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Paradise Lost Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve (1504) Paradise Lost Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve (1504)

Paradise Lost, Book X Synopsis of Book X: In Heaven, God knows immediately that Paradise Lost, Book X Synopsis of Book X: In Heaven, God knows immediately that Adam and Eve have sinned Raphael and the other angels return to report the failure God sends the Son to judge Adam and Eve Satan returns to Hell; on the way he meets Sin and Death who have followed him to Paradise Satan returns to Pandemonium in triumph, but the triumph is short-lived Instead of applause, he receives hisses, and all the demons are turned into serpents

Paradise Lost, Book X Sin and Death arrive in Paradise to begin their work Paradise Lost, Book X Sin and Death arrive in Paradise to begin their work God directs his angels to turn Earth on its axis, so that humans will have to experience extreme temperatures of hot and cold Animals begin to prey upon each other and to threaten humans Adam laments the change, and the trouble he has brought upon his descendents Adam continues to blame Eve; she takes responsibility Eve proposes suicide as a way to avoid passing on their sin Adam rejects the idea, and argues that they should learn from their mistakes and move on

Paradise Lost, Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act Of Satan, done Paradise Lost, Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act Of Satan, done in Paradise; and how He, in the serpent, had perverted Eve, Her husband she, to taste the fatal fruit, 5 Was known in Heaven; for what can 'scape the eye Of God all-seeing, or deceive his heart Omniscient? who, in all things wise and just, Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind Of Man, with strength entire and free will armed, 10 Complete to have discovered and repulsed Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend. For still they knew, and ought to have still remembered, The high injunction, not to taste that fruit, Whoever tempted; which they not obeying, 15 (Incurred what could they less? ) the penalty;

Paradise Lost, Book X And, manifold in sin, deserved to fall. Up into Heaven Paradise Lost, Book X And, manifold in sin, deserved to fall. Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste The angelick guards ascended, mute, and sad, For Man; for of his state by this they knew, 20 Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen Entrance unseen. Soon as the unwelcome news From Earth arrived at Heaven-gate, displeased All were who heard; dim sadness did not spare That time celestial visages, yet, mixed 25 With pity, violated not their bliss. About the new-arrived, in multitudes The ethereal people ran, to hear and know How all befel: They towards the throne supreme, Accountable, made haste, to make appear, 30 With righteous plea, their utmost vigilance

Paradise Lost, Book X And easily approved; when the Most High Eternal Father, from Paradise Lost, Book X And easily approved; when the Most High Eternal Father, from his secret cloud, Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice. Assembled Angels, and ye Powers returned 35 From unsuccessful charge; be not dismayed, Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth, Which your sincerest care could not prevent; Foretold so lately what would come to pass, When first this tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. 40 I told ye then he should prevail, and speed On his bad errand; Man should be seduced, And flattered out of all, believing lies Against his Maker; no decree of mine Concurring to necessitate his fall, 45 Or touch with lightest moment of impulse

Paradise Lost, Book X His free will, to her own inclining left In even Paradise Lost, Book X His free will, to her own inclining left In even scale. But fallen he is; and now What rests, but that the mortal sentence pass On his transgression, --death denounced that day? 50 Which he presumes already vain and void, Because not yet inflicted, as he feared, By some immediate stroke; but soon shall find Forbearance no acquittance, ere day end. Justice shall not return as bounty scorned. 55 But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee, Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred All judgement, whether in Heaven, or Earth, or Hell. Easy it may be seen that I intend Mercy colleague with justice, sending thee 60 Man's friend, his Mediator, his designed

Paradise Lost, Book X Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary, And destined Man himself to Paradise Lost, Book X Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary, And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen. So spake the Father; and, unfolding bright Toward the right hand his glory, on the Son 65 Blazed forth unclouded Deity: He full Resplendent all his Father manifest Expressed, and thus divinely answered mild. Father Eternal, thine is to decree; Mine, both in Heaven and Earth, to do thy will 70 Supreme; that thou in me, thy Son beloved, Mayest ever rest well pleased. I go to judge On earth these thy transgressours; but thou knowest, Whoever judged, the worst on me must light, When time shall be; for so I undertook 75 Before thee; and, not repenting, this obtain

