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Orphans due to AIDS Module by Shauna Sutton December 1, 2008 Orphans due to AIDS Module by Shauna Sutton December 1, 2008

Fair Use and Privacy Policies • I have read the policy on Fair Use Fair Use and Privacy Policies • I have read the policy on Fair Use developed by American University and have read the Privacy Policies for the reports included in this module. The information provided in this lesson plan is cited correctly, and will not be used for business purposes or for any form of profit. The intended use of this module is solely educational and informational. Sources are located on each slide (including URL addresses) and a reference page is included after each section with full citations. – Note: Much of the information is directly from policies, frameworks, or other reports in order to be as accurate as possible. Therefore, some things are portrayed in this module exactly as written in the reports and is the work of the authors; anything that is italicized is an exact quote from a cited work.

Learning Module Objectives • This module is intended for advanced high school students, college Learning Module Objectives • This module is intended for advanced high school students, college students, and others interested in developing an understanding of orphans due to AIDS • To provide a sociological perspective on orphans due to AIDS. • To provide estimates of the global AIDS pandemic using statistics and graphs • To provide estimates of the number of orphans due to AIDS

Learning Module Objectives • To provide a focus on one country, Zambia, to enhance Learning Module Objectives • To provide a focus on one country, Zambia, to enhance recognition of the social implications and consequences for the children orphaned due to AIDS in this particular society • To serve as a model for others to build modules illuminating other countries where there are large numbers of orphans due to AIDS

Lesson plan • 1. Summary of the AIDS pandemic – 2007 – – – Lesson plan • 1. Summary of the AIDS pandemic – 2007 – – – Global Sub-Saharan Africa Zambia Implications for those affected by HIV/AIDS References and suggested readings/resources • 2. Operationalization of ‘orphan’ – – – Maternal, paternal, double, total, new Vulnerable children Positive and negative terms How do the orphans want to be defined? References • 3. Summary of orphans due to AIDS – Current – 2010 projections – References and suggested readings

Lesson Plan • 4. Sociological perspective – Sociological concepts – References • 5. Zambia Lesson Plan • 4. Sociological perspective – Sociological concepts – References • 5. Zambia – Sociological concepts and implications for orphans due to AIDS – – – Why Zambia? Social structure Institutions Inequalities Connections between structure, institutions, and inequalities References and suggested readings/resources • 6. Responses to HIV/AIDS pandemic and orphans – – – Frameworks Global Africa Zambia References suggested readings/resources

Section 1 Summary of the AIDS Pandemic Section 1 Summary of the AIDS Pandemic

AIDS • A disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic AIDS • A disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and candidiasis, to certain cancers, as Kaposi's sarcoma, and to neurological disorders: caused by a retrovirus and transmitted chiefly through blood or blood products that enter the body's bloodstream, esp. by sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. * *Dictionary. com

Summary of the AIDS pandemic • Global organizations often provide ranges along with estimates Summary of the AIDS pandemic • Global organizations often provide ranges along with estimates for the number of people that have AIDS. The pandemic has spread quickly in many areas and it is difficult to find every individual that is infected. For this module, I have included the ranges provided by these organizations.

Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Global • Number of people living with HIV Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Global • Number of people living with HIV in 2007 – – Total = 33. 2 million [range, 30. 6 -36. 1 million] Adults = 30. 8 million [range, 28. 2 -33. 6 million] Women = 15. 4 million [range, 13. 9 -16. 6 million] Children under 15 years = 2. 5 million [2. 2 -2. 6 million] • Deaths due to AIDS in 2007 – Total = 2. 1 million [range, 1. 9 -2. 4 million] – Adults = 1. 7 million [range, 1. 4 -2. 1 million] – Children under 15 years = 330, 000 [range, 310, 000380, 000] *UNAIDS, Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007 - http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007_epiupdate_en. pdf

*UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf *UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf

*UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf *UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf

Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Sub-Saharan Africa • Number of people living with Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Sub-Saharan Africa • Number of people living with HIV in 2007 – Adults & children = 22. 5 million [range, 20. 9– 24. 3 million] • Deaths due to AIDS in 2007 – Adults & children = 1. 6 million [range, 1. 5 -2. 0 million] • 68% of all people that are HIV-positive live in Sub. Saharan Africa • 76% of all AIDS deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa *UNAIDS – Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007

*UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf *UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf

*UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf *UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf

*UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf *UNAIDS http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf

Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Zambia • Infected with HIV: 1. 1 million Summary of the AIDS pandemic – Zambia • Infected with HIV: 1. 1 million in 2005 – Estimated 17% prevalence rate in adults aged 15 -49*** • Prevalence rates** – Urban: 23% – Rural : 11% – Women: 18% – Men: 13% • Deaths per year due to AIDS 2007: 56, 000 [low and high estimates: 47, 000 and 66, 000]* – 2001 estimates were much higher: 78, 000 [high and low estimates: 68, 0000 and 89, 000]* *Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS, Zambia, 2008 Update **Ministry of Health, Republic of Zambia ***UNICEF – Zambia Statistics

Summary of AIDS pandemic, Zambia – estimated number of deaths *Epidemiological Fact Sheet on Summary of AIDS pandemic, Zambia – estimated number of deaths *Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV & AIDS, Zambia, 2008 Update (http: //www. who. int/globalatlas/predefined. Reports/EFS 2008/full/EFS 2008_ZM. pdf)

Implications for those affected by HIV/AIDS * Foster and Williamson. 2000. (http: //www. hsrc. Implications for those affected by HIV/AIDS * Foster and Williamson. 2000. (http: //www. hsrc. ac. za/Document-2177. phtml)

References – Section 1 • • • World Health Organization. “Epidemiological Fact Sheet on References – Section 1 • • • World Health Organization. “Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS: Core data on epidemiology and response, Zambia, 2008 Update. ” Retrieved October 30, 2008 (http: //www. who. int/globalatlas/predefined. Reports/EFS 2008/full/EFS 2008_Z M. pdf). Ministry of Health – Republic of Zambia. Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //www. moh. gov. zm/files/Shared_alth_Strategic_Plan_Revised_July_20_ 2006_1_. pdf). UNAIDS. 2007. “Global summary of the AIDS epidemic. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007_epiupdate_en. pdf). UNAIDS. 2007. “Global summary of the AIDS epidemic. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/EPISlides/2007/071119_epislides_en. pdf). UNICEF. “Zambia Statistics. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //www. unicef. org/infobycountry/zambia_statistics. html).

Suggested Readings & Resources • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDs. “Home. ” Retrieved November Suggested Readings & Resources • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDs. “Home. ” Retrieved November 23, 2008 (http: //www. avert. org).

Section 2 Operationalization of ‘orphan’ [Operationalize means to define a concept or variable so Section 2 Operationalization of ‘orphan’ [Operationalize means to define a concept or variable so that it can be measured or expressed quantitatively]* *Dictionary. com

Operationalization of ‘orphan’ • Maternal orphans are children under age 18 whose mothers, and Operationalization of ‘orphan’ • Maternal orphans are children under age 18 whose mothers, and perhaps fathers, have died (includes double orphans) • Paternal orphans are children under age 18 whose fathers, and perhaps mothers have died (includes double orphans) • Double orphans are children under 18 whose mothers and fathers have died • Total orphans are children under age 18 whose mothers or fathers (or both) have died. The total number of orphans is equal to the sum of maternal orphans and paternal orphans, minus double orphans (because they are counted in both the maternal and paternal categories). • New orphans are children under age 18 who have lost one or both parents in the last year * Note: Definitions are exactly as provided in UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action” [p. 6]

