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Parables of Jesus in the Gospel acc. to Matthew: Fiery Teachings! Felix Just, S. Parables of Jesus in the Gospel acc. to Matthew: Fiery Teachings! Felix Just, S. J. , Ph. D. Loyola Institute for Spirituality Orange, CA R. E. Congress 2014 Hope: A World Afire!

Thank You! n For participating in R. E. Congress! n For sharing our faith Thank You! n For participating in R. E. Congress! n For sharing our faith as catechists! n For serving in many other ministries! 2

Jesus, the Story-Teller n Jesus told MANY stories / parables n n n But Jesus, the Story-Teller n Jesus told MANY stories / parables n n n But parables are FICTIONAL stories Not historical, not factual, didn’t really happen! Does that mean Jesus LIED? n n n NO! Parables are not meant to be historical / factual Parables are FICTIONAL stories used to convey religious or moral TRUTHS! So what exactly ARE “parables”? 3

What is a Parable? n Brief Definition: “A short story or simple image used What is a Parable? n Brief Definition: “A short story or simple image used to illustrate a deeper message” Some are similes (“A is like B” – but not identical in all ways) n Some are allegories (have one-to-one correspondences) n But many parables are NOT so simple to understand! n n Illustration “Parables” by James C. 4

Parables of Jesus n Scholarly Definition: “At its simplest… a parable is a metaphor Parables of Jesus n Scholarly Definition: “At its simplest… a parable is a metaphor or simile drawn from nature or common life, arresting the hearer by its vividness or strangeness, and leaving the mind in sufficient doubt about its precise application to tease it into active thought. ” 6

Implications of this Definition n Metaphor or Simile: Parables do not define things precisely Implications of this Definition n Metaphor or Simile: Parables do not define things precisely n n n Rather, they use comparisons to describe some aspect of how God acts or interacts with human beings. To say “A is like B” does NOT mean that “A is identical to B in all respects” Drawn from Nature or Common Life: Parables might seem easy to understand 7

Implications of this Definition n Vividness or Strangeness: Most parables contain something weird or Implications of this Definition n Vividness or Strangeness: Most parables contain something weird or unusual n They should cause us to react, “Wait a minute! Not so fast!” “That’s not how farmers do their work!” “That’s not what kings usually do!” “That’s not how parents treat their children!” “That’s not how bankers deal with debtors!” n This strange element(s) is usually the key! n Caution: What might seem strange to US today 8

Implications of this Definition n Leaving Sufficient Doubt: The meaning of most parables is Implications of this Definition n Leaving Sufficient Doubt: The meaning of most parables is not so obvious n n n If we assume we know what Jesus is talking about, we are probably missing the main point! If we are too familiar with a story (having heard it so often) we might not think carefully enough about its meaning. Tease into Active Thought: 9

Purpose of Parables? n Any good teacher uses stories, easy to remember? n n Purpose of Parables? n Any good teacher uses stories, easy to remember? n n But did Jesus even want everyone to understand? Mark 4: 10 -13 (citing part of Isaiah 6: 9 -10) When he was alone, those who were around him along with the twelve asked him about the parables. 11 And he said to them, “To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables; 10

Purpose of Parables? (cont. ) n Matt 13: 10 -17 (citing Isaiah 6: 9 Purpose of Parables? (cont. ) n Matt 13: 10 -17 (citing Isaiah 6: 9 -10 more fully) Then the disciples came and asked him, "Why do you speak to them in parables? " 11 He answered, "To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. 12 For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away. 13 The reason I speak to them in parables is that 'seeing they do not perceive, and hearing they do not listen, nor do they understand. ' 14 With them indeed is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah that says: ‘You will indeed listen, but never understand, and you will indeed look, but never perceive. 15 For this people's heart has grown dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have shut their eyes; so that they might not look with their eyes, and listen with their ears, and understand with their heart and turn 11

Purpose of Parables? (cont. ) n Insiders vs. Outsiders? n n n Did Jesus Purpose of Parables? (cont. ) n Insiders vs. Outsiders? n n n Did Jesus NOT WANT “outsiders” to understand? Or was it the unfortunate RESULT of his preaching? Moreover: Do Jesus’ disciples really understand his teachings? Mark 4: 33 -34 “With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it; 34 he did not speak to them except in parables, but he explained everything in private to his disciples. ” n Matt 13: 51 -52 “Have you understood all this? ” They answered, “YES. ” 12

