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Overview of the OT
Inspired by the Holy Spirit • The Holy Bible is a divine revelation written by more than 40 writers over a span of roughly 1600 years who were inspired by the Holy Spirit • They say the truth, deliver God’s message to man without additions, deletions or alterations. • It is a continuous story • Different personalities, different education, different style of writing, different culture. • That means the Holy Spirit guided them
Septuagint Translation It is the name given to the Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures. Many Jews spread throughout the empire were beginning to lose their Hebrew language. Around 200 -300 BC, 70 to 72 Jewish scholars were commissioned to translate the Jewish Scripture from Hebrew to Greek. The process of translating the Hebrew to Greek also gave many non. Jews a glimpse into Judaism. This is the source we use as a reference nowadays.
The Holy Bible Old Testament New Testament Law 5 Books of Moses 4 Gospels History 12 Historical Books The Book of Acts Poetic Books 5 Poetic Books 21 Epistles Prophetic Books 5 Major Prophets 12 Minor Prophets Revelation
The 9 main Eras of the OT 1. Creation and Pre-History: Genesis 1 -11 2. Patriarch: Genesis 12 -50 3. Exodus: Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuter. 4. Conquest: Joshua 5. Judges: Judges 6. Kingdom: 1 Samuel – 2 Chronicles 7. Exile: 2 kings – 2 Chronicles 8. Return: Ezra – Nehemiah - Esther 9. Silence
HOLY PENTATEUCH What does "Pentateuch" means? comes from the Greek term pent-teuchos meaning five books consists of the first five Holy Books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Another name for these 5 books is "Torah" (instruction) or “Law” Who is the Author? Moses, (Exodus 17: 14; Joshua 1: 7 -8; Luke 2: 22; Romans 10: 15) The Holy Book of Genesis: The creation of the world and man, the fall of man and the promise of salvation The Holy Book of Exodus: The redemption of the seed of Abraham out of bondage and the formation of His people to be a nation with a constitution(the commandments)
HOLY PENTATEUCH The Holy Book of Leviticus: Israel's culture is established by providing a manual of ordinances to help with their needs when approaching God who is going to live among His people in holiness (Lev 26: 11 -12). The Holy Book of Numbers: God orders Israel's walk (the military arrangement, census of the tribes, transport of the sacred tabernacle), Spying Upon the Promised Land, rebelling against God, Forty years wandering in the wilderness The Holy Book of Deuteronomy: The reconstitution of the nation under the Lord’s leadership to enter the land through a covenant renewal
1. Creation & Pre-History (Genesis 1 -11) Creation – Humankind created in the image of God (Gen 1 -2) Fall – Sin enters the world (Gen 3) Flood – Judgment for sin (Gen 6 -10) Tower of Babel – Beginning of the nations (Gen 11) v. Genealogy v. Genesis 4 & 5 v The story of Abel and Cain and the birth of Seth which means “appointed” and he is the seed through whom the Savior would be born v Cain’s genealogy comes to a dead end. It begins with ungodly Cain, ends with wicked Lamech, and is ‘washed out’ by the flood.
1. Creation & Pre-History (Genesis 1 -11) Then comes the two ‘Lamechs’ of chapters 4 and 5. v Lamech (the son of Methushael, 4: 18) of Cain’s lineage was the initiator of polygamy (4: 19). Worse than this he was a murderer who boasted of his crime (4: 23) and made light of God’s words to Cain (4: 24). v The Lamech of chapter 5 (the son of Methuselah and the father of Noah) was a godly man. v. Genesis : 6: 1 -8; The sons of God and the daughters of Men v The ‘sons of God’ are generally said by those who hold this view to be the godly men of the Sethite line. The ‘daughters of men’ are thought to be the daughters of the ungodly Cainite. v The battle today between the sons of Satan and the sons of God (in the New Testament sense - John 1: 12; Romans 8: 14, 19) is even more intense than it was in the days of old.
