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OUTSTANDING PERSONALITIES IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN CUSTOMS DEVOt. ED t. O th. E 15 -th ANNIVERSARY OF SAINt-PEt. ERSBURG BRANCh OF th. E RUSSIAN CUSt. OMS ACADEMY
§ Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. Moreover, for almost all of that history, it has been much more than a force for keeping out contraband. § In fact, it has been a powerful, highly politicized administrative organ, protecting economic and political interests of the state. www. themegallery. com
§ And in different periods of time there were people, who served the country, protecting its interests. www. themegallery. com
Kruglov Bobkov Myachin Ordin-Naschokin Shuvalov Boyarov Lomonosov The Great Patriotic War Cancrin Tengeborgsky Mendeleyev Obolensky Radishchev
Afanasy Lavrentievich Ordin. Naschokin (1605 -1680) • He was one of the greatest Russian statesmen of the 17 th century. • His career is quite uncomparable in Russian history, as he was the first noble to attain the "boyar" title and highest offices of the state through his own merit not through family connections. • He was absolutely incorruptible and behaved morally and intellectually beyond his age.
l. He was the son of a poor official in the city of Pskov, who wanted his son to know Latin, German and mathematics. l. Ordin began his public career in 1642 as one of the representatives to delineate the new Russian-Swedish frontier after the peace of Stolbovo. l. He was one of the first Russians who collected foreign books, and it is known that once he was sent sixty nine books in Latin one time from abroad.
Early life and career • He attracted the attention of the young Tsar Alexey by his resourcefulness during the Pskov rebellion of 1650, that he successfully stopped through his personal influence. • At the beginning of the Russian-Swedish War (1656 -1658), Ordin was appointed to a high command position.
Later life and achievements • It was Ordin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and promoted direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia.
Later life and achievements • He also developed a postal system between Russia, Courland Poland, and introduced bills of exchange into Russia.
• His name is also associated with the building of the first Russian merchant vessels on the Dvina and Volga.
Later life and achievements • But his whole official career was a constant struggle against the routine of everyday work and personal jealousy on the part of the boyars and clerks of the council. He was employed in the negotiations for confirming the truce of Andrusovo (September 1669; March 1670).
• In January 1671 he was invited by the tsar on the occasion of his second marriage; but in February the same year he was dismissed, and withdrew to the Krypetsky monastery near his native Pskov. There he became a monk under the name of Antony, and occupied himself with religious work until his death in 1680.
Shuvalov Peter Ivanovich
Shuvalov was a famous Russian statesman. He began his career as a page in the court of tsesarevna Elizabeth. Later he was appointed a senator and became a count in 1746.
Initially, he was in charge of an army division. He also held the post of a conference minister. He improved the Russian artillery and built a few weapons factories.
He enjoyed unlimited power throughout the reign of Elizabeth. Almost no single affair of the state was to be taken care of without Shuvalov, especially those pertaining to national economy.
In 1753 Shuvalov presented before the Governing Senate a project to eliminate internal customs offices and outposts by increasing tariffs on imported goods instead.
In this statute he offered to eliminate customs duties on transportation of bread throughout the territory of Russia. In December 1753 his project was approved by Elizabeth. In 1754 Shuvalov was appointed the head of the Commission and he created new laws of the Russian Empire.
Internal customs borders were eliminated and in 1755 a new customs statute worked out by Shuvalov was adopted. In accordance with this statute foreign merchants who brought goods from abroad had a year deferment in paying duties for their goods.
Shuvalov wanted to create favorable conditions for the development of trade and industry in Russia, eliminating various kinds of restrictions for merchants. In the middle of the 18 -th century customs business in Russia became centralized and was carried out in accordance with a united customs policy.
The activity of M. V. Lomonosov in the customs business of Russia
Ø The customs policy and customs business in Russia have always been a subject of a particular attention of the crowned persons and governments. Therefore, all customs charters, tariffs and decrees concerning the creation of customs bodies received validity and were left to the first persons of the state.
Economic views of M. V. Lomonosov Ø Economic views of the great Russian scientist Michael Vasilievich Lomonosov occupy an important place in the history of the Russian economic thought. Numerous facts tell us about his interest to the history of economic ideas. He supported the edition of the Russian economic newspaper. He published “The Economic Dictionary of Russian Products”.
The activity of M. V. Lomonosov in the economic life of the country Ø Lomonosov is also considered to be the founder of the economic statistics in Russia. His “Atlas of Russia” is an academic questionnaire on separate parts of Russia and the country as a whole.
The activity M. V. Lomonosov in the customs business of Russia Ø His ideas influenced the economic policy of the country. As a result, the protectionist tariff was introduced in 1724. The creation of the merchant marine fleet and sea navigation also promoted the transformation of Russia into a powerful trading state.