What Is the Mysterion? n Mark 4: 11 “To you has been given the What Is the Mysterion? n Mark 4: 11 “To you has been given the SECRET / MYSTERY (sg. ) of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables” n Matt 13: 11 “To you it has been given to KNOW the SECRETS / MYSTERIES (pl. ) of the kingdom of heaven, 13

What Is the Mysterion? n Gk. Mysterion = SECRET / MYSTERY / KEY 14 What Is the Mysterion? n Gk. Mysterion = SECRET / MYSTERY / KEY 14

KEY Mysterion 15 KEY Mysterion 15

Parables in the Four Gospels n Mark: only about 10 parables & related images Parables in the Four Gospels n Mark: only about 10 parables & related images n n MATTHEW: total of 28 parables n n 8 from Mark; 10 also in Luke; 10 in Matt alone Luke: upwards of 36 parables n n Typical form: “The Kingdom of God is like…” 9 from Mark; 10 also in Matt; 17 in Luke alone John: NO parables; only two related images John 10: Sheep & Shepherd n John 15: Vine & Branches n 16

Parables in Mark’s Gospel Parable Garment & Wineskins Strong Man Sower & Seed Mark Parables in Mark’s Gospel Parable Garment & Wineskins Strong Man Sower & Seed Mark Mk 2: 2122 Mk 3: 27 Mk 4: 3 -8 Matthew Luke Mt 9: 16 -17 Mt 12: 29 Mt 13: 3 -9 Lamp on a Stand Seed Growing Secretly Mk 4: 21 Mk 4: 2629 Mk 4: 3032 Mk 9: 50 Mk 12: 111 Mt 5: 15 Lk 5: 36 -39 Lk 11: 21 Lk 8: 5 -8 Lk 8: 16 & 11: 33 [cf. Mt 13: 24 -30] -- Mt 13: 31 -32 Mt 5: 13 Lk 13: 18 -19 Lk 14: 34 Mt 21: 33 -44 Lk 20: 9 -18 Mustard Seed Salt Wicked Tenants 17

(Coptic) Gospel of Thomas n Discovered 1945 near Nag Hammadi, Egypt Full text in (Coptic) Gospel of Thomas n Discovered 1945 near Nag Hammadi, Egypt Full text in Coptic, from 4 th Cent. n Fragments in Greek, from 2 nd – 3 rd Cent. n n Collection of 114 Sayings of Jesus Title: “These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas recorded. ” #1: And he said, “Whoever discovers the interpretation of these sayings will not taste death. ” n About 18 of these Gosp. Thomas Sayings 18

Parables from the “Q” Source Mar Parable k Matthew Mt 7: 24 Two Houses Parables from the “Q” Source Mar Parable k Matthew Mt 7: 24 Two Houses 27 Mt 11: 16 Children in the Market Place 19 Mt 12: 43 Return of the Unclean Spirit 45 Mt 24: 43 Burglar 44 Servant entrusted with Mt 24: 45 Supervision 51 Mt 5: 25 Going before the Judge 26 Luke Lk 6: 47 -49 Lk 7: 31 -35 Lk 11: 2426 Lk 12: 3940 Lk 12: 4246 Lk 12: 5859 Lk 13: 20 - 19

Parables only in MATTHEW n n n Wheat & Tares (13: 24 -30) Interpretation Parables only in MATTHEW n n n Wheat & Tares (13: 24 -30) Interpretation of Wheat & Tares (13: 36 -43) Treasure (13: 44) Pearl (13: 45 -46) Net (13: 47 -48) Unmerciful Servant (18: 23 -35) Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) Two Sons (21: 28 -32) Guest w/o Wedding Garment (22: 11 -14) Ten Virgins (25: 1 -13) Last Judgment / Sheep & Goats (25: 31 -46) 20

Parables only in LUKE n n n n n Two Debtors (7: 41 -43) Parables only in LUKE n n n n n Two Debtors (7: 41 -43) Good Samaritan (10: 25 -37) Friend Asking for Help at Midnight (11: 5 -8) Rich Fool (12: 16 -21) Faithful Servants (12: 35 -38) Barren Fig-Tree (13: 6 -9) Closed Door (13: 24 -30) Choice of Places at Table (14: 7 -1 l) Tower-Builder & King Planning for Battle (14: 28 -32) 21

