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Our Experience in Assisting Developing Countries to Develop Their Textbook Industry 14 June 2006 Our Experience in Assisting Developing Countries to Develop Their Textbook Industry 14 June 2006

Agenda • • Vital Statistics of Singapore Book Chain in Singapore Evolution of Textbook Agenda • • Vital Statistics of Singapore Book Chain in Singapore Evolution of Textbook Publishing International Collaboration • • Brunei Darussalam China United States Malaysia Caribbean Pakistan Vietnam Thailand & Indonesia • Moving Forward A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 2

Vital Statistics of Singapore 14 June 2006 Vital Statistics of Singapore 14 June 2006

Total Population (‘ 000) 4, 240. 3 Singapore Residents (‘ 000) 3, 486. 9 Total Population (‘ 000) 4, 240. 3 Singapore Residents (‘ 000) 3, 486. 9 Population Density (Per Sq Km) 6, 066 Land Area (Sq Km) 699 Literacy Rate (%) (among residents aged 15 yrs & over) 94. 6 % with Secondary or Higher Qualifications (among residents non-students aged 15 yrs & over) 57. 8 Mean Years of Schooling (Yrs) (among resident non-students aged 25 yrs & over) 8. 8 Per Capita GDP (US$) 25, 810 A member of Times Publishing Limited Source: Singapore Department of Statistics (www. singstat. gov. sg) on 20 May 2005. 14 June 2006 4

Singapore’s View on Education • Multi-racial Society • • 77% Chinese 14% Malays 8% Singapore’s View on Education • Multi-racial Society • • 77% Chinese 14% Malays 8% Indians 1% Others • People as our only natural resources. • Since self-government (1959), education in Singapore has always played a dual role of supporting economic growth and promoting social integration. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 5

Book Chain in Singapore 14 June 2006 Book Chain in Singapore 14 June 2006

The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Education School Curriculum Textbook Publisher The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Education School Curriculum Textbook Publisher A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 7

The Book Chain in Singapore Author / Editor Textbook Publisher Publishing Production Printer A The Book Chain in Singapore Author / Editor Textbook Publisher Publishing Production Printer A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 8

The Book Chain in Singapore Trainer Textbook Publisher Sales Bookseller School Adoption A member The Book Chain in Singapore Trainer Textbook Publisher Sales Bookseller School Adoption A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 9

The Book Chain in Singapore Education Textbook Publisher Sales Publishing A member of Times The Book Chain in Singapore Education Textbook Publisher Sales Publishing A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 10

The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Trainer Education School Curriculum Author The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Trainer Education School Curriculum Author / Editor Textbook Publisher Sales Publishing Bookseller Production School Adoption Printer A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 11

The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Trainer School Curriculum Textbook Publisher The Book Chain in Singapore National Standard Assessment/ Examination Trainer School Curriculum Textbook Publisher Bookseller Author / Editor Production School Adoption Printer A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 12

Evolution of Textbook Publishing 14 June 2006 Evolution of Textbook Publishing 14 June 2006

Evolution of Textbook Publishing 1959 - 1980 • • 1965, Singapore achieved Independence. 1967, Evolution of Textbook Publishing 1959 - 1980 • • 1965, Singapore achieved Independence. 1967, EPB was set up under the MOE to publish textbooks. The Initial Years 1981 - 2000 • CDIS was set up under the MOE to develop curriculum and co-publish textbooks with publishers. The Co-publishing Era 2000 Onwards • Liberalisation of textbook publishing. Textbook Liberalisation A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 14

The Initial Years 14 June 2006 The Initial Years 14 June 2006

The Initial Years • Vernacular Schools • showed strong orientation towards the respective countries The Initial Years • Vernacular Schools • showed strong orientation towards the respective countries where our forefathers came from • High Unemployment (Post-war Years) • job opportunities limited in private sector • those in public sector required people reasonably proficient in the English language • High Cost of (Imported) Books A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 16

Affordable Textbooks • Textbooks were expensive as most of them were imported. The values Affordable Textbooks • Textbooks were expensive as most of them were imported. The values were diverse and may not have served Singapore well. • Education Publication Bureau (EPB) was set up in 1967 under the MOE to provide • affordable textbooks • common textbooks to promote national cohesion, and to provide a common message for nation building • EPB took over the publication of Chinese textbooks and later all Mother-Tongue textbooks. • MOE deliberately brought the price down • students are required to buy textbooks A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 17