1. Creation & Pre-History (Genesis 1 -11) v. Genesis 6 -10 v. The Flood and The Noahic Covenant—A New Beginning (Genesis 8: 20 -9: 17) v Even before Abraham’s time, God also made a covenant with Noah. It illustrates three important principles: (1) All divine covenants originate with God (Gen. 9: 9); (2) all of them are everlasting (Gen. 9: 16); (3) all of them are memorialized with a visible sign, in this case the rainbow (Gen. 9: 13). The purpose of the Noahic covenant was the divine promise that God would never again destroy all sinful humanity by a flood (Gen. 9: 11). v The Noahic Covenant was initiated and dictated by God. v The Noahic Covenant was made with Noah and all successive generations v This is a universal covenant. v The Noahic Covenant is an unconditional covenant. v This covenant was God’s promise never again to destroy the earth by a flood v The sign of the Noahic Covenant is the rainbow
2. The ERA of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12 -50) Abraham, Isaac and Jacob Four Main Characters: Abraham – Father of the Hebrew People (Genesis 12 -23) The Call of Abram (Genesis 11: 31 -19: 9) The call of Abram is recorded for us in Genesis 12: 1: “Now the Lord said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your country, and from your relatives and from your father’s house, to the land, which I will show you. ” Now Abram obeyed God by faith and entered into the land of Canaan “By faith Abraham, when he was called, obeyed by going out to a place which he was to receive for an inheritance; and he went out, not knowing where he was going (Hebrews 11: 8)”. The Covenant with Abram (12: 1 -3) Three major promises are contained in verses 1 - 3: God promises him a country (a land); countless descendants (a nation); and a global and timeless impact (a blessing). The Abrahamic covenant sign is circumcision (Gen. 17: 11). God leads Abraham from Ur of the Chaldeans to Canaan, where he settles and has two sons, Ishmael (ancestor of the Arabs) and Isaac (ancestor of the Jews)
2. The ERA of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12 -50) Abraham, Isaac and Jacob Isaac (Rebecca) – Second Father of promise (Genesis 24 -26) Father of two sons, Esau and Jacob (Rachael)– Father of the nation of Israel (Genesis 27 -35) Jacob begins his life as a dishonest and unprincipled man, being gradually transformed by his relationship with God. Has 12 sons, each of whom becomes the father of one of the 12 tribes of Israel. Jacob wrestles with God; (Genesis 32) Joseph – Leader in Egypt (Genesis 37 -50) Joseph sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, becomes a great leader in Egypt. A severe famine brings Jacob and Joseph’s 11 brothers to live in safety in Egypt. After Joseph’s death, the Hebrews are gradually reduced to the status of slaves, 400 years pass, during which people cry out to God for deliverance
Christ in Genesis “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel” Genesis 3: 15 and in Galatians 4: 4 we read; “But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman” Visiting Abraham – Genesis 18 Offering Isaac – we read the offering of Isaac during the fraction of the liturgy of the Last Supper – Genesis 22 Wrestling with Jacob
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Under Moses leadership, God delivers the Hebrew people from slavery in Egypt. The central feature of this period comes when God gives Moses “THE LAW” (the 10 Commandments plus regulations for the people’s life, government and worship) on Mount Sinai Four Main events: Deliverance – Freedom from slavery in Egypt (Ex 1 -18) The LAW – God’s commandments at mount Sinai (Exodus 19 -40) Kadesh Barnea – Place of rebellion against God (Numbers 10 -14) Forty Years Wandering – consequence of rebelling against God (Numbers 20 -36)
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) #1 Deliverance – Freedom from slavery in Egypt ( Exodus 1 -18) God calls Moses to be his spokesman to the Egyptian Pharaoh, who refuses to allow the Hebrews to leave for the country God has promised them. The terrible plagues happen and finally Pharaoh let go of the Egyptian. After the Hebrews have left, Pharaoh again changes his mind and pursues them. God parts the Red Sea to allow the Hebrew people through, closing it again to swamp the Egyptian army. God’s destination for His people is Canaan the land first settled by their ancestor Abraham.
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Exodus 1 1. Linking the Past and the Present (1: 1 -7) Verses 1 -7 serve to link the events of the Book of Genesis and those recorded in the Book of Exodus. This portion of the introduction to the Book of Exodus (Exod. 1: 1 -6) links the existence and rapid growth of Israel as a nation to the covenant which God made with Abraham (Gen. 12: 1 -3. ), and which He reiterated to the patriarchs (Isaac: Gen. 26: 2 -5, 24; Jacob: Gen. 28: 13 -15). The sons of Israel and their families numbered 70 (v. 5) when they arrived in Egypt. But when the “sons of Israel” leave Egypt, they do so as a great nation (Exod. 1: 7, 12, 20; 12: 37).
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Exodus 3, The Burning Bush The God of the burning bush is the covenant making, covenantkeeping God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In verse 6, God identified Himself to Moses in this way: “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob” (Exod. 3: 6). The God of the burning bush is the holy God. The God of the burning bush is a compassionate God. The God of the burning bush is a God who commissions people to participate in His purposes The “I AM” is the God who is, that is, the God who exists. The “I AM” is the God who exists independently and unchangeably.
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Exodus 7 -10; Plagues 1 -9 Exodus 11 -12; The 10 th plague and the First Passover The Purposes of Passover Celebrations (12: 21 -27, 43 -49) (1) The Passover was a memorial of the deliverance of Israel, accomplished by the mighty power of God (2) The Passover and its related celebrations, the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the redemption of the firstborn, were intended to serve as a means of instruction for the future generations of Israel (parents taught their children the meaning of the celebration and its significance) (3) The Passover celebrations was a means of incorporating or excluding the Gentiles in the covenant of God to Abraham (Exod. 12: 38, 43 -49). (4) The Passover Lamb was a model, a prototype (a type) of the Messiah, the “The True Lamb of God” through whom God would bring redemption to both Israel and the Gentiles Exodus 16; God feeds the Israelites the Manna and the Quails Exodus 17; Moses strikes the rock of Horeb causing water to flow from it
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) #2 The LAW – God’s commandments at Mount Sinai (Ex 19 -40) The Hebrews journey south to the bottom of the Sinai peninsula and camp around Mount Sinai. God summons Moses up to the mountain and there delivers the Law which is to govern the people as they become a nation. Leviticus is a sort of recipe book for worship , is also delivered at this time Exodus 20; the Ten Commandments Moses goes up the mountain of Sinai 3 times in Exodus, Ch. 19, 24 and 34 Exodus 32, Israelites worship Idol, a gold calf
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Leviticus This Book was named Leviticus in the Septuagint translation, because it is a guide to the priests in their service as it contains the laws. The contents of the Book In Genesis we see man failed as he did not obey the commandment of God, in Exodus God offers salvation to humans through the blood of the Passover, and in Leviticus man is trained to live holy life in the Lord through worship. If Exodus is the exit/salvation journey out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses, Leviticus is the exit journey to holiness under the leadership of Aaron, as God told them, "you shall be holy to Me, for I the Lord am holy" (Leviticus 11: 44 and 20: 26).