Parables only in LUKE n n n n Lost Coin (15: 8 -10) Lost/Prodigal Parables only in LUKE n n n n Lost Coin (15: 8 -10) Lost/Prodigal Son (15: 11 -32) Unjust Steward (16: 1 -8) Rich Man & Lazarus (16: 19 -31) Servant’s Reward (17: 7 -10) Widow & Unjust Judge (18: 1 -8) Pharisee & Publican (18: 9 -14) Throne Claimant (19: 12, 14, 15 a, 27) 22

Four Evangelists & Jesus 23 Four Evangelists & Jesus 23

Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus n Son of Abraham, Son of DAVID n n n Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus n Son of Abraham, Son of DAVID n n n Implies he is the legitimate “King of the Jews” Unlike the Herodians (family of King Herod), who are not “Davidic” (family of King David) KING of the Jews n In Mark, title used first & only at Jesus’ trial (Mk 15) n n n In Matt (already in 2: 2), the Magi ask, “Where is the newborn king of the Jews? ” Matt has many more parables involving kings Also more royal allusions as Jesus enters 24

Matthew’s Jesus n Great Preacher & TEACHER: n n n Jesus gathers “disciples” (4: Matthew’s Jesus n Great Preacher & TEACHER: n n n Jesus gathers “disciples” (4: 18 -22) Jesus “teaches” crowds (4: 23; 5: 2; 7: 29) Teacher / Law-Giver, like MOSES: n n n Many parallels between Jesus & Moses in the Infancy Narrative Both go up a mountain in relation to God’s Torah/Law Both fast for 40 days and 40 nights First 5 books of Hebrew Bible attributed to Moses In Matthew, 5 long speeches attributed to Jesus explains “Torah” (God’s instructions / teachings / precepts) 25

Matthew’s Jesus: Sermon on the Mount Gustave Doré (1860’s) 26 Matthew’s Jesus: Sermon on the Mount Gustave Doré (1860’s) 26

Matthew’s Jesus n Five Great Discourses / Sermons 1) Sermon on the Mount: Matt Matthew’s Jesus n Five Great Discourses / Sermons 1) Sermon on the Mount: Matt 5– 7 2) Missionary Instructions: Matt 10 3) Parables Collection: Matt 13 4) Community Instructions: Matt 18 5) Eschatological Sermon: Matt 23– 25 27

Matt 5 (Sermon on the Mount) 28 Matt 5 (Sermon on the Mount) 28

Matt 6 (Sermon on Mount, cont. ) 29 Matt 6 (Sermon on Mount, cont. ) 29

Matt 7 (Sermon on Mount, concl. ) 30 Matt 7 (Sermon on Mount, concl. ) 30

Matthew Loves Twos/Pairs n Why? Sometimes to reinforce (two together) n Sometimes to contrast Matthew Loves Twos/Pairs n Why? Sometimes to reinforce (two together) n Sometimes to contrast (two opposed) n n Examples: Speck vs. Plank (7: 3 -5) n Two Roads/Gates (7: 13 -14) n Trees with Good Fruit vs. Bad Fruit (7: 15 -20) n Not just saying “Lord, ” but doing God’s will (7: 21 -23) n Parable: Houses built on rock or on sand (7: 2427) n 31

32 32

Two Houses 33 Two Houses 33

Matt 10: Mission Discourse NO Parables in this Second Discourse 34 Matt 10: Mission Discourse NO Parables in this Second Discourse 34

Matt 13: Sermon of Parables 35 Matt 13: Sermon of Parables 35

Matt 13: Parables from Mk/Lk A. Parable of the SOWER and the Seed (13: Matt 13: Parables from Mk/Lk A. Parable of the SOWER and the Seed (13: 1 - 9) B. Discussion: why Jesus speaks in parables (13: 10 -17) C. Interpretation of the Sower and the Seed (13: 18 -23) D. Parable of MUSTARD SEED (13: 31 -32) E. Parable of the LEAVEN (13: 33) 36

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Parable of the Sower n What’s STRANGE about this parable? n People usually focus Parable of the Sower n What’s STRANGE about this parable? n People usually focus on the end: Four different types of SOIL n Focus rather on the beginning: The Action of the Sower! 38

