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Palestinian Lands: Understanding the Physical Environment of the Wadi el-Far’a as a Means for Palestinian Lands: Understanding the Physical Environment of the Wadi el-Far’a as a Means for Assessing Environmental Problems

Project Sectors Pollution Water Rights & Resources Land Use & Built-up areas Historical Sites Project Sectors Pollution Water Rights & Resources Land Use & Built-up areas Historical Sites Physical Environment

Physical Environment Sector Project Sectors Physical Environment: GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, HYDROGEOLOGY Physical Environment Sector Project Sectors Physical Environment: GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, HYDROGEOLOGY

G e o g r a p h y G e o g r a p h y

G e o l o g y Structural Map of the West Tectonic Map G e o l o g y Structural Map of the West Tectonic Map Wadi el-Far’a Bank Source: Ghanem, 1999.

H y d r o l o g y Water Balance Total Precipitation = H y d r o l o g y Water Balance Total Precipitation = 138. 8 MCM/yr Total Evaporation - 71. 3 MCM/yr Total water for infiltration and runoff = Total runoff 67. 5 MCM/yr - 7. 5 MCM/yr Total well pumping - 18 MCM/yr Total Spring discharge Water Balance = 14. 1 MCM/yr +27. 9 MCM/yr

H y d r o g e o l o g y Transmissivity map H y d r o g e o l o g y Transmissivity map (m 2/day) of Contour Map of the Groundwaterthe upper aquifer: 500 meter phreatic zone (meter, relative to seacontour interval level) Source: Ghanem, 1999.

Assessment of Environmental Problems üWater Balance equation reveal water surplus, but wells and springs Assessment of Environmental Problems üWater Balance equation reveal water surplus, but wells and springs running dry, indicating poor management and monitoring. üWater Quality is worse than poor, it is TOXIC. BUT, based on Physical Environment, solutions to these problems exist.

Remediation Proposals (NOT EXHAUSTIVE) i. Environmental Remediations i. a. Water and Soil monitoring and Remediation Proposals (NOT EXHAUSTIVE) i. Environmental Remediations i. a. Water and Soil monitoring and sampling; b. Extract toxic groundwater; c. Air pumping wells ii. Engineering Efforts i. a. Recharge areas; b. Dams; c. Reservoirs; d. Wastewater treatment factility iii. Palestinian Management and Control a. Laws promoting beneficial and sustainable use; b. Create agency to act as watchdog; c. Develop water projects iv. Introduce Efficient Irrigation Techniques i. a. Drip vs. open canal irrigation; b. Friendly fertilizers v. Teaching and bringing awareness vi. Drill new wells in high quality deep aquifer

Some Realities I. Israel is unwilling to pass authority of water in the West Some Realities I. Israel is unwilling to pass authority of water in the West Bank to the Palestinians, as they control over 80% of all water resources II. Palestinians are unlikely to have an adequately established government with enough financial capital to act implement environmental recommendations III. Israel has not allowed any water projects that increase Palestinian water supply since 1967, and will doubtfully will begin allowing such projects

Conclusions The solution to the many problems discussed above may lie in the use Conclusions The solution to the many problems discussed above may lie in the use of foreign agencies like USAID to help understand, assess, recommend and implement such projects that bring about the sustainable use and allocation of water throughout the West Bank.

For more Information Visit our Website at: http: //www. calvin. edu/~dvrb Contact Information: Dr. For more Information Visit our Website at: http: //www. calvin. edu/~dvrb Contact Information: Dr. Bert de Vries: [email protected] edu Abi Tan: ltan [email protected] edu Sebastian Naslund: snaslu [email protected] edu