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Parallelism Making your Sentence Structure Clear!!
Parallelism 1. Parallelism is the linking together of similar grammatical parts in a sentence. 2. Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas are equally important. 3. To have parallel sentence structure, related ideas or ideas joined in a list should be presented in the same grammatical structure (i. e. nouns, verbs, phrases, clauses) 4. Usually use coordinating conjunctions ("and, ” "or”) to join parallel structures. PP 15 -13 a
Items in a series must have parallel structure. Parallelism looks like this: Tom ate , , and . Tom ate his dinner, watched his favorite T. V. program, and went to bed late at night.
Don’t create problems by mixing grammatical elements. Non-parallel structure looks like this: Tom ate , , and . Tom ate his dinner, watched his favorite T. V. program, and going to bed late at night.
A quick Test: Identify which sentence that has no error in structure: 1. The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and worked hard on tasks. 2. Relaxation can include reading for pleasure, playing with your friends, or to participate in sports activities. 3. One way to fight stress is to discuss your problems with either a friend or a relative. 4. During class, Sami spent his time talking to Ahmed, he ate a candy, and scribbled on his assignment sheet. 5. Alex looked everywhere for his math book — under the bed, on his desk, and he searched inside the refrigerator. 6. You can calm both your mind and your body by thinking positive thoughts. PP 15 -13 a
Parallel Structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at three levels: Ø Word Ø Phrase Ø Clause
Words and Phrases Incorrect: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. Correct: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
More Examples: Words & Phrases Incorrect: The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a thorough manner. Correct: The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
Clauses Parallel structure that begins with clauses must continue on with clauses. Incorrect: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game. Correct: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game
Lists after a colon Incorrect: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs. Correct: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.
Activity 2: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: During our vacation in Egypt, we hope _____, to enjoy beautiful sunsets, and to visit amazing ancient places. A. that we eat delicious seafood B. that eating delicious seafood occurs C. to eat delicious seafood D. eating delicious seafood PP 15 -13 a
Activity 2: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: Karen thought that Ray was everything she wanted in a husband, for he was tall, intelligent, and _____. A. he looked good B. being good looking C. one handsome man to look at D. handsome PP 15 -13 a
Activity 2: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: Pasta boiling in water, _____, and garlic bread baking in the oven welcomed Fadi as he opened the door. A. simmered tomato sauce in the pan B. tomato sauce simmering in the pan C. tomato sauce that simmered in the pan D. saucy tomatoes that were simmering in the pan PP 15 -13 a
Activity 2: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: To buy a birthday gift for his friend, Albert visited the florist for roses, the shop for a box of chocolates, and _____. A. bought an expensive gold necklace at the jewelry store B. the jeweler for an expensive gold necklace C. the jeweler where he bought an expensive gold necklace D. to buy an expensive gold necklace PP 15 -13 a
Activity 2: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: I do not ever want to be friends with Adam because he is too talkative, too noisy, and _____. A. because he the most impolite person I have ever met. B. too impolite. C. being the most impolite person I have ever met. D. lacks politeness. PP 15 -13 a
Activity 3: Choose the sentence that has no error in structure: 1. Sabrina has wit, charm, and she has an extremely pleasant personality. 2. In English class, Tim learned to read poems critically and he appreciated good prose. 3. We found the film repulsive, offensive, and we thought it was embarrassing. 4. Mr. John kept his store clean, neat, and he had it conveniently arranged. 5. 6. Dina does not like to sing, dance, or acting. 7. Without good exercising, our team can be expected to lose more than ten games, to drop out of the championship very early on, and their popularity will suffer greatly. Ali was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study, was always completing his lab problems carelessly, and his motivation was low. PP 15 -13 a
Activity 4: Punctuate the following sentences: 1. advertising is essential to the free enterprise system yet it can sometimes be very annoying 2. as a result the government is considering a ban but no action has been taken yet 3. writing essays is easy it just takes a little practice 4. your proposal is a good one however I do not completely agree with your final suggestions 5. the keys to improving grades are to take effective notes in class to plan study time and to prepare carefully for exams 6. democracy is a noble goal it is important however to protect the minority from the tyranny of the majority 7. when she arrives she will start her work immediately 8. even if you fail at least you tried and youre a better PP 15 -13 a person for it.
Activity 5: Write a thesis Statement for each of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Living in the countryside The benefits of reading in a foreign language A frightening experience Patience Food commercials Non-violent struggle The life of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) PP 15 -13 a
Activity 6: Correct the errors in the following sentences: 1. Tom who is from the UK whereas Joe is from Australia. 2. Joe started teaching in 1994, in contrast Tom who started in 1991. 3. Joe gives his students responsibility and Tom gives his students responsibility. 4. Although they are young, but they are experienced. 5. The first different is them accent. 6. Their style of teaching are the same. 7. Joe don’t has got any children. 8. Joe teaches students whose studying on the Math course. 9. Joe and Tom very good teachers. 10. Tom comes from the UK however Joe comes from Australia. 11. Tom, on the other hand, he graduated after three years of study. 12. One of the most similarities is that they a good teachers. PP 15 -13 a