M. V. Lomonosov supported active participation of the state in foreign trade development. Internal customs duties were canceled during the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna. It was an essential achievement.
Tengeborgsky L. V. Customs tariff of 1850
Tengeborgsky Ludvig Valeryanovich (1793 -1857) Tengeborgsky was one of the greatest Russian economists and statesmen. He was born in 1793 and had a successful career. In 1828 he was appointed Consul General in Dantsig, helped to found Kruckov Republic, and had negotiations with the Austrian Government which resulted in the sea convention between Russia and Austria.
Having returned from Austria he participated in the discussion of the project of new customs reforms, and objected to the existing tariff system.
New customs tariff, including duty rates for some kinds of goods, was introduced in 1850. The taxes on cotton fabrics, colonial goods and things like that were decreased.
He wrote a lot of scientific works in which he compared financial systems of different countries, and his works on statistics were considered to be the best of his time.
The new tariff of 1850 was not that strict as the tariff system worked out by Cancrin, which supported protectionist leaders. Under the tariff of 1844 there were 336 articles on which duties were imposed and under the tariff of 1850 there were only 118 dutiable articles. For many kinds of goods like cotton fabric, dye substances and equipment duties were greatly decreased.
The Tariff of 1850 was a very liberal one because it abolished many duties, especially for raw materials. Import of goods into Russia greatly increased from 1850 to 1870. But this situation was not good for local producers as their goods became more expensive and of lower quality. But it encouraged the development of the Russian industry. It became increasingly necessary to import equipment from abroad.
In 1848 Tengeborgsky was appointed a member of the State Council and in 1850 he became the Head of the Commission for the London World Exhibition. In 1850 he became the head of the Tariff Committee.
As a result, the development of the Russian industry increased foreign economic connections and the state budget.
Radishchev Alexander Nikolayevich 1749 -1802
A. N. Radishchev was born in a family of a wealthy landowner. He received an excellent education in St. Petersburg. As one of a few students showing outstanding academic achievements, he was sent by Catharine II to study law at Leipzig University in Germany (1766)
In 1771 Radishchev came back to St. Petersburg and started his career. By the way for the years spent in Germany he had absolutely forgotten his mother tongue. So before he started his career he had to learn Russian
While being engaged in the state service in the Senate Alexander Nicolayevich showed himself to be an honest, responsible and uncorrupted person. That is why in 1788 he was offered the position of Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs. All customs management was carried out by him personally.
As Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs Radishchev was in constant touch with British customs officials. It gave him a great opportunity to learn English so well that he spoke it fluently and even A. N. read English classics in the original. Radishchev developed a new customs tariff and for this job he was awarded
In 1789 the Russian economic suffered from the financial crisis caused by the Russian-Turkish war. To encourage the economic of the country Radishchev developed the project on temporary prohibition of luxury goods import to Russia.
In 1790 A. N. Radishchev was appointed the head of St. Petersburg customs. In this period of time he wrote “The project of new general customs duties”.
Cancrin Yegor Frantsievich
Cancrin Yegor Frantsievich was a famous statesman and Finance Minister of Russia from 1823 to 1844. He was born in 1774 in Hanau. His father, Franz Ludvig von Cancrin, had salt factories in Russia. In 1797 Yegor came to Russia and joined the imperial service. He was appointed the Minister of Finance of Russia and held office for 21 years.
He made a great contribution to the development of Russia, carried out some customs reforms, supporting protectionist policy of the state. He revised the tariff systems several times.
His attitude towards the tariff enacted in 1819 was negative, but he supported the tariff of 1822, though considering some duty rates too high, and changed the rates of some of them.
Changes in duty rates were accompanied by the development of the Russian industry and the state budget income increased. His tariff of 1826 encouraged sugar production in Russia.
Trying to develop Russian industry, Cancrin organized a Board of Manufactures, arranged industrial exhibitions in Russia, established the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, and promoted mining industry.
He changed the system of taxation and introduced excise for tobacco. State budget of that time suffered from lack of money. He managed to improve the situation and decreased the debt.
In spite of the fact that his activity had a lot of contradictions and he didn’t have radical reforms, it had a very practical approach. But he couldn’t overcome the backwardness of the country.
Dmitry Obolensky was born on October 26, 1822 in Saint. Petersburg. His father Alexander Petrovich Obolensky was a senator. In 1842 Dmitry finished Law School.
On June 28, 1863 Obolensky was appointed the Director of the Department of Customs Charges by the Highest Decree.
