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Overview of ADB Support for Partnerships with Non-State Actors Presentation for ADB-UNICEF Regional Workshop Overview of ADB Support for Partnerships with Non-State Actors Presentation for ADB-UNICEF Regional Workshop on The Role of Non-State Providers in Delivering Basic Social Services for Children April 19, 2010 By Jon D. Lindborg, Southeast Asia Department

Outline n n n Global Context for Partnerships ADB Engagement with Non-State Actors ADB Outline n n n Global Context for Partnerships ADB Engagement with Non-State Actors ADB and Public-Private Partnerships Summing Up and Some Possible Discussion Points

Global Context: Proliferation of Development Partnership Channels n n Over 60 bilateral donors (“legacy” Global Context: Proliferation of Development Partnership Channels n n Over 60 bilateral donors (“legacy” and new players) Over 230 international organizations 1000 s of non-government (NGO), community (CBO), civil society (CSO) and faith-based (FBO) organizations Emergence of new players driving new approaches/innovation: – – Private Sector Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities Large Foundations: n – “Vertical Funds” focused on specific issues/themes: n n – Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ($33. 5 billion endowment) Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) Social Entrepreneurship Funds, e. g. Skoll Foundation and Acumen Fund

U. S. Capital Flows to Developing World: Non-Official Flows Matter More Source: U. S. U. S. Capital Flows to Developing World: Non-Official Flows Matter More Source: U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Global Context: A Wide Range of Public. Private Relationships n n NGO and CBO Global Context: A Wide Range of Public. Private Relationships n n NGO and CBO partnerships Corporate Social Responsibility activities Formal or informal “alliances” such as USAID’s Global Development Alliance (GDA) Formal Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) involving: n Some contractual relationship between a government and non-state actor to provide infrastructure and/or services n Risk-sharing between the partners n Defined outputs and service delivery standards

PPPs: More than Steel and Concrete From Economic Assets to…Social Services & Public Administration PPPs: More than Steel and Concrete From Economic Assets to…Social Services & Public Administration Pre-1990 s 2000 -onward Roads - Power - Health Care and Hospitals - Water - Ports - Education and Schools - Waste - Research & Development - Telecom - Sports Complexes - - Rail - Airports - Vocational Training - Tourism Prisons - Environmental-related - ? ? ? -

Partnerships: Central to ADB Efforts to Fighting Poverty in Asia and the Pacific Partnerships: Central to ADB Efforts to Fighting Poverty in Asia and the Pacific

ADB “Strategy 2020” Context for Partnerships n ADB Strategy 2008 -2020 – Three Development ADB “Strategy 2020” Context for Partnerships n ADB Strategy 2008 -2020 – Three Development Agendas: n n n – Five Core Operational Areas: n n n Inclusive Economic Growth Environmentally Sustainable Growth Regional Integration Infrastructure Environment, including Climate Change Regional Cooperation and Integration Financial Sector Development Education Scaling up private sector to generate growth and reduce poverty: By 2020, 50% operations private sector-related

ADB “Strategy 2020” Context for Partnerships n Five Drivers of Change: – – – ADB “Strategy 2020” Context for Partnerships n Five Drivers of Change: – – – Private Sector Development Good Governance and Capacity Development Gender Equity Knowledge Solutions Partnerships, including: n n n Other donors & international development agencies Private sector NGOs, CBOs, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)

CSOs Seen as Supporting Quality of ADB Operations n Add value to sustainable development CSOs Seen as Supporting Quality of ADB Operations n Add value to sustainable development by introducing: – – – ADB COOPERATION WITH CIVIL SOCIETY ANNUAL REPORT 2008 n Innovation Accountability Responsiveness Participation Sustainability Role of ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center (NGOC) See http: //www. adb. org/ngos/ngocenter. asp#1 st for more information

ADB Has a Mandate for Increasing Engagement with Civil Society ADB Has a Mandate for Increasing Engagement with Civil Society