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Two major sections, separated by chapter 16, which deals with the annual Day of Atonement: Chapters 1 -15 deal with what we might call “priestly holiness” for they give instructions about sacrifices and rituals, which ceremonially relate to one’s holiness. 1. Types of Sacrifices (Ch. 1 -7): announces the need for reconciliation with blood and reveal the Cross. 2. Consecration of Aaron and his sons, the priests (Ch. 8 -10): the need for a holy priest. 3. Canons of cleansing (Ch. 11 -15): The people must live a life of purity in order to be chosen for God. 4. Great Day of Atonement (Ch. 16) Chapters 17 -27 deal more with what we could call “practical holiness, ” that is holiness, which is worked out, in one’s daily walk, rather than by one’s religious or ritualistic activities. 5. Some religious and social laws (Ch. 17 -22) 6. Holidays and Vows (Ch. 23 -27): God wants us always joyful spiritually with holy feasts.
Why Sacrifices? To introduce the idea that an innocence will die for the guilty. Killing an animal will demonstrate the wage of sin which is death “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. ” (Rom 6: 23). Sanctification will happen through blood “And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission” (Heb 9: 22). The multitude of sacrifices and the absence of a sacrifice for intentional sin demonstrates the limitation of the Levitical sacrifices.
The Burnt offering Sweet aroma, voluntary Anyone can offer it, but has to be offered at least twice a day (in the evening and morning). After offering it in the morning and evening, the priest will take fire from the alter and will go inside the Holy to raise incense (that is why in the Coptic church we have raising of incense vespers and matins). Can be from Bull without blemish, Male sheep without blemish, and turtledoves or young pigeons. All of the sacrifice had to be burned except the skin is given to the priest. Since all of the sacrifice was offered to God, it represents the complete obedience to our Lord (Mt 26: 39 -44).
The Burnt Offering The blood of the sacrifice is sprinkled in shape of a circle around the alter. Circle no beginning, no end. The sacrifice to be burned on the alter with wood to assist in the burning process. The wood of the cross. The Old Testament priest was to cut the sacrifice the Coptic priest during the fraction prayer breaks the holy body. “Also for Adam and his wife the Lord God made tunics of skin, and clothed them. ” (Gen 3: 21). It is believed that God taught Adam the rite of sacrifice at this instance.
Grain Offering Sweet aroma, voluntary Accompanied all the burnt offerings Fine flour mixed with oil and frankincense, cakes made with fine flour mixed with oil, green heads of roasted grain mixed with oil. Memorial portion burned on the alter, the remainder is eaten by the priest in the tabernacle. No leaven signifies that our Lord was without sin “For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin” (Heb 4: 15). The presence of oil (which is a symbol of the Holy Spirit) “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, Because He has anointed Me, To preach the gospel to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And recovery of sight to the blind, To set at liberty those who are oppressed” (Luke 4: 18).
Peace Offering Sweet aroma, voluntary. To express gratitude and thanksgiving to God According to the wealth: from the herb male or female without blemish, from the flock, from the goats. Fatty portions burned on the alter, breast and right thigh eaten by the priest, and remainder eaten in the court by the offerer and his family. This is the only offering that offerer can eat from the sacrifice representing Eucharist (thanksgiving).
Sin Offering Non-sweet aroma, Compulsory. To atone for sins committed unknowingly, especially where no restitution was possible. Num 15: 30, 31. the sin offering was of no avail in cases of bold disobedience against God. The sin offering varies based on who committed the sin: for high priest a bull without blemish, for the congregation a bull without blemish, for a ruler a male goat without blemish, for a commander a female goat without blemish, in cases of poverty two turtledove or two young pigeons. Fatty portions to be burned on the altar of burnt offering but the remainder of the bull burned in a clean place outside the camp. Christ suffered outside Jerusalem “ 11 For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned outside the camp. 12 Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate. ” (Heb 13: 11 -12).
Trespass Offering Non-sweet aroma, Compulsory. To atone for sins committed unknowingly, especially where restitution was possible. The offering is a ram without blemish. Restitution of the value plus one-fifth. Fatty portions to be burned on the alter of burnt offering Remainder to be eaten in a holy place. “And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses” (Col 2: 13).