Operationalization of ‘vulnerable children’ • Vulnerable children refers to those children whose survival, well-being, Operationalization of ‘vulnerable children’ • Vulnerable children refers to those children whose survival, well-being, or development is threatened by HIV/AIDS* • A research project conducted in Zambia provides this definition for a vulnerable child: – Vulnerable child is defined as a child who is at increased risk due to an ill parent, high level of poverty, or is living in a household with orphaned children. ** Note: Definitions are exactly as provided in these references. *UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action” [p. 6]; **USAID/Zambia – Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey in Four Districts in Zambia [p. 12]

Operationalization • Children on the Brink 2004 suggests positive and negative terms for referring Operationalization • Children on the Brink 2004 suggests positive and negative terms for referring to orphans* – Negative • AIDS orphans • OVC: orphans and vulnerable children • CABA: children affected by HIV/AIDS – Positive • Orphans due to AIDS • Children orphaned by AIDS • Children in Zambia are particularly stigmatized or looked down upon when referred to as ‘AIDS orphans’** – A community focus group provided the term mulanda meaning a vulnerable or suffering child who has no parents – Orphans and vulnerable children in Zambia may also be referred to as children in difficult circumstances*** *UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action” [p. 6] **Situation Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report [p. 7] ***Smart, Rose. USAID. “Polices for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Framework for Moving Ahead” [p. 4]

Operationalization • Has anyone asked the children what term they prefer? – UNICEF indicated Operationalization • Has anyone asked the children what term they prefer? – UNICEF indicated that when compiling the data for Children on the Brink 2004, they asked some children what they would like to be called. They replied, • Just call us children *Children on the Brink 2004 [p. 6]

References – Section 2 • Manda, Karen Doll, Michael J. Kelly, and Mark Loudon. References – Section 2 • Manda, Karen Doll, Michael J. Kelly, and Mark Loudon. 1999. “Situation Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report. ” Volume 1, Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //www. harare. unesco. org/hivaids/webfiles/Electronic%20 Versions/Situation. Analys isof. Orphans. doc). • • • Smart, Rose. 2003. USAID. “Polices for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Framework for Moving Ahead. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //www. policyproject. com/pubs/generalreport/OVC_Polices. pdf). UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNACY 333. pdf). USAID – Zambia. “Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey in Four Districts in Zambia. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //www. fhi. org/NR/rdonlyres/eu 6 n 5 zdvgoyjqjnhzzpn 5 hlqnwloaso 7 z 2 uosdeengj 2 lz 2 4 lfasjknxwxbektsabfdpr 5 ynpfvuco/HHHOVCREPORTfinalenhv. pdf).

Section 3 Summary of orphans due to AIDS Section 3 Summary of orphans due to AIDS

Summary of orphans due to AIDS • Global organizations often make estimates using a Summary of orphans due to AIDS • Global organizations often make estimates using a range because it is incredibly difficult to capture exact numbers of orphans and vulnerable children. For this module, I have included the ranges as well as estimates from two different organizations.

Summary of orphans due to AIDS – current statistics • Global: 15 million* • Summary of orphans due to AIDS – current statistics • Global: 15 million* • Sub-Saharan Africa: 12. 3 million* • Zambia: – World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 2007: 600, 000 [low and high estimates: 530, 000 and 660, 000]** – The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates: 710, 000*** – Orphans due to AIDS as a percentage of all other orphans: 57%**** **UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action”; **Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS, Zambia, 2008 Update; ***UNICEF – Zambia Statistics; ****Avert

Summary of orphans due to AIDS – 2010 projections • Projected number of orphans Summary of orphans due to AIDS – 2010 projections • Projected number of orphans due to AIDS, globally, 2010 – 15. 7 million • This number is 30 percent of the total 53 million orphans projected for 2010 • Projected number of orphans due to AIDS, Sub. Saharan Africa, 2010 – 10 million • This means that 10 million children will have lost or will lose both parents by 2010 [NOTE: This is an enormous number, but it is still less than 2007, as the numbers are slowly declining. ] *Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children Affected by AIDS 2006 http: //www. unicef. org/publications/files/Africas_Orphaned_and_Vulnerable_Generations_Children_ Affected_by_AIDS. pdf