Bilingualism • Introduced bilingualism to tackle the problem of Chinese, Malay, and Tamil education. Bilingualism • Introduced bilingualism to tackle the problem of Chinese, Malay, and Tamil education. • English • Mother-Tongue (C, M, T) • Singapore Government recognised that English Language will be the key international language of communication. • English became the language of instruction and medium of communication amongst the ethnic races. • Produced better educated and suitably equipped workforce to meet the manpower needs of an industrialising and modernising economy. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 18

Features of Education Policies • A common curriculum for all school subjects in the Features of Education Policies • A common curriculum for all school subjects in the four language media. • A common training for all teachers at the Teachers’ Training College. • Institution of common examinations: • PSLE • Cambridge School Certificate Examination • Cambridge HSC Examination • kept links to the Cambridge examinations in order to maintain high standards which would be recognised world wide A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 19

Publishing Industry • Curriculum was prescribed to the schools via syllabuses issued by MOE. Publishing Industry • Curriculum was prescribed to the schools via syllabuses issued by MOE. • However, schools still have a free hand in selecting their own textbooks from the many books available in the market. • Publishers published textbooks that conform to the syllabuses. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 20

The Co-publishing Era 14 June 2006 The Co-publishing Era 14 June 2006

The Co-publishing Era • MOE set up the Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore (CDIS). The Co-publishing Era • MOE set up the Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore (CDIS). • 200– 300 teachers were co-opted from schools to become full-time textbook writers. • curriculum development remains the responsibility of Curriculum Development Division. • CDIS co-publishes 85% of the titles in the MOE’s Approved Textbook List for use by pupils in schools. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 22

Benefits to the Publishing Houses • For subjects where the CDIS had jurisdiction, an Benefits to the Publishing Houses • For subjects where the CDIS had jurisdiction, an agreement with publishers gives the textbooks currency for generally 10 years (unless changes made to syllabuses although not frequent). • “guaranteed” revenue for 10 years. • CDIS’ active involvement in textbook production and its close working relationship with publishers has ensured the high standard of instructional materials used in schools. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 23

One of Our Partnership with CDIS • The PETS Series was used in Singapore One of Our Partnership with CDIS • The PETS Series was used in Singapore by all schools for almost a decade starting from mid-1980 s till mid-1990 s. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 24

Privatisation of EPB • EPB, the state-owned textbook publishing house, was privatised in the Privatisation of EPB • EPB, the state-owned textbook publishing house, was privatised in the early 1980 s. • It merged with Singapore National Printer to form SNP Education. • The privatisation of EPB allowed it to compete fairly with other commercial publishing houses for contracts with CDIS. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 25

Textbook Liberalisation 14 June 2006 Textbook Liberalisation 14 June 2006

Liberalisation • With the standards of commercial publishing houses firmly established after 2 decades Liberalisation • With the standards of commercial publishing houses firmly established after 2 decades of close collaboration with CDIS, the MOE will no longer be involved in writing and producing instructional materials for most subjects in the curriculum. • However, MOE will continue to develop the syllabuses for all subjects. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 27

Ensuring High Standards • MOE maintains a rigorous textbook authorisation process to ensure high Ensuring High Standards • MOE maintains a rigorous textbook authorisation process to ensure high quality of the commercially produced instructional materials. • Only those that are approved by the MOE can be used in schools. • MOE also controls the price structure closely to ensure prices of textbooks and workbooks remains affordable to parents. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 28

The Future, Now • By 2008, 90% of the textbooks and workbooks in schools The Future, Now • By 2008, 90% of the textbooks and workbooks in schools will be produced by commercial publishers. • Instead of revising the syllabuses every 10 years during the CDIS era, now the syllabuses are reviewed and changed where necessary every 5 -6 years in order to capture and reflect the rapid changes of society and the economy. • Publishers are being approached to share our experiences in producing high quality and affordable instructional materials. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 29

International Collaboration 14 June 2006 International Collaboration 14 June 2006

Modes of Collaboration 1. Co-publishing with local publishers, distributors or Ministries of Education; 1. Modes of Collaboration 1. Co-publishing with local publishers, distributors or Ministries of Education; 1. Adaptation, localisation, and customisation of existing contents to suit local needs. 2. Adoption of our existing titles coupled with provision of teacher’s training workshops. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 31