Paradise Lost, Book X Of right, that I may mitigate their doom On me Paradise Lost, Book X Of right, that I may mitigate their doom On me derived; yet I shall temper so Justice with mercy, as may illustrate most Them fully satisfied, and thee appease. 80 Attendance none shall need, nor train, where none Are to behold the judgement, but the judged, Those two; the third best absent is condemned, Convict by flight, and rebel to all law: Conviction to the serpent none belongs. 85 Thus saying, from his radiant seat he rose Of high collateral glory: Him Thrones, and Powers, Princedoms, and Dominations ministrant, Accompanied to Heaven-gate; from whence Eden, and all the coast, in prospect lay. 90 Down he descended straight; the speed of Gods

Paradise Lost, Book X Time counts not, though with swiftest minutes winged. Now was Paradise Lost, Book X Time counts not, though with swiftest minutes winged. Now was the sun in western cadence low From noon, and gentle airs, due at their hour, To fan the earth now waked, and usher in 95 The evening cool; when he, from wrath more cool, Came the mild Judge, and Intercessour both, To sentence Man: The voice of God they heard Now walking in the garden, by soft winds Brought to their ears, while day declined; they heard, 100 And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees, both man and wife; till God, Approaching, thus to Adam called aloud. Where art thou, Adam, wont with joy to meet My coming seen far off? I miss thee here, 105 Not pleased, thus entertained with solitude,

Paradise Lost, Book X Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I Paradise Lost, Book X Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I less conspicuous, or what change Absents thee, or what chance detains? --Come forth! He came; and with him Eve, more loth, though first 110 To offend; discountenanced both, and discomposed; Love was not in their looks, either to. God, Or to each other; but apparent guilt, And shame, and perturbation, and despair, Anger, and obstinacy, and hate, and guile. 115 Whence Adam, faltering long, thus answered brief. I heard thee in the garden, and of thy voice Afraid, being naked, hid myself. To whom The gracious Judge without revile replied. My voice thou oft hast heard, and hast not feared, 120 But still rejoiced; how is it now become

Paradise Lost, Book X So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked, who Hath Paradise Lost, Book X So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked, who Hath told thee? Hast thou eaten of the tree, Whereof I gave thee charge thou shouldst not eat? To whom thus Adam sore beset replied. 125 O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand Before my Judge; either to undergo Myself the total crime, or to accuse My other self, the partner of my life; Whose failing, while her faith to me remains, 130 I should conceal, and not expose to blame By my complaint: but strict necessity Subdues me, and calamitous constraint; Lest on my head both sin and punishment, However insupportable, be all 135 Devolved; though should I hold my peace, yet thou

Paradise Lost, Book X Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. – This Woman, whom Paradise Lost, Book X Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. – This Woman, whom thou madest to be my help, And gavest me as thy perfect gift, so good, So fit, so acceptable, so divine, 140 That from her hand I could suspect no ill, And what she did, whatever in itself, Her doing seemed to justify the deed; She gave me of the tree, and I did eat. To whom the Sovran Presence thus replied. 145 Was she thy God, that her thou didst obey Before his voice? or was she made thy guide, Superiour, or but equal, that to her Thou didst resign thy manhood, and the place Wherein God set thee above her made of thee, 150 And for thee, whose perfection far excelled

Paradise Lost, Book X Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed, and Paradise Lost, Book X Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed, and lovely, to attract Thy love, not thy subjection; and her gifts Were such, as under government well seemed; 155 Unseemly to bear rule; which was thy part And person, hadst thou known thyself aright. So having said, he thus to Eve in few. Say, Woman, what is this which thou hast done? To whom sad Eve, with shame nigh overwhelmed, 160 Confessing soon, yet not before her Judge Bold or loquacious, thus abashed replied. The Serpent me beguiled, and I did eat. Which when the Lord God heard, without delay To judgement he proceeded on the accused 165 Serpent, though brute; unable to transfer