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in SE Asia Region: More Hype than Reality? n Expectations very Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in SE Asia Region: More Hype than Reality? n Expectations very high n Since 1988 about 330 projects in Southeast Asia with varying degrees of success: – Unsolicited proposals, e. g. Indonesia power/roads in 1990 s – Philippines experience with N. Luzon Expressway; water sector n Bottom line: An uneven track record and even some skepticism

No. of PPP Projects in Selected SE Asia Countries (Financial Closure 1998 -2008) Source: No. of PPP Projects in Selected SE Asia Countries (Financial Closure 1998 -2008) Source: World Bank PPI Database

PPPs in Southeast Asia – State of Play n n n PPP pipelines are PPPs in Southeast Asia – State of Play n n n PPP pipelines are weak International infrastructure-financing banks have been severely constrained, some signs of improvement Limited lending capacity of local banks to fill gap brought by decline of external financing Investors remain interested…but need committed governments Status – Vietnam: IPPs, roads, PPP policy & unit – Indonesia: more fiscal space, ‘crash’ electricity generation program, overall PPP framework – Philippines: continued privatization of power assets, ? ? ? – Laos & Cambodia: hydropower – Greater Mekong Region power trade: Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Source: ADB Special Evaluation Study on PPP, September 2009

The “Political Economy” of PPP: Need to Recognize Lingering Perception Challenges The “Political Economy” of PPP: Need to Recognize Lingering Perception Challenges

ADB Approach to Mainstreaming PPPs: - Regional Departments, e. g. Southeast Asia Department (SERD) ADB Approach to Mainstreaming PPPs: - Regional Departments, e. g. Southeast Asia Department (SERD) - Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD) - Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) Capacity Development Project Development Financing Policy, legal and regulatory guidelines Project Development Facility Sovereign Institutional development Pre-feasibility studies Non-sovereign Building stakeholder support/understanding Developing pipeline of bankable projects Equity and debt Dedicated PPP units Tendering processes Political risk guarantees TA and training Pilot PPP transactions Partial credit guarantees Project monitoring Co-financing TA and training Local currency Infrastructure funds ADB also supports complementary reforms in infrastructure and financial sectors

ADB Projects with PPP-Related Support 1998 -2008 Public Sector Loans Private Sector Operations Region ADB Projects with PPP-Related Support 1998 -2008 Public Sector Loans Private Sector Operations Region No. of Projects Amount ($M) Region No. of Projects Total ($M) Central and West Asia 32 3, 710 Central and West Asia 6 325 East Asia 34 6, 096 East Asia 6 380 Pacific 3 33 Pacific 0 0 South Asia 53 8, 145 South Asia 15 1, 556 Southeast Asia 16 2, 626 Southeast Asia 10 739 TOTAL 138 20, 610 TOTAL 37 2, 999 Source: ADB Review of ADB Assistance for PPP in Infrastructure Development, August 2009

ADB Experience with Infrastructure PPPs…. Key Lessons from Special Evaluation Study n n n ADB Experience with Infrastructure PPPs…. Key Lessons from Special Evaluation Study n n n Sustained political will and champions key to success Not universal solution or panacea Need to address policy and sector investment reforms Development of institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks Specialized PPP unit support services as generally useful – – – n Building a realistic project pipeline of bankable projects Feasibility studies Project preparation Tendering and negotiations Critical role of highly specialized technical/finance/legal experts Need long-term engagement Source: ADB Special Evaluation Study on PPP, September 2009

Summing Up and Some Possible Discussion Points n n n Substantial regional/global experience in Summing Up and Some Possible Discussion Points n n n Substantial regional/global experience in provision of infrastructure through PPPs, including water/sanitation Social sector PPPs as more challenging Cannot ignore the “political economy” of PPP: citizens are more likely to tolerate low quality under public management than under a PPP Importance of robust project development support to make projects “bankable” Need to be careful not to “oversell” benefits of PPP without effective public sector capacity development and accountability mechanisms

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