He was at the head of the Department of Customs charges for seven years, showing great abilities and energy. It took him 3 years to transform the whole department by reappointing staff members and introducing new ideas and new concepts.
In 1863 he was a member of the commission founded by the Ministry of Finance to revise the system of tax collection.
For his service and achievements he received many awards. The Order of St. Stanislav is only one of them. He received this Order in 1859.
For his service at the Department of Customs Charges he was awarded with the Order of St. Anna in 1864.
Mendeleyev and his Customs Tariff
The participation of Dmitry Mendeleyev in the development and realization of the customs-tariff policy of Russia still remains one of the least studied areas of his scientific activities. Meanwhile, the scientist considered his work to be one of his three services to Motherland, along with his work in the area of natural science and his teaching activity.
In September 1889 finance minister I. A. Vyshnegradski asked Mendeleyev to develop a new customs tariff. This tariff influenced national business and trade. His contemporaries named the tariff of 1891 «mendeleyevsky» .
But in 1892 another customs tariff was introduced. It is the main work of Mendeleyev on this problem. A wide range of the used sources and systematization made this tariff the original economic encyclopedia of Russia. The scientist came to the conclusion, that only the tariff, in which every kind and sort of commodities is discussed individually, can be considered to be the perfect one.
Developing the tariff, according to his opinion, it is necessary to take into consideration 2 important things: • a customs tariff will always be the matter of time, terms and circumstances of the country for which it was created; • a tariff will give effective results only when it is set firmly.
Years passed after 1891 have shown the rightness of the selected course in the customs policy: • the tariff did not decrease the import; • customs profits grew; • the total revenues of the state grew together with the customs profits. The scientist also participated in the development of the customs tariff of 1903.
During the Great Patriotic War the work of customs officers was connected to a constant risk. It demanded special professionalism, vigilance and courage. On September 1, 1941 37 customs and customs posts were operating. Their staff totaled 318 people, their administration totaled only 37 people. By the beginning of 1945 not more than 1000 people had worked at the customs of the USSR.
The basic direction of the work of customs establishments in the wartime was to control cargoes entering the country from England, Canada, the USA and other allied and neutral countries. Cargoes sent by the International Red Cross were also subject to customs control.
At the beginning of the war most of the customs staff joined the army and the guerrilla movement. Only Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Vladivostok, Baku customs posts continued their activity. The activity of all other customs of the Soviet Union was stopped.
Murmansk and Arkhangelsk customs during the Great Patriotic war became the main posts of the whole customs system of the country. (Their chiefs were Sokolinsky R. V. and Petrov В. А accordingly). It was marked, that these customs managed to bring up and to prepare qualified customs staff that helped to strengthen the customs system of the country.
For courage and heroism shown during the Great Patriotic War customs officers were awarded with orders and medals. Many of them were awarded posthumously. These people served our motherland, they did everything to execute the duty, they brought huge benefit to people. Their heroic deeds will remain in our hearts and become an example for all future generations of customs officers.
LOGO www. themegallery. com Boyarov Vitaliy Konstantinovich
LOGO Boyarov Vitaliy Konstantinovich v The head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control in the late 1980 -s. v Boyarov was born in 1928. His career is connected with the state service. He worked for the Committee of the National Security and for the Intelligence Service. He is a lawyer by education. www. themegallery. com
LOGO v In 1987 he was appointed the head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control. v He created the first Russian Customs Code and led the fight against smuggling. www. themegallery. com
LOGO v In the 80 -s the Customs Administration was a part of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Boyarov wanted it to become an independent body. This process started only in 1985 and the Central Administrative Board of Customs Control was established. www. themegallery. com
LOGO v During the period of customs reforms the traffic of smuggling greatly increased. There were many participants of foreign economic activity who violated customs rules while transporting goods. Customs Authorities could not provide proper customs control of the cargo and goods carried through the customs border of Russia. www. themegallery. com
LOGO v Boyarov created a system designed to struggle against smuggling of drugs using controlled delivery. In addition, he offered to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling with law enforcement agencies of different countries. v One of the main tasks of that time was the creation of harmonized system and coding of goods in accordance with international laws. www. themegallery. com
LOGO v While establishing the Customs Service of Russia, Boyarov always paid a lot of attention to people. He found many talented people and brought up a new generation of customs managers. Boyarov V. K. , Blinov N. M. the first head of the Russian Customs Academy www. themegallery. com
LOGO v Now he is the head of the Fund of Customs Service veterans and a lieutenant -general. He has received 32 state awards for his service. www. themegallery. com
Kruglov Anatoliy Sergeevich
Anatoly Sergeevich was born in 1951 in the village of Ulaynki located in Moscow region. He was a correspondent student of the All Union Law Institute.