Summary of orphans due to AIDS – 2010 projections • The report compiled by Summary of orphans due to AIDS – 2010 projections • The report compiled by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – “Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children Affected by AIDS” – included methodology for how the 2010 projections were produced. For that information, refer to the annex of that report on pages 40 -42. (http: //www. unicef. org/publications/files/Africas_Or phaned_and_Vulnerable_Generations_Children_Aff ected_by_AIDS. pdf)

References – Section 3 • • • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDS. “AIDS Orphans. References – Section 3 • • • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDS. “AIDS Orphans. ” Retrieved October 15, 2008 (http: //www. avert. org/aidsorphans. htm). UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNACY 333. pdf). UNICEF. “Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children Affected by AIDS 2006. ” Retrieved October 14, 2008 (http: //www. unicef. org/publications/files/Africas_Orphaned_and_Vulnerable_Generatio ns_Children_Affected_by_AIDS. pdf). • • UNICEF. “Zambia Statistics. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //www. unicef. org/infobycountry/zambia_statistics. html). WHO. “Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS: Core data on epidemiology and response, Zambia 2008 Update. ” Retrieved October 26, 2008 (http: //www. who. int/globalatlas/predefined. Reports/EFS 2008/full/EFS 2008_Z M. pdf).

Suggested Readings & Resources • Nybo, Thomas. 2005. “Orphaned by AIDS, young girl struggles Suggested Readings & Resources • Nybo, Thomas. 2005. “Orphaned by AIDS, young girl struggles to care for her family. ” UNICEF: Unite for Children, Unite Against AIDS. Retrieved November 23, 2008 (http: //www. uniteforchildren. org/knowmore_28887. htm).

Section 4 Sociological perspective Section 4 Sociological perspective

Sociological Perspective • What is sociology? – Sociologists systematically study groups of people, the Sociological Perspective • What is sociology? – Sociologists systematically study groups of people, the impact of their social environments, their interactions with one another and with institutions in society. Additionally, sociologists focus on the structural and cultural factors that affect the behavior of individuals. • Purpose of sociological perspective on orphans due to AIDS – The purpose of incorporating a sociological perspective is to encourage viewers to consider a number of social factors affecting the opportunities for orphans. I want to illuminate the implications for orphans by including elements from their social environments. That is, what factors affect their life chances? For example, does the gender of the head of household affect children’s opportunities? Does family structure affect children’s access to education? What about inequalities based on gender or the stigma of HIV/AIDS? – It is important to note that I am not conducting primary research for this module. Rather, I am compiling information on the factors associated with orphans due to AIDS. Moreover, I am challenging you to consider the social factors that influence orphans’ “choices. ” Often, structural and cultural norms, values, and beliefs limit children from making real choices.

Sociological Concepts • To understand the circumstances of orphans due to AIDS, it is Sociological Concepts • To understand the circumstances of orphans due to AIDS, it is important to consider the social organization and environment of society in which the orphans live. This includes the overall social structure, institutions, and inequalities and equally important the connections or intersections between each. As part of the social structure, it is important to consider the norms, values, and beliefs of the people in this society, which are apparent as we explore each of these three major concepts throughout the next section. • Social structure – Institutions • Family • Educational system – Inequalities • Gender • HIV/AIDS stigma

Section 5 Zambia – Sociological concepts and implications for orphans due to AIDS Section 5 Zambia – Sociological concepts and implications for orphans due to AIDS

http: //www. lonelyplanet. com/maps/africa/zambia/ http: //www. lonelyplanet. com/maps/africa/zambia/

Why Zambia? • Zambia is one of the African countries hit hardest with the Why Zambia? • Zambia is one of the African countries hit hardest with the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and it is also one of the poorest nations in the world. Many of the implications for orphans in this country are the same in other countries affected by the virus. However, poverty and disease make conditions even tougher for orphans and vulnerable children. Zambia has received an enormous amount of media attention and many efforts have been implemented to combat HIV/AIDS. This relatively small country is firmly committed to the fight against HIV/AIDS. Their latest country response report to UNAIDS shows decreases in HIV prevalence.

