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PAN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY Specialized Organization of the OAS WB/FIG Conference Land Governance in Support of the MDGs: Responding to New Challenges March 9 and 10, 2009 Washington, DC Building Spatial Data Infrastructures in Latin America Santiago Borrero, PAIGH Secretary General Presented as part of Theme 2: Sustainable Systems for Land Administration SYS 1: Building sustainable well governed land administration systems
Land Administration and Spatial Data Infrastructures: Basic Concepts “Land administration is the ‘process of determining, recording and disseminating information about ownership, value and use of land, when implementing Land Management Policies” (United Nations, 1996). “Spatial Data Infrastructure supports ready access to geographic information. This is achieved through the coordinated actions of nations and organizations that promote awareness and implementation of complimentary policies, common standards and effective mechanisms for the development and availability of interoperable digital geographic data and technologies to support decision making at all scales for multiple purposes. These actions encompass the policies, organizational remits, data, technologies, standards, delivery mechanisms, and financial and human resources necessary to ensure that those working at the global and regional scale are not impeded in meeting their objectives” (GSDI, 2001) Land management = Land information infrastructure + Land policies + Land Administration (Stig Enemark, 2004)
Land Administration and Spatial Data Infrastructures: A Direct Connection The availability of reliable information about land its resources emerged as a vital issue. If relevant and good decisions are to be made by public authorities, private resource users or community bodies, they must be based on sound information about the land environment in order to contribute to sustainable development. (UN/FIG Bathurst Declaration on Land Administration, 1999) SDI is an increasingly component in many WB projects. Because of the high fixed cost associated it’s necessary to demonstrate the economic value of SDI. This is a weak link in this process. In Central America land administration programs incorporates up to US$1, 000 million and SDI components share 50% of the project costs. (WB, 2004) “There are difficulties being faced by many States in the region when designing appropriate spatial data infrastructures to support effective land administration, and in integrating cadastral and interoperable topographic spatial data. Therefore, there is a need to improve capacity to design, build and manage land administration systems, which incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures” (The UN/FIG/PCIDEA Aguascalientes Statement, 2004)
Land management = Land information infrastructure + Land policies + Land Administration (Enemark, 2004) In spite of improved LIS and parcel-based property registries, SDI development often remains a separate way from land information infrastructures. No clear connectivity between NSDI efforts, Land Administration Systems and e-government activities.
The SDI Resulting from Current Concepts, Practices and Projects in the Americas In LAC as in other parts of the world, the way geographic data is being produced, accessed and applied is part of a process leading to improved decision making in endless situations associated with the MDGs. (The example of Poverty Mapping at the WB) Because the state of the regional SDI in LAC is still inhibiting communities from a fullgrown asset, there is need to pay greater attention to the: (i) (iii) (iv) (v) Formalization of National Geospatial Data Infrastructures; Endorsement of public policies at different levels to stimulate greater use of geospatial information for Integral Development; Production of digital and structured geographical information transcending national frontiers; Attainment of long term sustainability of NSDI efforts and Budget increments in the production of basic spatial standardized data sets, rather than in mere technological infrastructure plans “Technology itself does not ensure the successful use and application of digital data and information technology, infrastructure, and connectivity do not necessarily equate to information access and a real bridging of the Digital Divide”. (Borrero, 2003)
SDI in the Americas: A Long Term Process with many cycles • • • From IGDN to PCIDEA and the works of the PAIGH in Cartography From the UNRCC 5 in 1997 to the UNRCC 8 in 2009 From ICDE, IDEMEX and SNIT to IDGES and INDE From GSDI 5 (Colombia, 2001), GSDI 9 (Chile, 2007) and GSDI 11 From digital data bases to visualization technologies and networking From electronic formats to Open Source and GSDI/GEOSS environments Spatial Data Information Infrastructures (SDIs) are the entranceway to non-limited possibilities for progress and democracy. In regional planning, environmental applications or natural disasters management a good number of examples of positive impact exists, in spite of historical inequalities, imperfect land markets and limited information available. Over the last decade in the Americas different professional activities have contributed to raise awareness on the importance of fostering land information activities in connection with the building of SDIs in the region, including the value of integrating cadastres, land administration and registration with the production of interoperable spatial data.
On-going regional SDI initiatives in Latin America and its relation to Land Management • • • Geocentric Reference System for the Americas (SIRGAS) Geographic Spatial Information for Integral Development in the Americas OAS/PAIGH) Geo. Sur (CAF, PAIGH, IABIN, EDC/USGS) SDI Community of Andean Nations –IDECAN Latin American Metadata Profile –LAMP (PAIGH, ISO) Global Map of the Americas (PAIGH’s Cartography Commission) SDI Committee for the La Plata River Community of Nations Permanent Committee on the Spanish-American Cadastre (CPCI) Mu-Net Cadastral Project, OAS (SEDI) SDI for Sustainable Development in the Americas and the Caribbean (IDEDES-CYTED) Meso-American Territorial Information System for Natural Disasters (CATHALAC) The SDI in the LAC region is what is resulting from current concepts, practices and projects in the Americas. It is not necessarily harmonic and consistent but it reflects the reality of the region and the efforts of many entities and specialists.