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Levitical Sacrifices: Where the Levitical sacrifices the first sacrifices mentioned in the Bible? How many sacrifices where mentioned in the Book of Leviticus? Who offered the sacrifices? Why there was sacrifices? The Burnt Offering: twice a day(raising incense vespers and matins), sweet aroma/voluntary(complete obedience to God) The Grain Offering: accompanied the burnt and peace offering, sweet aroma/voluntary, no leaven (our Lord is without sin), oil (the Holy Spirit) Lev 2: 4 -6 The Peace Offering: sweet aroma/voluntary, gratitude and thanksgiving to God The Sin Offering: non-sweet aroma/compulsory, to atone for sins committed unknowingly, especially where no restitution was possible, burnt outside the camp (Jesus suffered outside Jerusalem) The Trespass Offering: non-sweet aroma/compulsory, to atone for sins committed unknowingly, especially where restitution was possible, restitution of the value plus one-fifth.
The Five Offerings in the Old Testament
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) #3 Kadesh Barnea – Place of rebellion against God (Numbers 10 -14 Israel leaves Mount Sinai and migrates north to an oasis, Kadesh Barnea, the southern gateway into the “Promised Land” (Canaan). From this vantage point, 12 spies (one from each tribe ) are sent into Canaan to report on the prospects of conquest. 10 report that there is no chance. 2, Joshua and Caleb, exhort the people to believe God and go for it. The people follow the majority report and refuse to follow Moses into the Promised Land.
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Numbers This book was named Numbers because it records the censuses of the people Ch. 1; the first census to count males for military recruitment which took place in Sinai. Ch. 3; God choses the Levites to serve Him. Ch. 13; spying on the land of Canaan Ch. 14; people grumbling against Moses and do not want to follow him to the promised land, Kadesh Barnea Ch. 16; The Rebellion of Korah (of Levi) , Dathan and Abiram (of Reuben) Ch. 20: 1 -13; Moses disobeys God and strikes the rock twice instead of speaking to the rock to bring forth water. Therefore Moses is forbidden from entering the Promised Land
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) #4 Forty Years Wandering - consequence of rebellion against God (Numbers 20 -36) Because of their rebellion, the “exodus” generation are condemned to wander in the wilderness until everyone who was 21 years or older at the time of exiting Egypt dies. A new generation emerges, willing to follow their leaders into the Promised land. Moses leads them from north of the Dead Sea near Jericho, the eastern gateway to Canaan, encourages them, gives them additional instruction found in the book of Deuteronomy, and then dies Ch. 21; the copper serpent, once again the people grumble against God and Moses, v. 5, causing the Lord to judge them with fiery serpents which bit the people and they died and could only be delivered by looking upon the bronze serpent which Moses made and set upon a pole (21: 4 -9). Ch. 26; the second census was after the first one by 38 years and it was for the division of the Promised Land, according to the number of each tribe. Ch. 27; Joshua succeeds Moses in leadership
3. The ERA of the Exodus (Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy) Deuteronomy Who is the writer? Moses the prophet except chapter 34 which contains Moses death and burial. This section is most likely written by Joshua 'Deuteronomy' comes from two words in the Greek language: deutero, which means 'second', and nomos, which means 'law'. This is not talking about another new set of Laws, but a reiteration of it. When the Ten Commandments were given in Exodus 20, they were given to the first generation of Israelites who came out of Egypt, crossed the Red Sea with a huge natural show of God's power. The Lord brings again to the ears of all the children of Israel what he said to them and tells them what to do with their parents. That is why we see in this book repetition of what was mentioned in the prior 4 books Chapter 5 : reiterating the 10 commandments
4. The ERA of the Conquest (Joshua) Joshua leads the conquest to the Promised Land Four Main Events: Jordan – a miraculous parting of the water (Joshua 1 -5) After Moses’ death, God hand-picks Joshua to succeed him. The people cross the Jordan river, God parting the waters as he did at the Red Sea Jericho – conquest of a city (Joshua 6) Jericho, a fortified city straddling the eastern gateway to Canaan, poses a major threat to Israel. God instructs him to march around the city seven times, and the city’s walls collapse, leading to its defeat
4. The ERA of the Conquest (Joshua) Four Main Events: Conquest – the defeat of Canaan (Joshua 7 -12) The land is ruled by individual kings each with his own city and surrounding area. Joshua cuts through the midsection towards the Mediterranean Sea. Having divided the land, he then sets about conquering it from south to north. The initial defeat of Canaan takes about 7 years. Dominion – finalizing the conquest (Joshua 13 -20) The 12 tribes are each allotted an area of land, and made responsible for finalizing dominion over it. The 12 tribes are linked in a loose federation
4. The ERA of the Conquest (Joshua) Who is the writer? Joshua himself, son of Nun, is the main author with minor additions made by Eleazar the high priest and his son Phinehas, describing the incidences that occurred after the death of Joshua. What does Joshua mean? a Hebrew word meaning "God is my Savior", a symbol of Christ. The main theme of the book: the children of Israel crossing the Jordan River and settling in the Promised Land, "the land of Canaan. " It emphasizes that the conquest of Canaan was a direct fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham. Joshua 2 : the spies and Rehab in Jericho ( a symbol for the salvation of the Gentiles) Joshua 4 : crossing the Jordan river Joshua 5: circumcision of people Joshua 6 : the fall of Jericho Joshua 7 : sin leads to defeat in front of Ai, 7: 5, beware the little foxes (the sin of Achan) Joshua 9: 1 -27; The Gibeonite treaty, no matter how small the matter is we need to consult the Lord
4. The ERA of the Conquest (Joshua) Rahab Harlot in Jericho who hid two Hebrew spies Joshua sent there to determine the strength of the city (Josh. 2: 1). In return for help Joshua spared her and her family when the Hebrews destroyed Jericho (Josh. 6: 17 -25) Matthew named Rahab as Boaz’ mother (1: 5) in his genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ, making her one of the Lord’s ancestors. Hebrews 11: 31 lists Rahab among the heroes of faith. The Lord Jesus Christ in the Book of Joshua himself was a representation of the Lord Jesus Christ. Joshua’s original name was Hoshea meaning “salvation” (Num 13: 8) and Moses changed his name to Joshua which means “Jehovah is salvation” (Num 13: 16) Joshua led the Israelites to the possession of their inheritance in the Promised Land, just as the Lord Jesus Christ will guide us into the possession of eternal life. Joshua interceded for Israel when they sinned (7: 6 -9), as the Lord Jesus Christ does for us (1 John 2: 1; Heb 7: 25).