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40 40

Matt 13: New Parables n Parables that stress the VALUE of God’s Kingdom: n Matt 13: New Parables n Parables that stress the VALUE of God’s Kingdom: n Parable of the HIDDEN TREASURE (13: 44) n Parable of the PEARL (13: 45 -46) 41

Matt 13: 44 -46 n 44 “The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden Matt 13: 44 -46 n 44 “The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which someone found and hid; then in his joy he goes and sells ALL that he has and buys that field. ” n 45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls; 46 on finding one pearl of great value, he went and sold ALL that he had and bought it. ” n Strange Elements? Main Point? n Both use highly exaggerated speech! 42

Matt 13: New Parables n Parables that emphasize separation of Good vs. Bad: 1) Matt 13: New Parables n Parables that emphasize separation of Good vs. Bad: 1) Parable of WEEDS among Wheat, w/ interp. (13: 24 -30, 36 -43) [replaces parable of Seed growing Secretly, Mark 4: 26 -29] 2) Parable of the NET (13: 47 -50) 43

SEED Growing Secretly (Mk 4: 26 -29) He (Jesus) also said, “The kingdom of SEED Growing Secretly (Mk 4: 26 -29) He (Jesus) also said, “The kingdom of God is as if someone would scatter seed on the ground, 27 and would sleep and rise night and day, and the seed would sprout and grow, he does not know how. The earth produces of itself, first the stalk, then the head, then the full grain in the head. 28 44

WEEDS among Wheat (Mt 13: 24 -30) “The kingdom of He put before them WEEDS among Wheat (Mt 13: 24 -30) “The kingdom of He put before them another parable: heaven may be compared to someone who sowed good seed in his field; 25 but while everybody was asleep, an enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and then went away. 26 So when the plants came up and bore grain, then the weeds appeared as well. 27 And the slaves of the householder came and said to him, ‘Master, did you not sow good seed in your field? Where, then, did these weeds come from? ’ 28 He answered, ‘An enemy has done this. ’ The slaves said to him, ‘Then do you want us to go and gather them? ’ 29 But he replied, ‘No; for in gathering the weeds you would uproot the wheat along with them. 30 Let both 45

NET (Mt 13: 47 -50) “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net NET (Mt 13: 47 -50) “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was thrown into the sea and caught fish of every kind; 48 when it was full, they drew it ashore, sat down, and put the good into baskets but threw out the bad. So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous 50 and throw them into the furnace of fire, 49 46

“Weeping & Gnashing” Matt 8: 12 – “while the heirs of the kingdom will “Weeping & Gnashing” Matt 8: 12 – “while the heirs of the kingdom will be thrown into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ” Matt 13: 42 – “and they will throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ” Matt 13: 50 – “and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ” Matt 22: 13 – “Then the king said to the attendants, ‘Bind him hand foot, and throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ’” Matt 24: 51 – “He will cut him in pieces and put him with the hypocrites, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ” Matt 25: 30 – “As for this worthless slave, throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. ” Luke 13: 28 – “There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see 47

Matt 13: Summary n Central Collection of Parables in Matthew Parables taken over from Matt 13: Summary n Central Collection of Parables in Matthew Parables taken over from Mark 4 n Parables added by Matthew that emphasize the VALUE of God’s Kingdom n Parables added by Matthew that emphasize the SEPARATION of Good and Bad at the End Times n Wicked Punished: much “weeping & gnashing of teeth” n n Conclusion of Matt 13: n Matthew emphasizes that Jesus’ Disciples DO 48

Matt 18: Community Discourse 49 Matt 18: Community Discourse 49

Community Discourse (Mt 18) 1) True Greatness (18: 1 -14) a) Being like a Community Discourse (Mt 18) 1) True Greatness (18: 1 -14) a) Being like a little child b) PARABLE of the Lost Sheep 2) Relationships within community of disciples (18: 15 -20) a) Reproving a community member who sins b) Four-step process for reconciliation 3) Teachings about forgiveness (18: 21 -35) a) Peter asks how often he must forgive b) PARABLE of Unforgiving Servant 50

The Lost Sheep (Matt 18: 12 -14) 51 The Lost Sheep (Matt 18: 12 -14) 51

LOST Sheep (Mt 18: 12 -14) “What do you think? If a shepherd has LOST Sheep (Mt 18: 12 -14) “What do you think? If a shepherd has a hundred sheep, and one of them has gone astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountains and go in search of the one that went astray? 13 And if he finds it, truly I tell you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that never 52

