar served on the city council from 1956 to 1968, during which time he also served as Oceanside’s mayor and deputy mayor. He was instrumental in the development of Oceanside’s small craft harbor. [Ref 1. VII. 139] Groundbreaking for the Villa Marina Motel at the Oceanside Harbor, 1965. Left to right: Councilman Jerry Jones, builder Dominic Sfregola, Mayor Erwin Sklar, Miss Oceanside, Barbara Mandrell, and Chamber of Commerce representative. Barbara Mandrell was a 1967 graduate of Oceanside High School. Randy Mitchell photo/ Oceanside Historical Society 1961 – (February 6) Groundbreaking ceremonies held for the construction of the Oceanside Harbor on land acquired from Camp Pendleton. Present for the occasion were Mayor Erwin Sklar, a proponent of the project, and Miss Barbara Mandrell, a 1967 graduate of Oceanside High School. Miss Mandrell would go on to be a well-known country western singer. The harbor was completed and dedicated formally on June 1963 by Mayor Jerome Jones. (Ref 1, Chap VIII, pg 148) Elm Glaser and brothers May and Hy opened Oceanside’s first shopping center, the Mission Square Shopping Center. It is located at the former site of Colonel Daniel H. Horne’s mansion at the northeast corner of Horne Street and present-day Mission Avenue. [Ref 1. VII. 141] 1965 – Mira Costa College on Barnard Drive opened for enrollment. Colonel D. H. Horne’s residence was located where the shopping center at Mission and Horne now stands. Horne was buried at this site, his remains were never found when construction of the shopping center began. Oceanside Historical Society The same year, the construction of Villa Marina Motel at the harbor began. [Ref 1. IX. 156] 1966 – The Oceanside Valley Drive-In opened with one screen with two other screens added in 1970 and 74. It ceased operations in the 1980 s and is now the site of Oceanside Swap Meet. [Ref 1. IX. 156] Howard T. Richardson became Oceanside’s first elected mayor serving from 1968 to 1976. [Ref 1. VII. 140] Reference 1 An aerial view of Mira Costa College’s 121 -aces hilltop campus. Photo reproduced from Ref 2. 112 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4 35

 Vietnam War Period – Because of it proximity to Camp Pendleton, which is Vietnam War Period – Because of it proximity to Camp Pendleton, which is the where troops headed for combat are trained, Oceanside would experience a volatile time in its history. (Ref 2. 5. 80] 1969 – Several war protests were held in Oceanside including one attended by Angela Davis, an outspoken UCLA professor, at the beach band shell. Members of the militant Black Panthers were also present for the large rally. (Ref 2. 5. 80] 1960 aerial view of Oceanside pier and beach. (Beach Lake Trailer Park still in place before the harbor). Photo by Bert Winford 1970 s – The population of Oceanside by the beginning of the decade had topped 40, 000 by 1972. This time the city must face another challenge of a different kind. The downtown area suffered from decline as the city’s growth marched east into the San Luis Rey Valley. Many of downtown businesses followed to take advantage of population growth there. (Ref 2. 5. 80] San Luis Rey Valley, ca. 1898. The house (circled) in the foreground still stands today. 1970 aerial view of the Oceanside pier and beach stadium. Taking place is the 1970 Miss Southern California Beauty Contest The Colonial Inn is at the right of Pacific Street. On Third Street (Pier View Way) near the intersection is Pacific Holiday Land. Oceanside Historical Society The opening in the early 1970 s of the mall at Plaza Camino Real situated on the Carlsbad’s side of Oceanside’s southeastern limits, and the exodus of car dealerships from Hill Street to more modern facilities of Car County Carlsbad, may have contributed to the decline of Oceanside’s downtown and it went into neglect. As it did, crime went up at an alarming rate. (Ref 2. 5. 80 & 97] 36

37 Howard Keen, a San Diego newspaperman wrote “From the July 4, 1973 downtown 37 Howard Keen, a San Diego newspaperman wrote “From the July 4, 1973 downtown riots – which brought in swarms of deputies, California Highway Patrolmen and Carlsbad police to help Oceanside Police subdue hundreds of belligerent Marines and civilians – to the traumatic summer of 1975, when crime at a frightening crescendo, Oceanside suffered and identity crisis. ” [Ref 2. 5. 97] This deeply disturbed the people of Oceanside. Starting in 1975 city government took the lead in getting the city back on course. Mayor Richardson made some personnel changes at city hall, installing a new police chief and city manager. The final member of this law-and-order troika came on board in 1976 after Mayor Richardson decided to return to private life. Paul Graham, newly retired from the Marine Corps where his last assignment was CG of Camp Pendleton, was elected as mayor. Graham was thoroughly familiar with Oceanside’s crime problems and the role that servicemen from the base played in them. [Ref 2. 5. 97] In the late 1976 Graham, Rolf Henze, the new police chief, and Dan Stone, the new city manger, launched a concerted campaign to cleanup and revitalize the city’s downtown area. [Ref 2. 5. 97] The City Council, who earlier has been given the added task of serving as the Community Development Commission, which came up with a plan that would dramatically change the face of downtown area over the next decade and a half. [Ref 2. 5. 98] Problems continued to plague the 1946 pier and by 1978 another storm ripped off another 200 feet from the already damaged pier. It was temporarily closed in 1975 after a storm that year caused damage that required shortening it by another 700 feet. From 1, 900 feet the pier is now reduced to just 1000 feet. The pier was closed while the city decides how to fund the building of a replacement and how it will be built. The pier was finally condemned and it will take nearly a decade before another will be built. [(Ref 2. 5. 100] 1980 s – Oceanside once again regained its footing after the setbacks of the 1970 s, but maybe this time, some thought, in an uncontrolled way that concerned many of its citizens. [Ref 2. 5. 98] Reference 1 Reference 2 Hawthorne, Kristi (2000) Oceanside: Where Life is Living, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 1 -57864 -126 -8. Sully, Langdon & Bigelow, Taryn (1988) Oceanside: Crest of the Wave, Windsor Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 -89781 -282 -4