5. The ERA of the Judges (Judges. Ruth) Various individual leaders (called Judges) are appointed by God to govern the people for 400 rebellious years, during which time Israel was in a state of almost continual warfare with its neighbors, notably the Philistines. Four Main Events Judges – the leaders of Israel (Judges) Four major Judges were Deborah – Gideon – Samson – Samuel (last judge and first prophet) Rebellion – the breaking of God’s law (Judges) Just before Moses died, he instructed Israel to do three things (Deut 7: 1 -5) 1. Destroy all the inhabitants of Canaan 2. Avoid intermarriage with the Canaanites 3. Do not worship the Canaanite gods Judges records one of the darkest periods of Israel's history, as the people fail to fulfil all three commands, and descend into the spiritual and moral sin
5. The ERA of the Judges (Judges. Ruth) Four Main Events Cycles – repetition of Israel's misfortunes (Judges) Much of this era is occupied with seven cycles, each with five parts (sin, servitude, supplication, salvation and silence) 1. Israel ‘sins’ 2. God disciplines them through military defeat by a neighboring country 3. Israel repents and cries out to God for deliverance 4. God raises up a Judge who delivers them 5. God frees the land from military oppression for the remainder of that judge’s life Then, as each judge dies, the cycle begins again Ruth – a model of faithfulness (Ruth) Set in the time of the judges, Ruth stands out in refreshing contrast to the general tenor of Israel at this period. Ironically, she is a foreigner, but when her Jewish husband dies, she pledges allegiance to the true God, and travels back to the Land with her mother-in-law. Her story is one of love, loyalty and commitment.
5. The ERA of the Judges (Judges. Ruth) Judges; The Jewish tradition ascribed its authorship to Samuel and it covers roughly a period of 400 years. Ch 1 & 2; the Israelites disobey God so God decides not to help the Israelites (bad friendship can drive us away from God and teach us bad habits). Ch 4 & 5; Deborah and Barak’s triumph over Canaan Ch 6 & 8 Gideon’s defeat of the Midianites Ch 13 -16; Samson and the Philistines
5. The ERA of the Judges (Judges. Ruth) Main Characters Deborah, means bee, she became a ‘mother in Israel’ and the children of Israel came up to her for judgement. Through the leadership of Deborah and Barak the Israelite's conquer Sisera’s army. In choosing Deborah God is showing us that men are not greater than women. Her song of victory starts by blessing the lord and ends by glorifying Him for his great work. Gideon, the 5 th Judge and he judged for 40 yrs. God leads Gideon to defeat the Midianites with only 300 men fighting 135000. God wanted to show His people that it is by Him that they win and not by their power. Samson; means ‘of the sun’, he was a Nazarite, how he met Delilah and how she deceived him and he sinned and disobeyed God and his sin led to his torture. Delilah used to tell him, “Please tell me where your strength lies, and with what you may be bound to afflict you”, Judges 16: 6
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Samuel became old and the people went to him and asked him to anoint a king to rule over them as the other nations Samuel was upset because God was their king. God told Samuel to listen to them. "And the Lord said to Samuel, “Heed the voice of the people in all that they say to you; for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them" (1 Samuel 8: 7) Samuel anointed for them Saul as the first king then came David whom the Lord said about him “I have found David, the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will. ” (Acts 13: 22)
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) During this early period of the Israelite monarchy (c. 1050– 970 B. C. ), the great empires of the ancient Middle East were in a state of weakness. The Hittites of Asia Minor had passed into insignificance. Assyria was in a state of decline, and Egypt was weakened by internal conflict. The Philistines constituted Israel’s main threat during this period. Yet the threat of the Philistines had a positive impact on Israel’s political situation. It caused the infant nation to unite under the leadership of its first kings, Saul and David. After David, Solomon his son became the king and Solomon built the great temple in Jerusalem. Until that time all the Israel Kingdom (the 12 Tribes) was united under one King. Then some problem happened with the son of Solomon, Rehoboam and the Kingdom was divided.