Social Structure • Zambia statistics – Population: 11. 9 million – Life expectancy, 2006: Social Structure • Zambia statistics – Population: 11. 9 million – Life expectancy, 2006: 41 – Gross national income (GNI) per capita: US$630 (annual) • In 2002, GNI was US$353 per year and 78% of the population was below the poverty line*** – Percent of population below US$1 per day: 64 • More than half of Zambia’s population lives in extreme poverty – Percent of population urbanized, 2006: 35 – Percent of central government expenditure allocated to health, 1995 -2005: 13 **UNICEF – Zambia Statistics, ***USAID - Zambia

Social Structure • Implications for orphans – Orphans are often affected by the twin Social Structure • Implications for orphans – Orphans are often affected by the twin pressures of poverty and disease** • This can lead to extreme levels of food insecurity – These two pressures often force children to find ways to survive • Participation in risky behaviors, exploitation* • Work on the streets to buy food • Exchange/sell their bodies (both boys and girls) for food or money*** **UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action”; **Fleshman, “AIDS orphans: facing Africa’s ‘silent crisis’”; ***Situational Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report 1999

Institutions – Family Structure in Zambia Family Types Focus Group discussions identified and described Institutions – Family Structure in Zambia Family Types Focus Group discussions identified and described three types of families. They are: Bakankala, bavubide; (the rich, well off) These families are said to: have plenty of food to eat live in good houses with iron sheet roof keep many goats and in some cases cattle; send their children to school can afford health costs hire the poor to work on their fields have a lot of money Bapina, balanda, basaukide; (poor, suffering) These families are said to: have some food to last them much of the year live in properly built and thatched houses keep some chickens and goats make money by selling beer send their children to school and clinic own some farm implements, particularly the hoe wear nice clothes keep some orphans Inchusi, bapengele; (who suffer a lot), bapina sana/bacete ( the very poor These families are said to: eat one meal a day at best, but sometimes go for days without food live in small poor houses own no livestock or farm implements go from house to house begging and borrowing cannot afford education and health costs are often widows and elderly keep orphans Note: This chart was compiled by the authors of the situation analysis report and is used to highlight how the members of Zambian society view family structure. I did not re-type this graph, but used it directly from this study. *Situation Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report, 1999 (http: //www. harare. unesco. org/hivaids/webfiles/Electronic%20 Versions/Situation. Analysisof. Orphans. doc )

Institutions – Family • Where do orphans live? – Almost half of orphans reside Institutions – Family • Where do orphans live? – Almost half of orphans reside in a household headed by a surviving parent – Grandparents look after 38% of double orphans and aunts/uncles look after 29% – In rural areas double orphans are more likely to be looked after by grandmothers – In urban areas double orphans are looked after more often by aunts and uncles than other relatives* (Results from a comprehensive study of orphans in Zambia published in November, 1999)* – Some children are even forced to be the heads of household caring for themselves and siblings** Note: Data highlighted here are the exact results from the situation analysis summary report and were provided using their words in order to relay the results precisely. *Situational Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report 1999; **Fleshman, “AIDS orphans: facing Africa’s ‘silent crisis’”

Institutions – Family • As part of the Strengthening Community Participation for the Empowerment Institutions – Family • As part of the Strengthening Community Participation for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (SCOPE-OVC), a USAID/FHI funded project, a baseline survey was conducted questioning the heads of households caring for orphans and vulnerable children. Their sample consisted of 1, 014 randomly selected households, but each household had to have at least one orphan or vulnerable child under the age of twenty-five. • This particular study revealed similar results of family structure: – 65% living with a surviving parent – 14% living with grandparents – 11. 9% living with aunts/uncles – 4. 5% living with siblings as heads of household • Generally, orphans live in female-headed households – Of the 1, 014 households surveyed, 70% were female-headed households *USAID/Zambia – Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey inn Four Districts in Zambia