Paradise Lost, Book X The guilt on him, who made him instrument Of mischief, Paradise Lost, Book X The guilt on him, who made him instrument Of mischief, and polluted from the end Of his creation; justly then accursed, As vitiated in nature: More to know 170 Concerned not Man, (since he no further knew) Nor altered his offence; yet God at last To Satan first in sin his doom applied, Though in mysterious terms, judged as then best: And on the Serpent thus his curse let fall. 175 Because thou hast done this, thou art accursed Above all cattle, each beast of the field; Upon thy belly groveling thou shalt go, And dust shalt eat all the days of thy life. Between thee and the woman I will put 180 Enmity, and between thine and her seed;

Paradise Lost, Book X Her seed shall bruise thy head, thou bruise his heel. Paradise Lost, Book X Her seed shall bruise thy head, thou bruise his heel. So spake this oracle, then verified When Jesus, Son of Mary, second Eve, Saw Satan fall, like lightning, down from Heaven, 185 Prince of the air; then, rising from his grave Spoiled Principalities and Powers, triumphed In open show; and, with ascension bright, Captivity led captive through the air, The realm itself of Satan, long usurped; 190 Whom he shall tread at last under our feet; Even he, who now foretold his fatal bruise; And to the Woman thus his sentence turned. [The Judgement of Eve] Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception; children thou shalt bring 195 In sorrow forth; and to thy husband's will

Paradise Lost, Book X Thine shall submit; he over thee shall rule. On Adam Paradise Lost, Book X Thine shall submit; he over thee shall rule. On Adam last thus judgement he pronounced. [The Judgement of Adam] Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, And eaten of the tree, concerning which 200 I charged thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat thereof: Cursed is the ground for thy sake; thou in sorrow Shalt eat thereof, all the days of thy life; Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth Unbid; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; 205 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, Till thou return unto the ground; for thou Out of the ground wast taken, know thy birth, For dust thou art, and shalt to dust return. So judged he Man, both Judge and Saviour sent; 210 And the instant stroke of death, denounced that day,

Paradise Lost, Book X Removed far off; then, pitying how they stood Before him Paradise Lost, Book X Removed far off; then, pitying how they stood Before him naked to the air, that now Must suffer change, disdained not to begin Thenceforth the form of servant to assume; 215 As when he washed his servants feet; so now, As father of his family, he clad Their nakedness with skins of beasts, or slain, Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid; And thought not much to clothe his enemies; 220 Nor he their outward only with the skins Of beasts, but inward nakedness, much more. Opprobrious, with his robe of righteousness, Arraying, covered from his Father's sight. To him with swift ascent he up returned, 225 Into his blissful bosom reassumed

Paradise Lost, Book X In glory, as of old; to him appeased All, though Paradise Lost, Book X In glory, as of old; to him appeased All, though all-knowing, what had passed with Man Recounted, mixing intercession sweet. Mean while, ere thus was sinned and judged on Earth, 230 Within the gates of Hell sat Sin and Death, In counterview within the gates, that now Stood open wide, belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos, since the Fiend passed through, Sin opening; who thus now to Death began. 235 O Son, why sit we here each other viewing Idly, while Satan, our great author, thrives In other worlds, and happier seat provides For us, his offspring dear? It cannot be But that success attends him; if mishap, 240 Ere this he had returned, with fury driven

Paradise Lost, Book X By his avengers; since no place like this Can fit Paradise Lost, Book X By his avengers; since no place like this Can fit his punishment, or their revenge. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise, Wings growing, and dominion given me large 245 Beyond this deep; whatever draws me on, Or sympathy, or some connatural force, Powerful at greatest distance to unite, With secret amity, things of like kind, By secretest conveyance. Thou, my shade 250 Inseparable, must with me along; For Death from Sin no power can separate. But, lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable, impervious; let us try 255 Adventurous work, yet to thy power and mine