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Samuel 1 & 2 Samuel wrote the first twenty-four chapters of the first book. Gad, the companion of David, continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it. The two books of Samuel contain the history of Israel from the appearance of Samuel as a prophet to the end of the reign of David. Purpose of 1 Samuel To record the life of Samuel, Israel’s last judge To provide an official account of the rise of the monarchy during the time of Samuel To record the reign and decline of Saul, the first king To record the choice and preparation of David, Israel’s greatest king.
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Ch. 2; Hannah’s song Ch. 3; Samuel’s call Ch. 4 -7; the Ark of covenant is captured by the Philistines 4: 11 Ch. 8 & 9; the selection of a king Ch. 15; Saul’s rejection because he disobeyed God and kept the flock of Amalek Ch. 16; Samuel anoints David King over Israel; “Do not look at his appearance or at his physical stature, because I have refused him”
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Main Characters: Samuel Means ‘Heard of God”, he was a judge, priest and prophet He was willing to be God’s servant, anointed the first 2 kings, was the last judge, was not able to lead his sons into a close relationship with God which was his mistake Saul First God appointed king of Israel His failure resulted from acting on his own, was jealous of David and tried to kill him, disobeyed God on several occasions The Lord Jesus Christ in the Book of Samuel 1 Samuel as a symbol of Christ, he was a prophet, a judge and a priest as our Lord Jesus is the source of these three positions, the kingship, the prophesy and the priesthood The Israelites refused Samuel as the Jews refused Christ. Samuel was as intercessor between God and the people as the Lord Jesus Christ is our intercessor
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) 2 Samuel covers the period from the death of Saul (c. 1010 B. C. ) to the end of David’s career (c. 970 B. C. ). During the forty years of his reign, David united the tribes together into a strong monarchy and transformed the young nation into a military power able to dominate surrounding nations. The key to David’s success was his relationship with God. Ch. 6; David brings the ark to Jerusalem Ch. 7; the Davidic covenant, v. 12 -16 (eternal dynasty, eternal throne, eternal kingdom) Ch. 11 -21; David’s sin and domestic problems Ch. 15 -18; the conspiracy of Absalom and his death Ch. 19; David’s thanksgiving prayer The Lord Jesus Christ in the book of 2 Samuel David was a symbol for Christ, both from the tribe of Judah and from Bethlehem. David was a shepherd and the JC is the good shepherd. David was a king and the Lord JC is the king of kings. David started his practical life with defeating Goliath and JC started his ministry by defeating Satan. David forgave Saul and JC forgave those who crucified him. David was betrayed by his son Absalom as JC was betrayed by His disciple Judah
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Kings 1 & 2 The author of these books is not named in the Scripture. Some scholars say that King Solomon and King Hezekiah wrote the incidents concerning themselves, and the rest were written by Nathan, Gad, Isaiah and Jeremiah. The books of Kings carry on the history of the Old Testament kingdom of God through a period of 450 years, from the accession of Solomon to the Babylonian captivity. All the kings of Judah and Israel are recorded in 1 & 2 Kings except for Saul. The purpose of 1 & 2 Kings is to illustrate the blessings that result from faithfulness and obedience to the Lord and His judgment upon unfaithfulness and disobedience.
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Purpose of Kings 1 To contrast the lives of those who live for God and those who refuse to do so through the history of the kings of Israel and Judah To Give a Warning of the Consequences of Sin. To tell of the disastrous consequences of Israel’s fall into idolatry. Ch. 1 -11; focus on the reign of Solomon Ch. 1 & 2; Solomon’s inauguration as a king and David’s commandments to him. (Adonijah/David’s 4 th son. Joab/David’s nephew and head of the army, & Abiathar, head of the priesthood) Ch. 5; Solomon begins building the temple in the 4 th year of his reign Ch. 11; The Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the Lord (11: 9). Then the final verdict was given: [Because you have] not kept My Covenant. . . I will surely rend the kingdom from [you] (11: 11). But God’s mercy did not depart away from him, as He had promised to David (2 Sam. 7: 14, 15). Ch. 12 -22; cover about the first 80 -100 yrs of the divided kingdom, 4 kings reigned over the southern Kingdom and 8 over the Northern kingdom
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) United Kingdom (Saul - David - Solomon) Saul, he was no one special and God chose him to be king. After Samuel ordained him a king, Saul though that this Kingdom is his and later wanted to kill David and offered sacrifice. He had no integrity and disobeyed God so God rejected him David, he also was no one but he always remembered that. When God did not allow him to build his house he did not get offended but said who am I that You have blessed me. He kept hi integrity and did not kill Saul. He sinned but he repented and God said that David’s heart is after My heart. Solomon, had a very good start and when he became a king he prayed and asked for but the problem is that he didn’t pay attention to the little foxes that spoil the vineyard and didn’t take the Lord commandments serious when he told the Israelites not to marry anyone from the gentiles