Institutions – Family • Implications for orphans – Living with surviving parent: • Loss Institutions – Family • Implications for orphans – Living with surviving parent: • Loss of income from deceased parent • More expenses because of sick parent • Loss of productive labor in order to cultivate food* – Living with grandparent(s): • Elders in this society are supposed to be taken care of by their children. However, many grandparents are taking care of their orphaned grandchildren. The grandparents may be too old to cultivate and produce food for the family, meaning the children must labor. ** Similarly, if grandparents cannot work to produce an income, children may have to find ways to make ends meet for the family. *Bollinger, Lori & John Stover. “The Economic Impact of AIDS in Zambia” **Fleshman, Michael. “AIDS orphans: Africa facing a ‘silent crisis’”

Institutions – Family – Living in family with female heads of household • Females Institutions – Family – Living in family with female heads of household • Females make nearly half the income that their male counterparts make in Zambia • Less income provides even fewer opportunities for children to access food, education, and health care* • Female heads of household are likely to have larger numbers of children and other orphans living with them which stretches resources even further. Findings from a study by the World Food Programme indicate an average of five children per household. [p. 8]** *USAID/Zambia – Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey inn Four Districts in Zambia **World Food Programme - Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia: An Assessment of Vulnerability in Selected Districts Supported Under the Community Schools Feeding Programme

Institutions – Family • It is important to see the impact of these living Institutions – Family • It is important to see the impact of these living conditions through the children’s and caregivers viewpoints. Here are valuable links to stories from those affected by the changing family structures due to AIDS. – See the section ‘Strengthening the family’ in Michael Fleshman “AIDS orphans: facing Africa’s ‘silent crisis’” (http: //www. un. org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol 15 no 3/153 child. htm) – Jim Lehrer, “Orphaned by AIDS, ” May 9, 2002 (http: //www. pbs. org/newshour/bb/health/jan-june 02/aids_zambia_5 -9. html)

Institutions – Educational system • Education estimates in Zambia: – – – – – Institutions – Educational system • Education estimates in Zambia: – – – – – Male youth (15 -24 years) literacy rate: 73 Female youth (15 -24 years) literacy rate: 66 Primary school enrollment ratio 2000 -2006, net, male: 89 Primary school enrollment ratio 2000 -2006, net, female: 89 Primary school attendance ratio 2000 -2006 ratio, net, male: 55 Primary school attendance ratio 2000 -2006 ratio, net, female: 58 Secondary school enrollment ratio 2000 -2006, net, male: 29 Secondary school enrollment ratio 2000 -2006, net, female: 23 Secondary school attendance ratio 2000 -2006, net, male: 17 Secondary school attendance ratio 2000 -2006, net, female: 19* Note: These numbers are exactly as presented on the statistics page. *UNICEF – Zambia Statistics

Institutions – Educational system • Primary school enrollment and attendance are much higher than Institutions – Educational system • Primary school enrollment and attendance are much higher than secondary education. Children have access to early education, but many drop out before secondary education. Some reasons that children may drop out (especially orphans) include: – To help care for a sick (HIV-infected) parent – To work in the fields – To contribute to household duties and because parents or caregivers cannot afford to send child to school* *Bollinger, Lori & John Stover. “The Economic Impact of AIDS in Zambia”

Institutions – Educational system • Zambia’s DHS Ed. Data Survey, April 2003 presents findings Institutions – Educational system • Zambia’s DHS Ed. Data Survey, April 2003 presents findings about the impact of AIDS on education: – 50% of parents/guardians sampled disclosed that children in the community do not attend school because their parents are sick with or died of AIDS, 39% respondents indicated this was not the case in their communities – 12% of parents/guardians sampled disclosed children in their own families do not attend school because their parents are sick with or died of AIDS *Central Statistical Office. “Zambia DHS Ed. Data Survey 2002: Education Data for Decision-making” (http: //www. zamstats. gov. zm/media/zdes. pdf)