On Forgiveness (18: 21 -35) n Peter: “How often must I forgive, as many On Forgiveness (18: 21 -35) n Peter: “How often must I forgive, as many as 7 times? ” n n Not just a larger number, but extravagantly unlimited! n n Jesus replies: Not just 7 times, but 77 times (or 70 x 7 times) As usual in Matt, Jesus illustrates his point with a parable: PARABLE of Unmerciful Servant (18: 23 -35) n Longer story several strange elements, plot 53

Unmerciful Servant (18: 23 -35) 54 Unmerciful Servant (18: 23 -35) 54

Matt 18: 23 -35 “For this reason the kingdom of heaven may be compared Matt 18: 23 -35 “For this reason the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his slaves. 24 When he began the reckoning, one who owed him ten thousand talents was brought to him; 25 and, as he could not pay, his lord ordered him to be sold, together with his wife and children and all his possessions, and payment to be made. 26 So the slave fell on his knees before him, saying, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you everything. ’ 27 And out of pity for him, the 55

Matt 18: 23 -35 But that same slave, as he went out, came upon Matt 18: 23 -35 But that same slave, as he went out, came upon one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred denarii; and seizing him by the throat, he said, ‘Pay what you owe. ’ 29 Then his fellow slave fell down and pleaded with him, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you. ’ 30 But he refused; then he went and threw him into prison until he would pay the debt. 31 When his fellow slaves saw what had happened, they were greatly distressed, and they went and reported to their lord all that had taken place. 28 56

Matt 18: 23 -35 Then his lord summoned him and said to him, ‘You Matt 18: 23 -35 Then his lord summoned him and said to him, ‘You wicked slave! I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me. 33 Should you not have had mercy on your fellow slave, as I had mercy on you? ’ 32 And in anger his lord handed him over to be tortured until he would pay his entire debt. 34 So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart. ” 35 57

Matt 18: 23 -35: Strange Parts? n SIZE of Two Debts: First one: 10, Matt 18: 23 -35: Strange Parts? n SIZE of Two Debts: First one: 10, 000 talents (6000 denari each) n Second one: 100 denari (laborer’s daily wage) n n CONTRAST between Two Servants: First one is “brought in” before the king n He goes out and “finds” a fellow servant n n GOLDEN RULE: “Treat others as you want them to treat you. ” n More: “Treat others as GOD treats you!” (cf. Mt 6: 14 -15) n n Ending seems harsh: Does God really 58

Vineyard Workers (Mt 20: 1 -16) 59 Vineyard Workers (Mt 20: 1 -16) 59

Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. 2 After agreeing with the laborers for the usual daily wage, he sent them into his vineyard. 3 When he went out about nine o’clock, he saw others standing idle in the marketplace; 4 and he said to them, ‘You also go into the vineyard, and I will pay you whatever is right. ’ So they went. 5 When he went out again about noon and about three o’clock, he did the same. 6 And about five o’clock he went out and found others standing around; and he said to them, ‘Why are 60

Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) 8 When evening came, the owner of the vineyard Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) 8 When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his manager, ‘Call the laborers and give them their pay, beginning with the last and then going to the first. ’ 9 When those hired about five o’clock came, each of them received the usual daily wage. 10 Now when the first came, they thought they would receive more; but each of them also received the usual daily wage. 11 And when they received it, they grumbled against the landowner, 12 saying, ‘These last worked only one hour, and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat. ’ 13 But he replied to one of them, ‘Friend, I am doing you no wrong; did you not agree with me for the usual daily wage? 14 Take what belongs to you and go; I choose to give to this last the same as I 61

Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) n Landowner goes to market to hire day laborers: Vineyard Workers (20: 1 -16) n Landowner goes to market to hire day laborers: Owner himself, not his foreman? Keeps hiring more! n At dawn, 3 rd hour, 6 th hour, 9 th hour, 11 th hour (5 p. m. ) n n Workers are all paid at the end of the day: Last workers are paid first: a full day’s wage! n First workers are paid last: the same amount! n n Is this FAIR? NO! n 62 But, this parable is not about (economic) JUSTICE