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) Divided Kingdom (Northern and Southern) After the death of Solomon and during the reign of Rehoboam, his son, the Israel Kingdom is split into 2, the Northern Kingdom and the Southern Kingdom The Northern Kingdom, which has 10 tribes, is called Israel and its capital is Samaria (in the bible the northern kingdom is also called Ephraim). The Southern Kingdom, which has 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin), is called Judah and its capital is Jerusalem. All the kings (19) of the Northern Kingdom were evil and didn’t follow God. Their first King was Jeroboam All the kings of the Southern Kingdom (19) were from the Son’s of David. Some of them walked in the path of God while others didn’t. Their first king was Rehoboam God sent many prophets to the northern kingdom to warn them and urge them to repent: Elijah, Elisha, Amos and Hose
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) Divided Kingdom (Northern and Southern) Ch. 12: 1– 22: 53, focus on the divided kingdom A. The accession of Rehoboam and the division of the kingdom 12: 1– 24 B. The early kings of the two nations 12: 25– 16: 14 1. The reign of Jeroboam in the northern kingdom 12: 25– 14: 20 2. The reigns of Rehoboam, Abijah, and Asa in the southern kingdom 14: 21 – 15: 24 3. The end of the first dynasty in the northern kingdom: Nadab 15: 25– 32 4. The second dynasty in the northern kingdom: Baasha 15: 33– 16: 14 C. The third dynasty in the northern kingdom: 1. The reign of Omri in the northern kingdom 16: 15– 28 2. The reign of Ahab in the northern kingdom 16: 29– 22: 40 a. Elijah and the drought 17: 1– 24, Elijah on Mt. Carmel 18: 1– 46, Elijah’s flight to Horeb 19: 1– 21, A prophet’s condemnation of Ahab 20: 1– 43, Elijah’s condemnation of Ahab 21: 1– 28, Micaiah’s prophecy of Ahab’s death 22: 1– 40 3. The reign of Jehoshaphat in the southern kingdom and the accession of Ahaziah in the northern kingdom 22: 41– 53
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) Divided Kingdom (Northern and Southern) 2 Kings At the time 2 Kings opens, the majority of the Levites had left the idolworshiping Northern Kingdom (Israel) and returned to Jerusalem and to God-ordained worship in His Temple (2 Chronicles 11: 13 -15). The prophets Elijah and Elisha prophesied in Israel, as did Amos, Hosea, and Jonah, Obadiah, Joel, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah prophesied during this time in Judah. The first 17 chapters of 2 Kings focus on the prophets Elijah and Elisha, as well as record the spiritual decline of both the Northern and Southern Kingdoms. Chapter 17 ends with the captivity and relocation of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians. Chapters 18 -25 are devoted to the Southern Kingdom of Judah. Ch. 25 talks about the fall of Jerusalem and the captivity of Judah, Jerusalem had been destroyed and Solomon's Temple burned. Most of the population had been taken captive and transplanted throughout the land of Babylonia.
6. The Era of the Kingdoms (1 Samuel-2 Chronicles) Chronicles; The author, according to the Jewish Talmud is Ezra who wrote his book, Chronicles and Nehemiah. 1 & 2 Kings primarily focus on the political history of Israel and Judah, while 1 & 2 Chronicles primarily present the religious history of Judah, Jerusalem, and the Temple as it relates to the Davidic covenant. The theme in Chronicles is the Jewish temple in Jerusalem with its worship, officials, the Levites, and the uniqueness of Yahweh (2 Chron. 2: 5; 6: 5; 20: 6 -7; 1 Chron. 17: 21). And if the temple is the central theme, then worship of God is the dominant attitude in the books. God is worthy of our praise and adoration. First Chronicles focuses on the Davidic covenant during David’s time, and Second Chronicles continues that theme in the period after David’s death. Second Chronicles ends with the Exile
7. The Era of the Exile (2 Kings-2 Chronicles) This host of evil kings led the two kingdoms away from worshipping God sent them many prophets to warn them but they did not change their hearts, did not repent and did not return to God Therefore both kingdoms fell in captivity The Northern Kingdom fell into the Assyrian captivity (around 722 B. C. ) The Southern Kingdom fell into the Babylonian captivity (around 586 B. C. ) and Jerusalem was destroyed and people were sent into exile.
7. The Era of the Exile (2 Kings-2 Chronicles) The Assyrian Captivity Why did the Nation of Israel go to Captivity? The sin of Idolatry and not following God’s commandments. Not repenting despite repeated warnings by God’s prophets. Chastening The Sins of Israel: Idolatry “As they called them, So they went from them; They sacrificed to the Baals, And burned incense to carved images” (Hos 11: 2). Immorality “A man and his father go in to the same girl, to defile My holy name” (Amos 2: 7) Injustice “For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment, Because they sell the righteous for silver, And the poor for a pair of sandals” (Amos 2: 8). Persecuting the righteous “Jezebel killed the prophets of the Lord” (1 Kings 18: 13)
7. The Era of the Exile (2 Kings-2 Chronicles) The Assyrian Captivity Not Repenting Despite God Repeated Pleas Through the Prophets Elijah “And Elijah came to all the people, and said, “How long will you falter between two opinions? If the Lord is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him. ” ( 1 Kings 18: 21). Elisha Amos Hosea Chastening “My son, do not despise the chastening of the Lord, Nor be discouraged when you are rebuked by Him; For whom the Lord loves He chastens, And scourges every son whom He receives. ” ( Heb 12: 5, 6, Prov 3: 11, 12)
7. The Era of the Exile (2 Kings-2 Chronicles) The Babylonian Captivity Babylon became the most powerful nation in the Middle East after Assyria. Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem around 605 and ordered Jehoiakim to pay tribute (Daniel was taken captive then). After four years Jehoiakim refused to pay tribute. Resulting in another siege which ended with the death of Jehoiakim and exile of King Jeconiah and his court. Jeconiah successor, King Zedekiah was taken captive to Babylon The events of the Babylonian captivity can be found in Jeremiah 52, and 2 Kings 24. Why did Judah go to Captivity? If the northern kingdom committed idolatry. The southern kingdom wasn’t sincere in their worship.