Paradise Lost, Book X Not unagreeable, to found a path Over this main from Paradise Lost, Book X Not unagreeable, to found a path Over this main from Hell to that new world, Where Satan now prevails; a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host, 260 Easing their passage hence, for intercourse, Or transmigration, as their lot shall lead. Nor can I miss the way, so strongly drawn By this new-felt attraction and instinct. Whom thus the meager Shadow answered soon. 265 Go, whither Fate, and inclination strong, Leads thee; I shall not lag behind, nor err The way, thou leading; such a scent I draw Of carnage, prey innumerable, and taste The savour of death from all things there that live: 270 Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest ,

Paradise Lost, Book X Be wanting, but afford thee equal aid. So saying, with Paradise Lost, Book X Be wanting, but afford thee equal aid. So saying, with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl, though many a league remote, 275 Against the day of battle, to a field, Where armies lie encamped, come flying, lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death, the following day, in bloody fight: So scented the grim Feature, and upturned 280 His nostril wide into the murky air; Sagacious of his quarry from so far. Then both from out Hell-gates, into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos, damp and dark, Flew diverse; and with power (their power was great) 285 Hovering upon the waters, what they met

Paradise Lost, Book X 286 Solid or slimy, as in raging sea 287 Tost Paradise Lost, Book X 286 Solid or slimy, as in raging sea 287 Tost up and down, together crouded drove, 288 From each side shoaling towards the mouth of Hell; 289 As when two polar winds, blowing adverse 290 Upon the Cronian sea, together drive 291 Mountains of ice, that stop the imagined way 292 Beyond Petsora eastward, to the rich 293 Cathaian coast. The aggregated soil 294 Death with his mace petrifick, cold and dry, 295 As with a trident, smote; and fixed as firm 296 As Delos, floating once; the rest his look 297 Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move; 298 And with Asphaltick slime, broad as the gate, 299 Deep to the roots of Hell the gathered beach 300 They fastened, and the mole immense wrought on

Paradise Lost, Book X 301 Over the foaming deep high-arched, a bridge 302 Of Paradise Lost, Book X 301 Over the foaming deep high-arched, a bridge 302 Of length prodigious, joining to the wall 303 Immoveable of this now fenceless world, 304 Forfeit to Death; from hence a passage broad, 305 Smooth, easy, inoffensive, down to Hell. 306 So, if great things to small may be compared, 307 Xerxes, the liberty of Greece to yoke, 308 From Susa, his Memnonian palace high, 309 Came to the sea: and, over Hellespont 310 Bridging his way, Europe with Asia joined, 311 And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves. 312 Now had they brought the work by wonderous art 313 Pontifical, a ridge of pendant rock, 314 Over the vexed abyss, following the track 315 Of Satan to the self-same place where he

Paradise Lost, Book X 316 First lighted from his wing, and landed safe 317 Paradise Lost, Book X 316 First lighted from his wing, and landed safe 317 From out of Chaos, to the outside bare 318 Of this round world: With pins of adamant 319 And chains they made all fast, too fast they made 320 And durable! And now in little space 321 The confines met of empyrean Heaven, 322 And of this World; and, on the left hand, Hell 323 With long reach interposed; three several ways 324 In sight, to each of these three places led. 325 And now their way to Earth they had descried, 326 To Paradise first tending; when, behold! 327 Satan, in likeness of an Angel bright, 328 Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering 329 His zenith, while the sun in Aries rose: 330 Disguised he came; but those his children dear

Paradise Lost, Book X 331 Their parent soon discerned, though in disguise. 332 He, Paradise Lost, Book X 331 Their parent soon discerned, though in disguise. 332 He, after Eve seduced, unminded slunk 333 Into the wood fast by; and, changing shape, 334 To observe the sequel, saw his guileful act 335 By Eve, though all unweeting, seconded 336 Upon her husband; saw their shame that sought 337 Vain covertures; but when he saw descend 338 The Son of God to judge them, terrified 339 He fled; not hoping to escape, but shun 340 The present; fearing, guilty, what his wrath 341 Might suddenly inflict; that past, returned 342 By night, and listening where the hapless pair 343 Sat in their sad discourse, and various plaint, 344 Thence gathered his own doom; which understood 345 Not instant, but of future time, with joy