 1983 – Oceanside opened up more prime downtown space when the city’s bus 1983 – Oceanside opened up more prime downtown space when the city’s bus and train depots were consolidated into a single complex. The new and spacious transit center was completed in January 1982. (Ref 2. 5. 98] Oceanside’s new transit center house both train and bus transportation in the most modern complex of its type in the state. Ref 2. 87, photo by Michelle Burgess Even before the redevelopment program was finalized, new housing developments began to be built in the downtown areas one of which is the Sea Village on north Coast Highway. It was the first residential community to be built in the downtown area in decades. The success of the Sea Village experiment encouraged others developers to take on another project, this time with the blessing of the redevelopment commission. (Ref 2. 5. 98] 1986 – Ground was broken for the 243 -unit San Miguel condominium complex on the Strand Sixth Street. (Ref 2. 5. 98] 1987 – (September) Oceanside celebrated the opening of its new $5 million, 1, 600 -foot pier. The one reminder of its past is the U-shaped concrete approaches, originally built in 1927 as part of the fourth pier. This portion was renovated by a Carlsbad company. The design of the pier is expected to extend its life up to sixty years. . (Ref 2. 5. 100] During 1987 the railroad switching yard was relocated from downtown to the southeast corner of Camp Pendleton. Direct access to the beach was now possible along palm-lined Mission Avenue, which was scheduled to be extended to Pacific Street. The real bonus is the opening up 20 acres of prime downtown area for development. . (Ref 2. 5. 98] Oceanside’s sixth pier dedicated September 1987. Ref 1. 174, photo by Lu De. Lucy A clear message was sent to developers during 1987 when Oceanside voters approved Proposition A, a slow-growth mandate. The new law put a cap on new residential construction, though it exempted industrial, commercial, and redevelopment projects. It was the strongest indication yet that the citizens of Oceanside were concerned about their quality of life being eclipsed by overdevelopment. . (Ref 2. 5. 98] 38

39 1988 – (July 3) Oceanside celebrated its Centennial. A three-day full of galas 39 1988 – (July 3) Oceanside celebrated its Centennial. A three-day full of galas and a parade commemorated Oceanside’s one hundredth anniversary. During that year the slogan widely used was “ Oceanside: The Wave of Tomorrow. ” That year Oceanside citizens built a float, which was entered in the Rose Parade. It was a bottle filled with depictions of Oceanside landmarks, riding a wave. The following year, construction began on the Civic Center. It is located on Third and Hill Streets (Pier View Way and Coast Highway) The civic center fountain is at the same location where the city’s founder, Andrew Jackson Myers, built his home. [(Ref 1. IX. 161] Andrew Jackson Myers, the founder of Oceanside Civic Center built in 1989 on the corner of Pier View Way and Coast Highway Press TAB key to continue.

 Although Oceanside has changed dramatically from its early days, some things still remain Although Oceanside has changed dramatically from its early days, some things still remain and have stood the test of time. The Mission San Luis Rey, surviving near ruin, after more than two hundred years of history. The railroad remains important, bringing commuters and tourists Coaster. Hill Street, renamed Coast Highway, is still the main thoroughfare downtown. The tradition of the pleasure pier remains and Oceanside still boasts of its beautiful beaches and mild climate. There is a renewed appreciation for the downtown neighborhoods as families rediscover the early homes and their close proximity to the Pacific Ocean. Descendants of those early pioneer families and Native Americans continue to make their homes here. People from all over the country and foreign lands become the newest “settlers” and find that Oceanside is “Where Life is Worth Living. ” [Ref 1. IX. 161] Press ENTER to view images of old Oceanside Belles of San Luis Rey, left to right: Rosaria, Tomasa, and Vaselia. Oceanside Historical Society Luiseños relax in front of a typical “ramada” in San Luis Rey Valley, ca. 1884. Photo from the collection of Southwest Museum, The San Luis Rey Creamery, ca. 1880 s. Seated on the single wagon, just left of center, is Benjamin Franklin Libby, one of the pioneer settlers in the valley. Oceanside Historical Society Martin’s Meat Market on Second Street (Mission Avenue) just below Tremont. Henry Martin with side of beef is on the wagon. Next door at right is the Pacific Telephone Office. Oceanside Historical Society. The Oceanside Silver Cornet Band posed for this portrait in 1888. The band marched in parades, played on the pier, and performed in the Oceanside Opera House. The third musician from the left (standing) is James Edward Myers, son of A. J. Myers. Ref 2. 37/ Oceanside Historical Society 40

Jesse Kolb and Mel Goetz opened the Oceanside Garage at Second (Mission) and Tremont Jesse Kolb and Mel Goetz opened the Oceanside Garage at Second (Mission) and Tremont in 1908 Ref 1. 70 Oceanside Historical Society Bathing beauties compete in a beauty contest at Oceanside in the 1920 s. Ref 1. 105 Oceanside Historical Society The Oceanside Livery Stable. J. F. Kolb purchased the stable in 1894. Ref 1. 51 Oceanside Historical Society Known popularly as “the cannon, ” this gun was a familiar fixture in Oceanside. Today its whereabouts is not known. Ref 2. 101 Oceanside Historical Society The Oceanside pier was the site for the Bean Day Celebration in 1917. This celebration was held every year after the bean harvest and attracted residents from all around. People in attendance could sample beans cooked every way imaginable. Ref 2. 59 Oceanside Historical Society