Adaptation, Localisation, and Customisation • Localisation is about providing content customised to local syllabus, Adaptation, Localisation, and Customisation • Localisation is about providing content customised to local syllabus, together with an infusion of modern pedagogy in the textbook packages. • Localisation is about respecting and highlighting local culture. • Localisation or adaptation of textbook packages is NOT about simply changing the language of instruction, nor about changing the illustrations in the books. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 32

Countries where we co-published textbooks with 11 countries … A member of Times Publishing Countries where we co-published textbooks with 11 countries … A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 33

Case Studies • • Brunei Darussalam China United States Malaysia Caribbean Pakistan Vietnam Thailand Case Studies • • Brunei Darussalam China United States Malaysia Caribbean Pakistan Vietnam Thailand & Indonesia A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 34

Brunei Darussalam 14 June 2006 Brunei Darussalam 14 June 2006

 • • • Singapore and Brunei have close bilateral relationship since 1960 s, • • • Singapore and Brunei have close bilateral relationship since 1960 s, hence Panpac Education started its international publishing experience with the Brunei MOE in the early 1980 s. Panpac Education was invited to co-publish with the Brunei MOE in these subjects: Bahasa Melayu, Science, Mathematics, History, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Brunei MOE sets the syllabuses, Panpac Education engages authors to write and then publish the book, which will be sold by local Brunei distributors in that market. In this instance, Brunei lack publishing capability, hence Panpac Education was invited to publish contents suitable for local needs. Since then, we have been publishing for Brunei MOE for the last 20 years. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 36

China, Liaoning Province 14 June 2006 China, Liaoning Province 14 June 2006

 • Panpac Education started working with the State Education Commission of Liaoning Province, • Panpac Education started working with the State Education Commission of Liaoning Province, northeast China since early 2001. • We first introduced our Mathematics and Science textbook packages that were all written in English and used by Singapore schools for their review. • They were very interested to use our contents but due to their lack of proficiency in the English Language, we suggested to them to have bilingual editions. • We fully translated the contents in its original form into bilingual editions of Chinese and English Language and pilot them throughout the province. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 38

United States 14 June 2006 United States 14 June 2006

 • • • Panpac Education first entered the US through a local distributor • • • Panpac Education first entered the US through a local distributor distributing our Mathematics publications, mostly to primary and secondary schools. Subsequently, the distributor saw the potential of moving into the Primary Mathematics supplementary materials market with our publications and suggested to have one of our bestselling publications customised to suit the US market. We re-packaged the initial series of four books into six books for each primary level and the terms used in the contents were chosen to ensure familiarity to the US students, e. g. • • replacing the local Singaporean names such as Fatimah or Siti, to Jane or Mary replacing tropical fruit names such as durians and rambutans to oranges and grapes A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 40

Malaysia 14 June 2006 Malaysia 14 June 2006

 • • In June 2002, former Malaysian PM, Dr Mahatir Mohammed made a • • In June 2002, former Malaysian PM, Dr Mahatir Mohammed made a sudden announcement that Mathematics and Science would be taught in English from Jan 2003 onwards. This meant that all Mathematics and Science textbooks need to be published by end Oct 2002 and distributed to all schools by end Nov 2002 before the 2003 school year begins. Panpac Education was short listed to publish Mathematics Year 1 for Malaysian MOE developed the syllabus, we took care of the writing to the publishing and distribution of the textbook packages in less than 5 months (by end Nov 2002) to all parts of Malaysia including remote areas of the country and Eastern Malaysia by helicopter drop-offs and speedboat deliveries. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 42

Caribbean 14 June 2006 Caribbean 14 June 2006

 • • • In late 1990 s, we partnered one of the textbook • • • In late 1990 s, we partnered one of the textbook distributor in the region to enter into Caribbean, competing with international publishers by offering quality books at affordable price. In mid-2004, our partner was successfully awarded the tender to publish a number of core curriculum subjects of the new syllabus. Panpac Education became the publishing house to fulfil the publishing of those subject. • • writers were engaged to write original contents in accordance with the syllabus This was the first time that full textbook packages consisting of textbooks, workbooks, teacher’s guides, teacher’s editions and multimedia resources were introduced. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 44