Paradise Lost, Book X 346 And tidings fraught, to Hell he now returned; 347 Paradise Lost, Book X 346 And tidings fraught, to Hell he now returned; 347 And at the brink of Chaos, near the foot 348 Of this new wonderous pontifice, unhoped 349 Met, who to meet him came, his offspring dear. 350 Great joy was at their meeting, and at sight 351 Of that stupendious bridge his joy encreased. 352 Long he admiring stood, till Sin, his fair 353 Enchanting daughter, thus the silence broke. 354 O Parent, these are thy magnifick deeds, 355 Thy trophies! which thou viewest as not thine own; 356 Thou art their author, and prime architect: 357 For I no sooner in my heart divined, 358 My heart, which by a secret harmony 359 Still moves with thine, joined in connexion sweet, 360 That thou on earth hadst prospered, which thy looks

Paradise Lost, Book X 361 Now also evidence, but straight I felt, 362 Though Paradise Lost, Book X 361 Now also evidence, but straight I felt, 362 Though distant from thee worlds between, yet felt, 363 That I must after thee, with this thy son; 364 Such fatal consequence unites us three! 365 Hell could no longer hold us in our bounds, 366 Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure 367 Detain from following thy illustrious track. 368 Thou hast achieved our liberty, confined 369 Within Hell-gates till now; thou us impowered 370 To fortify thus far, and overlay, 371 With this portentous bridge, the dark abyss. 372 Thine now is all this world; thy virtue hath won 373 What thy hands builded not; thy wisdom gained 374 With odds what war hath lost, and fully avenged 375 Our foil in Heaven; here thou shalt monarch reign,

Paradise Lost, Book X Or Sex, and apprehended nothing high: 376 There didst not; Paradise Lost, Book X Or Sex, and apprehended nothing high: 376 There didst not; there let him still victor sway, 377 As battle hath adjudged; from this new world 378 Retiring, by his own doom alienated; 379 And henceforth monarchy with thee divide 380 Of all things, parted by the empyreal bounds, 381 His quadrature, from thy orbicular world; 382 Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne. 383 Whom thus the Prince of darkness answered glad. 384 Fair Daughter, and thou Son and Grandchild both; 385 High proof ye now have given to be the race 386 Of Satan (for I glory in the name, 387 Antagonist of Heaven's Almighty King, ) 388 Amply have merited of me, of all 389 The infernal empire, that so near Heaven's door 390 Triumphal with triumphal act have met,

Paradise Lost, Book X 391 Mine, with this glorious work; and made one realm, Paradise Lost, Book X 391 Mine, with this glorious work; and made one realm, 392 Hell and this world, one realm, one continent 393 Of easy thorough-fare. Therefore, while I 394 Descend through darkness, on your road with ease, 395 To my associate Powers, them to acquaint 396 With these successes, and with them rejoice; 397 You two this way, among these numerous orbs, 398 All yours, right down to Paradise descend; 399 There dwell, and reign in bliss; thence on the earth 400 Dominion exercise and in the air, 401 Chiefly on Man, sole lord of all declared; 402 Him first make sure your thrall, and lastly kill. 403 My substitutes I send ye, and create 404 Plenipotent on earth, of matchless might 405 Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now

Paradise Lost, Book X 406 My hold of this new kingdom all depends, 407 Paradise Lost, Book X 406 My hold of this new kingdom all depends, 407 Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit. 408 If your joint power prevail, the affairs of Hell 409 No detriment need fear; go, and be strong! 410 So saying he dismissed them; they with speed 411 Their course through thickest constellations held, 412 Spreading their bane; the blasted stars looked wan, 413 And planets, planet-struck, real eclipse 414 Then suffered. The other way Satan went down 415 The causey to Hell-gate: On either side 416 Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed, 417 And with rebounding surge the bars assailed, 418 That scorned his indignation: Through the gate, 419 Wide open and unguarded, Satan passed, 420 And all about found desolate; for those,