Two Sons (Matt 21: 28 -32) 63 Two Sons (Matt 21: 28 -32) 63

Parable of TWO SONS n “What do you think? A man had two sons; Parable of TWO SONS n “What do you think? A man had two sons; he went to the first and said, ‘Son, go and work in the vineyard today. ’ 29 He answered, ‘I will, sir’; and he went. 30 The father went to the second and said the same; and he answered, ‘I will not’; and he did not go. 31 Which of the two did the will of his father? ” 64

Two Sons (Matt 21: 28 -32) n “What do you think? A man had Two Sons (Matt 21: 28 -32) n “What do you think? A man had two sons; he went to the first and said, ‘Son, go and work in the vineyard today. ’ 29 He answered, ‘I will not’; but later he changed his mind and went. 30 The father went to the second and said the same; and he answered, ‘I go, sir’; but he did not go. 65

OT: “Law of Rebellious Son” Deut 21: 18 -21 – If someone has a OT: “Law of Rebellious Son” Deut 21: 18 -21 – If someone has a stubborn and rebellious son who will not obey his father and mother, who does not heed them when they discipline him, 19 then his father and his mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to the elders of his town at the gate of that place. 20 They shall say to the elders of his town, “This son of ours is stubborn and rebellious. He will not obey us. He is a glutton and a drunkard. ” 21 Then all the men of the town shall stone him to 66

Great Supper (22: 1 -10) Guest w/o Wedding Garment (22: 11 -14) 67 Great Supper (22: 1 -10) Guest w/o Wedding Garment (22: 11 -14) 67

Matt 24— 25: Final Sermon 68 Matt 24— 25: Final Sermon 68

Eschatological Teachings (Mt 24: 1 -44) n “Eschatological” = related to “the end” (Gk. Eschatological Teachings (Mt 24: 1 -44) n “Eschatological” = related to “the end” (Gk. eschaton) n n n Various levels: cosmic, national, tribal, personal Not necessarily “apocalyptic”; but any “end” or “beyond” “Apocalyptic” = “uncover/reveal” (symbolic, not literal) n Apocalyptic mentality is dualistic: good/bad, righteous/wicked n Present world: good people suffer, wicked people 69

Matt 24— 25: Overview n Eschatological/Apocalyptic Discourse: Last of five major discourses in Matthew’s Matt 24— 25: Overview n Eschatological/Apocalyptic Discourse: Last of five major discourses in Matthew’s Gospel n Many parallels with 1 st discourse (Matt 5– 7, Sermon on Mount) n Jesus’ direct teachings about the future (24: 144) n n Very similar to Mark 13 and Luke 17 & 21 Four parables illustrate these teachings (24: 45— 25: 46) 70

Eschatological Teachings (Mt 24: 1 -44) n Direct Teachings of Jesus to disciples about Eschatological Teachings (Mt 24: 1 -44) n Direct Teachings of Jesus to disciples about “the end”: 1) Coming destruction of Jerusalem (70 AD: in Jesus’ future, Matthew’s past) 2) Signs before the end: in heavens/earth; nature/disasters; society/politics 3) Persecutions of believers: call to endure, remain faithful, not be led astray 4) Parousia: Coming of Son of Man (see Daniel 7: 13) 5) WHEN? No one knows, but be prepared! (Matt 71

Four Parables (Matt 24: 45— 25: 46) n Jesus again illustrates his teachings with Four Parables (Matt 24: 45— 25: 46) n Jesus again illustrates his teachings with parables 1) Good & Wicked Servants (Matt 24: 45 -51; Luke 12: 41 -46) 2) Ten Bridesmaids (only Matt 25: 1 -13) 3) Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30; also Luke 19: 11 -27) 4) Sheep and Goats (only Matt 25: 31 -46) 1) Need for preparedness & coming judgment/separation 1) All four emphasize “separation/division” of 72

Good/Wicked Servants (Matt 24: 45 -51) 73 Good/Wicked Servants (Matt 24: 45 -51) 73

Good/Wicked Servants (Matt 24: 45 -51) “Who then is the faithful and wise slave, Good/Wicked Servants (Matt 24: 45 -51) “Who then is the faithful and wise slave, whom his master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves their allowance of food at the proper time? 46 Blessed is that slave whom his master will find at work when he arrives. 47 Truly I tell you, he will put that one in charge of all his house. But if that wicked slave says to himself, ‘My master is delayed, ’ 49 and he begins to beat his fellow slaves, and eats and drinks with drunkards, 50 the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour that he 48 74

Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) 75 Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) 75

Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) n n NT Greek LAMPAS = “torch” (only Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) n n NT Greek LAMPAS = “torch” (only much later = “lamp”) NT Greek LYCHNOS = “light; clay lamp” 76

Macedonian Orthodox Wedding Procession 77 Macedonian Orthodox Wedding Procession 77

Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) “Then the kingdom of heaven will be like Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) “Then the kingdom of heaven will be like this. Ten bridesmaids took their torches and went to meet the bridegroom. 2 Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 3 When the foolish took their torches, they took no oil with them; 4 but the wise took flasks of oil with their torches. 5 As the bridegroom was delayed, all of them became drowsy and slept. 6 But at midnight there was a shout, ‘Look! Here is the bridegroom! Come out to meet him. ’ 7 Then all those bridesmaids got up and trimmed 78

Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) 8 The foolish said to the wise, ‘Give Ten Bridesmaids (Matt 25: 1 -13) 8 The foolish said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, for our torches are going out. ’ 9 But the wise replied, ‘No! there will not be enough for you and for us; you had better go to the dealers and buy some for yourselves. ’ 10 And while they went to buy it, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went with him into the wedding banquet; and the door was shut. 11 Later the other bridesmaids came also, 79

Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) 80 Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) 80

Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) “For it is as if a man, going on Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) “For it is as if a man, going on a journey, summoned his slaves and entrusted his property to them; 15 to one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability. Then he went away. The one who had received the five talents went off at once and traded with them, and made five more talents. 16 In the same way, the one who had the two talents made two more talents. 17 18 But the one who had received the one talent 81

Talents (Mt 25: 14 -30, cont. ) After a long time the master of Talents (Mt 25: 14 -30, cont. ) After a long time the master of those slaves came and settled accounts with them. 20 Then the one who had received the FIVE talents came forward, bringing five more talents, saying, ‘Master, you handed over to me five talents; see, I have made five more talents. ’ 21 His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and trustworthy slave; you have been trustworthy in a few things, I will put you in charge of many things; enter into the joy of your master. ’ 19 And the one with the TWO talents also came forward, saying, ‘Master, you handed over to me two talents; see, I have made two more. ’ 23 His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and trust-worthy 22 82

Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) Then the one who had received the one talent Talents (Matt 25: 14 -30) Then the one who had received the one talent also came forward, saying, ‘Master, I knew that you were a harsh man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you did not scatter seed; 25 so I was afraid, and I went and hid your talent in the ground. Here you have what is yours. ’ 26 But his master replied, ‘You wicked and lazy slave! You knew, did you, that I reap where I did not sow, and gather where I did not scatter? 27 Then you ought to have invested my money with the bankers, and on my return I would have received what was my own with interest. 28 So take the talent from him, and give it to the one with the ten talents. 29 For to all those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have 24 30 83

Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) 84 Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) 84

Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) “When the Son of Man comes in Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, 33 and he will put the sheep at his right hand the goats at the left. 34 Then the king will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 35 for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, 36 I 85

Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) Then the righteous will answer him, ‘Lord, Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) Then the righteous will answer him, ‘Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry and gave you food, or thirsty and gave you something to drink? 38 And when was it that we saw you a stranger and welcomed you, or naked and gave you clothing? 39 And when was it that we saw you sick or in prison and visited you? ’ 40 And the king will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me. ’ 37 86

Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) Then he will say to those at Sheep & Goats (Matt 25: 31 -46) Then he will say to those at his left hand, ‘You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; 42 for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, 43 I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sick and in prison and you did not visit me. ’ 44 Then they also will answer, ‘Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not take care of you? ’ 45 Then he will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least 41 87

Conclusion: Parables in Matthew n DISCIPLESHIP: n n Put Faith into ACTION! n n Conclusion: Parables in Matthew n DISCIPLESHIP: n n Put Faith into ACTION! n n 100% Commitment Be just like God! FINAL JUDGMENT: n Separation of Good vs. Evil n Based not on words, but on DEEDS n Forgiveness, Service, Charity 88

Questions? Comments? Discussion? n THANK YOU for attending R. E. Congress! n May your Questions? Comments? Discussion? n THANK YOU for attending R. E. Congress! n May your faith continue to grow & deepen! n Visit Loyola Institute: Booths #261— 267 89