7. The Era of the Exile (2 Kings-2 Chronicles) The Babylonian Captivity Vain Worship “ To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me? ” Says the Lord. “I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams. And the fat of fed cattle. I do not delight in the blood of bulls, Or of lambs or goats. ” (Isaiah 1: 11) Why did God despise their Worship? Their dealing with each other was not indicative of their worship “Learn to do good; Seek justice, Rebuke the oppressor; Defend the fatherless, Plead for the widow” (Isaiah 1: 17). Lack of repentance “Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; Put away the evil of your doings from before My eyes. Cease to do evil” (Isaiah 1: 16). Spirituality vs Rituality “These people draw near to Me with their mouth, And honor Me with their lips, But their heart is far from Me. And in vain they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men” (Isaiah 29, Matthew 15: 9) Ignoring the warning of the prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, Habakkuk
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra-Esther 3 stages The first stage; by the leadership of Zerubbabel and he focused on building the temple. The second stage: through the leadership of Ezra who focused on the law and the internal repairs according to the teaching of the law The third stage: through the leadership of Nehemiah in the time of Ertchehesta the King and he focused on building the walls around Jerusalem and protecting it from its enemies.
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther Ezra: the author of this book is Ezra This book covers a span of 92 years of Jewish history from the decree of Cyrus allowing the Jews to return to the land (539 B. C. ) to the decree of Artaxerxes which halted the work of rebuilding the city of Jerusalem (446 B. C. ). The Book of Ezra begins with the history of the Jews from the time when Cyrus of Persia released them from Babylonian exile. Most of the older generation of Israelites who had been taken into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar had died and the majority of the new generation had no interest in returning to a homeland they had never seen. The original Temple, built by King Solomon, had been destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. After arriving in Jerusalem with Zerubbabel, the returned exiles built an altar and observed the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths) 15 years later the Jews start building the house of God, 5: 2 Purpose;
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther Purpose of the Book To show God’s faithfulness and the way he kept his promise to restore His people to their land To reveal how God controls the destiny of all mankind as shown by the decrees, proclamations, and genealogies in the book Ch. 1 - 6; the return of the first group of Exile and the rebuilding of the temple Ch. 7 - 10; The return of the second group of exiles and Ezra’s reforms
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther Nehemiah; the author is Nehemiah The Book of Nehemiah is a continuation of the history recorded in the Book of Ezra. Nehemiah was heartbroken when he received a report of the spiritual and physical poverty that existed in Jerusalem Nehemiah came to Jerusalem about 100 years after Zerubbabel had left Persia and arrived in Jerusalem with the first group of returnees. Restoring the broken-down walls which had once protected Jerusalem from its enemies became Nehemiah's major physical project.
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther Purpose; To record the history of the third return to Jerusalem after captivity To emphasize covenant renewal in the restored community (e. g. , Neh 8 -10) To demonstrate God's faithfulness through the physical rebuilding and dedication of the wall To foreshadow the full restoration of the nation through that which was accomplished by Ezra and Nehemiah Ch. 1 -6; the rebuilding of Jerusalem’s walls Ch. 7 -13; The restoration of the Jewish community in Jerusalem
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther, the author is Mordecai Ruth and Esther are the only two books in the Bible named for women. The events in this book probably about 40 years after the temple had been rebuilt, and about 30 years before the walls of Jerusalem were rebuilt. The Book of Esther, as well as the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, confirm that God can accomplish His will through a helpless minority of faithful servants, even when they are ruled by ungodly men
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther Purpose To emphasize the continuing, ongoing, religious significance of the Jewish people To encourage the Babylonian/Persian Jews and those who had returned to Palestine of God's providential ability and willingness to preserve them against their enemies To show divine guidance overrules all things; even in a distant far country God's people are yet in His hands. Ch. 1 -2; a dethroned queen and a discovered queen Ch. 3 -7; Haman’s schemes against the Jewish people in Persia Ch. 8 -9; The deliverance of the Jewish people Ch. 10; Mordecai’s preeminence
8. The ERA of the Return Ezra - Esther The Lord Jesus Christ in the Book of Esther Mordecai as a symbol of the Lord Jesus Christ Haman plotted against Mordecai and prepared gallows to hang him as the devil manipulated the Jews to crucify our Lord The gallows prepared for Mordecai caused Haman’s destruction as our Lord’s cross defeated Satan Mordecai won victory and sat at the right hand of the king as our Lord by the cross won victory over death and ascended into the heavens and is sitting at the right hand of His Father.
9. The ERA Silence The kingdom of Judah is back in the land without a king for 400 years. After Medes and Persians Empire came the Greek Empire and then the Roman Empire and at that time came our Lord Jesus Christ, the true sacrifice which all the OT was referring to through many symbols.