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Graphical Communication l l Humans have been using pictures to communicate since as early as 15000 BC. These pictures still communicate quite effectively today.
l However different cultures, materials and conditions led to much more varied graphical communications
l Today we have innumerable methods of graphical communication. The majority of which are very open to individual interpretation.
l l l Imagine trying to describe this printer, precisely, This variation in graphical communication across using verbal countries, cultures and individuals as well as the communication barriers presented by verbal communication presented a problem to engineers, architects and designers. The engineers, architects and designers developed their own methods of graphical communication which are used throughout the world. The primary communication methods are orthographic projection and isometric/axonometric projection.
Orthographic projection l l Orthographic projection is the most commonly used projection method for realizing objects. The reasons that isometric/axonometric isn't as common are as follow. l l l Direct measurements cannot always be taken from axonometric drawings. Sometimes not all details/features of an object are shown with an axonometric view. Isometric and axonometric drawings take longer to set up than orthographic. Sometimes impossible objects/structures are drawn which cannot be created. It isn't the clearest way to present an object.
Orthographic projection l l l Orthographic projection is the preferred method of communicating ideas between engineers, architects and designers. Gaspard Monge “invented” the system when he was working as an engineer for the French military. It was kept as a military secret for many years until it was released and became the projection system used across Europe. However viewing objects orthogonally (in 2 D) was used as early as 1200 BC. Even Da Vinci used orthogonal views in his drawings.
Viewing objects orthogonally l Orthographic means to draw at right angles, this means we look perpendicular to an objects face and draw it. l l l Ortho: Latin for 90° Graphic: Picture To view an object orthogonally we simply rotate the object until we are looking directly (at 90°) at one of its faces.