 • In the process, locally well known educators in Caribbean were enlisted as • In the process, locally well known educators in Caribbean were enlisted as reviewers of the publication to make sure that the contents are in sync with local contexts and adhered to the syllabus. • Illustrations that were familiar to Caribbean students, including skin colours of different local ethnic groups were depicted in the textbooks. • It was through this process of exchanging information and experiences that our partner realised that printing and fulfilment in Singapore and/or China was cheaper than in Caribbean. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 45

Pakistan 14 June 2006 Pakistan 14 June 2006

 • • Panpac Education has been working with one of the largest private • • Panpac Education has been working with one of the largest private school education publisher and distributor in Pakistan for more than 25 years, introducing our textbook packages into the large private school market throughout the country. In the last few years, we started adapting and customising our existing educational contents in English and Science for this market through understanding of the local culture and religion, e. g. • • • local educators were enlisted as reviewers of the publications to ensure adherence to local contexts and syllabus we took out sensitive topics such as “reproduction” and replaced animals such as pigs and dogs that are considered inappropriate in Islamic religion and with other animals textbook covers and many illustrations were re-drawn to reflect familiarity to students Finally, we published and printed the entire textbook packages for our partner, making use of networks throughout the low-cost Asian region. Our partner found our production costs to be much more competitive compared to having them done in Pakistan. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 47

Vietnam 14 June 2006 Vietnam 14 June 2006

 • Panpac Education formed a strong working relationship with the state-owned publisher in • Panpac Education formed a strong working relationship with the state-owned publisher in Vietnam, who found our experiences in customisation and adaptation of our contents to local conditions very appealing. • We provided expertise in editorial and pre-press processes as well as provided consultation to the writing of their English Language textbooks. • When the textbooks were ready to be piloted all over the country, we provided the expertise in teacher’s training, helping them to develop teacher training materials for use in teacher training workshops throughout the country. • We believe that this partnership flourish because we are willing to impart knowledge to our partners. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 49

Indonesia & Thailand 14 June 2006 Indonesia & Thailand 14 June 2006

 • • Singapore has close bilateral ties with Thailand Indonesia hence it was • • Singapore has close bilateral ties with Thailand Indonesia hence it was only natural for Panpac Education to have long working relationships with local distributors in these two countries. Many of the schools in Thailand Indonesia look up to the Singapore education system centred on using English Language as the key language of instruction and would like to emulate it in their schools … the fastest way to improve their education system is to use Singapore-published textbooks in their teaching and learning … hence our English Language, Mathematics & Science textbooks are widely distributed in these two countries. In Indonesia, many of the schools adopted the Chinese Language textbooks used in Singapore as part of their core curriculum since Indonesia has a significant Chinese population akin to retaining the learning of Chinese Language amongst their children and they could not find good Chinese Language materials suitable to their needs; publications from China and Taiwan were not customised to local needs in terms of cultural affinity, style of presentation and level of difficulty … therefore Singapore Chinese Textbooks, published only by Panpac Education, was the preferred choice since we have gone through years of defining the Chinese curriculum suitable for learners of Chinese as a Second Language. We also worked with our partners to conduct teacher’s training workshops as part of our commitment to transfer teaching and learning skills into the two A member of Times Publishing Limited countries. 14 June 2006 51

Moving Forward 14 June 2006 Moving Forward 14 June 2006

Moving Forward • As we accumulate more international publishing experiences through partnerships with many Moving Forward • As we accumulate more international publishing experiences through partnerships with many government bodies, local publishers, and distributors, we were invited by many other partners from developing countries to help them develop their textbook industry, for example: • Iraq under the auspices of UNESCO as part of their initiative to rebuild Iraq’s education system. • Egypt, as they will be undergoing their new syllabus cycle and would like to join hands with experienced foreign education publishers to create new textbooks for their schools. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 53

Moving Forward • Our partners like our flexible and modular partnership models, especially our Moving Forward • Our partners like our flexible and modular partnership models, especially our ability to be a one-stop education services provider and our expertise in providing high quality education contents into the partnerships. • Panpac Education firmly believes that to make our partnerships meaningful and long-lasting, we not only need to provide high quality one-stop publishing, printing and fulfilment services, we must be committed to the transfer of knowledge. A member of Times Publishing Limited 14 June 2006 54