Spatial Data Production and NSDI building developing economies, to be successful, require a minimum level of financial and institutional sustainability Argentina (PROSIGA-IDERA) http: //www. sig. gov. ar/ Brazil (INDE) http: //www. ibge. gov. br/home/ Chile (SNIT) http: //www. snit. cl/ Colombia (ICDE) http: //www. geoportal. gov. co/ Cuba (IDERC) http: //www. iderc. co. cu/ Ecuador (IEDG) http: //www. geoportaligm. gov. ec/ El Salvador (IDGES) http: //www. cnr. gob. sv/ Jamaica (JNSDI) http: //www. licj. org. jm/ Mexico (IDEMEX) http: //www. inegi. org. mx/geo/ Peru (IDEP) http: //www. idep. gob. pe/ There are many initiatives at the institutional, local and state levels. Examples: the SDI initiative for Bogota, leaded by the city cadastre and SDI for the Santa Fe Province in Argentina http: //www. idesf. santafe. gov. ar/idesf/system/index. php
The e-Cadaster experience in Colombia is a sound example of current NSDI efforts in Land Management in the region (IGAC, Gómez- Guzmán, El Catastro y las IDE, Guatemala, 2007) In the case of Colombia, the Geographic Institute –IGAC is at the same the NSDI coordinating office and the national authority in charge of the cadastre. There is a greater than average connection between cadastre and the building process of a national SDI.
Land Administrations Programs (PRONAT) in Central America should contribute to NSDI and Land Information Infrastructures. The case of El Salvador is one Central American nation where a significant Land Administration Program is in execution with funds incoming from a WB loan. As part of the NSDI initiative, the CNR is forming the basic national spatial data sets to organize IDGES as a national on-line geospatial service
Every SDI Component Counts, yet Capacity Building Remains the Key and Partially Solved Issue for Land Information Infrastructures “All land administration organizations face similar challenges: they need to become less bureaucratic, simpler, cheaper and more transparent (…). Developing countries face the challenge of pro-poor land management and administration. (Lemmen, 2006) Since 1997 PAIGH has sponsored and assisted Member States with more than 30 SDI projects with a total budget allocated of US$ 546, 169. PAIGH has organized at least once per year international SDI related capacity building meeting in the Americas. “To recommend to member states that, in the course of institution-building and development of related capacities, they strengthen the geographic identity of the respective existing agencies and, in particular, the maintenance and integrity of cartographic databases containing basic data for each country, in keeping with international parameters fostering their use in the formulation of regional projects. ” (PAIGH, 2007)
SDI development requires a political and institutional framework, one that stimulates national capacity and that soundly considers local characteristics and culture Of all the entities that produce and apply geographic data and information, institutes responsible for national geography and cartography are the natural agencies to promote, coordinate and harmonize SDI initiatives in each country. For this reason it is essential there: • • • To improve the quality of geographic data. To deal with the subjects of pricing, licensing, copyrights, privacy and distribution of data. To enhance institutional capacities aimed at the implementation of on-line geographic services and projects that apply geospatial data. To identify the synergy and overlap of projects currently being undertaken To improve the availability of seamless databases that assist in dealing with situations of a supranational nature. In every country SDI will reflect local social and economic conditions, cultural aspects and elements related to national identity. Culture then is a relevant variable for SDI development. There are different: social organizations; values and beliefs; ways to learnt behavior and environments (Borrero, 2005)
Land information should be organized as a spatial data infrastructure at national, regional and local levels: an Educational, Professional and Institutional Capacity Building Challenge (FIG, 2004) In the SDI context, one of the key issues relates to capacity building components as part of wider SDI efforts, including sustainable educational, institutional, legal, financial and technical processes as part of a comprehensive and integrated strategy. (Enemark, 2004) From a product to a process model From data producers to data users From database creation to data sharing From centralized to decentralized structures From formulation to implementation From coordination to governance From single-level to multilevel participation From existing to new organizational structures (Masser, 2005) “The profile of the land management profession in the third millennium will include a mix of technical surveying and mapping professionals, business practitioners, spatial data managers, land environmental resource managers and legal and financial consultants on land management matters” (Enemark, 2004) “There is need for a new profession, in view of the increasing complexities of managing human natural resources and the need for multipurpose land resources records from local to global scales, dedicated to foster social and economic growth out of the local and national SDI and the subsequent development of a community knowledge base” (Pethersohn, 1997)
FIG Capacity Building for Land Administration: Looking at Practical Guidance for Managers of Organizations Paraphrasing the UN 2008 Development report, If the MDGs are the what of our mandates, capacity development is the how, for the organizations dealing with Land Administration Systems. Strengthening institutions to empower land administration systems and the societies they serve is at the core of the capacity building effort; however, it is the sustainability component the one most difficult to attain, as the situation concerning land information infrastructures is part of a long term process and there is need to beat the endemic and chronic situation faced today by the majority of nations in the region. For all these reasons there is need to support the FIG Capacity Building Effort and its policy implications for the spatial community at multilevel. The modernization of the Geographic Institutions constituting the PAIGH is the key objective of the Agenda 2010 -2020 Agenda for the organization, currently in preparation.
PAN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY – PAIGH Specialized Agency of the organization of American States – OAS "It may have been possible in the past, for things to have happened in isolation, but from this time forth, the world must be seen as an organic whole, everything affects everything“ Polibius, born c. 200, Megalopolis, Arcadia, Greece, died c. 118 BC Refereed by Steeve Ebener, UN/WHO SALB