Kruglov started his career as a customs inspector in 1973 and his whole career is connected with the work of customs. Then he was the head of the department and a deputy chief of the Customs Office of Chkalovsky Airport.
In 1992 he was appointed the head of the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation and was in office until 1998.
During the period between 1991 and 1994 much was done to create Customs legislation in Russia. Two important laws were put into action: “The Customs Code of the Russian Federation” and “Customs Tariff”. All provisions and regulations in these documents are of world standard.
Russia has the world’s largest territorial border to police, much of it newly created after the disintegration of the USSR. And the creation of Russian Customs was complicated by the fact that the best-equipped and best-staffed Customs Services were outside Russia. As a result, it acquired 13500 km of new borders with the former Soviet Republics. Moreover, the staff increased greatly during this period of time. This process was matched by growing organizational complexity.
Kruglov was a member of various commissions which helped to solve urgent problems of that time. He was awarded with the Order of Honor. Now he is the President of National Association of Customs Brokers.
The branch of our academy is proud to be named after the person who has done a lot for the customs service in the most difficult years of modern Russia. The history of the establishment and development of the Northwest region customs is closely connected with the name of its talented leader, a high class theorist and professional.
Vladimir Borisovich Bobkov was born on March 22, 1948 in the city of Sovetsk in Kaliningrad region. In 1972 he graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Shipbuilding and was directed to the Central scientific research institute named after academician A. N. Krylov as an engineer-researcher. In 1978 he was appointed an instructor of the Moscow CPSU committee of Leningrad, in 1980 he became an assistant manager of the industrial-transportation department of the same committee. In October 1983 V. B. Bobkov was appointed the chief of the customs office of Pulkovo airport.
It is symbolic that Vladimir Bobkov was awarded with Number One "Honourable customs officer of Russia" title (posthumously), as his active professional, scientific and pedagogical activity is still a magnificent example for young customs officers.
Vladimir Borisovich was the first to initiate the introduction of automated systems of customs registration of goods. He also developed the registration technique with the use of electronics. Bobkov started carrying out educational seminars where customs employees had an opportunity to study new technologies. The idea of creating regional customs administration belongs to V. B. Bobkov. In May 1990 he was appointed the head of the Northwest Customs Administration.
The second class state adviser, the first head of the Northwest Customs administration Vladimir Bobkov died on September 19, 1995 and was burried in the Holy Trinity Alexander Nevsky Lavra. And in the same year our branch was named after him.
The Russian Customs Academy is the first higher educational establishment which carries out training of specialists in Customs business. The St. Petersburg branch was established in 1994 and since that very time Major-General Myachin A. N. has been holding the position of the head of the branch.
Alexander Nikolayevich was born in 1956. He graduated from Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov in 1979. Before he was appointed the head of the branch he had been doing different kinds of administrative job.
Being the head of the St. Petersburg branch for the mentioned period of time Alexander Nickolayevich has made a significant contribution to the development of it. He tried his best to bring up a new generation of customs officers. Since the moment of the establishment of the branch nearly 2000 specialists have been prepared.
For his contribution to Russian Customs higher educational system A. N. Myachin was awarded with orders and medals.
Проект подготовили под руководством профессора, заведующего кафедрой Дементьевой Л. Г. консультант к. и. н. , доцент Соломеин А. Ю. старший преподаватель Кальченко Л. Н. старший преподаватель Кудрявцева Л. Г. www. themegallery. com
J. Kapantsan R. Samedov S. Buligina E. Zueva V. Hasanova M. Kolesinskaya M. Reutova K. Samokhvalova A. Belaya E. Grishchenko A. Tyurikova A. Belova E. Babkina
SOURCES § § § § 1. Графова Л. Л. English for Customs. М. , 1998 2. Государственная служба РФ. М. , Юрист, 2007 3. М. В. Ломоносов – основатель Московского Университета. По мат. книги Б. Н, Меншуткина «Жизнеописание Михаила Васильевича Ломоносова» . Изд. АН СССр, Москва-Ленинград 4. Соломеин А. Ю. История таможенного дела и таможенной политики России. СПб. , 2007 5. Таможенная служба в России. РИО РТА, 2003 6. Таможенная служба в Российской Федерации. М. , 2000 7. Таможенная служба Санкт-Петербурга. Под общей редакцией В. И. Вьюнова СПб, «Статис» 2003 8. Электронная научная библиотека http: //russia. rin. ru/guides_e/5123. html http: //www. encspb. ru/en/article. php? kod=2804026881 http: //dic. academic. ru/dic. nsf/enwiki/138033 http: //www. fintrest. ru/ekonom/kurs 012. html http: //www. vlsov. ru/
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