Paradise Lost, Book X 421 Appointed to sit there, had left their charge, 422 Paradise Lost, Book X 421 Appointed to sit there, had left their charge, 422 Flown to the upper world; the rest were all 423 Far to the inland retired, about the walls 424 Of Pandemonium; city and proud seat 425 Of Lucifer, so by allusion called 426 Of that bright star to Satan paragoned; 427 There kept their watch the legions, while the Grand 428 In council sat, solicitous what chance 429 Might intercept their emperour sent; so he 430 Departing gave command, and they observed. 431 As when the Tartar from his Russian foe, 432 By Astracan, over the snowy plains, 433 Retires; or Bactrin Sophi, from the horns 434 Of Turkish crescent, leaves all waste beyond 435 The realm of Aladule, in his retreat

Paradise Lost, Book X 436 To Tauris or Casbeen: So these, the late 437 Paradise Lost, Book X 436 To Tauris or Casbeen: So these, the late 437 Heaven-banished host, left desart utmost Hell 438 Many a dark league, reduced in careful watch 439 Round their metropolis; and now expecting 440 Each hour their great adventurer, from the search 441 Of foreign worlds: He through the midst unmarked, 442 In show plebeian Angel militant 443 Of lowest order, passed; and from the door 444 Of that Plutonian hall, invisible 445 Ascended his high throne; which, under state 446 Of richest texture spread, at the upper end 447 Was placed in regal lustre. Down a while 448 He sat, and round about him saw unseen: 449 At last, as from a cloud, his fulgent head 4 500 And shape star-bright appeared, or brighter; clad

Paradise Lost, Book X 451 With what permissive glory since his fall 52 Was Paradise Lost, Book X 451 With what permissive glory since his fall 52 Was left him, or false glitter: All amazed 453 At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throng 454 Bent their aspect, and whom they wished beheld, 455 Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim: 456 Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers, 457 Raised from their dark Divan, and with like joy 458 Congratulant approached him; who with hand 459 Silence, and with these words attention, won. 460 Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers; 461 For in possession such, not only of right, 462 I call ye, and declare ye now; returned 463 Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth 464 Triumphant out of this infernal pit 465 Abominable, accursed, the house of woe,

Paradise Lost, Book X 466 And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess, 467 As Paradise Lost, Book X 466 And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess, 467 As Lords, a spacious world, to our native Heaven 468 Little inferiour, by my adventure hard 469 With peril great achieved. Long were to tell 470 What I have done; what suffered; with what pain 471 Voyaged th' unreal, vast, unbounded deep 472 Of horrible confusion; over which 473 By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved, 474 To expedite your glorious march; but I 475 Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride 476 The untractable abyss, plunged in the womb 477 Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild; 478 That, jealous of their secrets, fiercely opposed 479 My journey strange, with clamorous uproar 480 Protesting Fate supreme; thence how I found

Paradise Lost, Book X 481 The new created world, which fame in Heaven 482 Paradise Lost, Book X 481 The new created world, which fame in Heaven 482 Long had foretold, a fabrick wonderful 483 Of absolute perfection! therein Man 484 Placed in a Paradise, by our exile 485 Made happy: Him by fraud I have seduced 486 From his Creator; and, the more to encrease 487 Your wonder, with an apple; he, thereat 488 Offended, worth your laughter! hath given up 489 Both his beloved Man, and all his world, 490 To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us, 491 Without our hazard, labour, or alarm; 492 To range in, and to dwell, and over Man 493 To rule, as over all he should have ruled. 494 True is, me also he hath judged, or rather 495 Me not, but the brute serpent in whose shape