Institutions – Educational system • Heads of households caring for orphans indicate that the Institutions – Educational system • Heads of households caring for orphans indicate that the number one reason for children in their homes not attending school is because of the financial burden – In the baseline survey on heads of households, more than three-fourths [83% out of 1, 014] interviewed gave this reason for the children in their care not attending school** – In February 2002, Free Basic Education was implemented in Zambia. Additionally, school fees were said to be removed in 2003. * However, secondary education is still costly. *Raja Kattan. “Implementation of Free Basic Education Policies” **USAID/Zambia – Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey inn Four Districts in Zambia

Institutions – Educational system • Implications for orphans – If children are lucky enough Institutions – Educational system • Implications for orphans – If children are lucky enough to be enrolled and can attend school, it is exceedingly difficult to retain teachers. As the pandemic spreads, more people must stay home to care for loved ones or are personally infected. – Though the education is ‘free’ in some public schools, some children and families cannot afford school supplies and uniforms. – If enrolled in school, attendance rates may be low because children have to miss school to work for food and necessities [for themselves and their families]. – Reports from teachers indicate that orphans and vulnerable children living in extremely difficult situations may be exhausted from labor and chores at home, thus making it difficult for them to concentrate during school. * *Robson & Sylvester, “Orphaned and vulnerable children in Zambia: the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on basic education for children at risk”

Inequalities – Gender • In Zambia, a greater number of the poor are women Inequalities – Gender • In Zambia, a greater number of the poor are women compared to men • Women are considered inferior to men and are taught to have sex with their husbands whenever the husbands ask – Men often have extra-marital partners, although women do not – If men do not want to wear condoms, the women are taught not to argue with them** • Women have higher HIV prevalence rates than men (See Section 1 of this module) **UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation, Biennial Report 2006 -2007” (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/Report/2008/zambia_2008_country_progress_report_en. pdf)

Inequalities – Gender • Implications for orphans: – If young girls are valued less Inequalities – Gender • Implications for orphans: – If young girls are valued less than young boys, they may be the ones to stay home and care for sick parents ore relatives rather than going to school – If poverty and gender intersect, forcing young girls into sex work, they be at an increased risk for contracting HIV • Additionally, there was a virgin-cure myth in Zambia in which older men targeted young females that were virgins believing it would cure them of HIV/AIDS* *Avert (http: //www. avert. org/aids-zambia. htm)

Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • HIV-positive people may be treated unequally compared to those Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • HIV-positive people may be treated unequally compared to those without the virus. A stigma of blame or even sympathy can be associated with those that will develop AIDS. Stigmas emerge for various reasons: – Fear – Insufficient awareness about the disease and transmission – In order for various groups in society to gain power over others. * *ICRW – “Disentangling HIV and AIDS stigma in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia”

Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • HIV/AIDS stigma in Zambia – When HIV first struck Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • HIV/AIDS stigma in Zambia – When HIV first struck Zambia in 1984, the government, authorities, and media were expected to keep the virus a secret. The leader of Zambia at that time, President Kaunda, had a son that died of AIDS in 1986. Initially, some thought he should not publicly announce that his son was infected. After his public announcement, he became a key advocate in the fight against HIV/AIDS. He feels that the only way to combat this epidemic is to speak openly about it. The stigma must removed and the public must be well informed about the HIV and the consequences of this virus. * *USAID, Bureau for Global Health, Success Stories

Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • Implications for children – Children may be more likely Inequalities – HIV/AIDS Stigma • Implications for children – Children may be more likely to be exposed to HIV because of their participation in risky behaviors. – Children may be blamed for HIV because of their behaviors and for going against the values they were taught and socialized to believe in by their parents. * – Children are stigmatized because they [or a relative] has HIV and also because they are an orphan. ** *ICRW – “Disentangling HIV and AIDS stigma in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia” **Situation Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report 1999

Connections – culture, institutions, and inequalities • In sociology, we refer to the connections Connections – culture, institutions, and inequalities • In sociology, we refer to the connections between multiple social factors influencing behavior as intersectionality. • For example: – The intersection of a large family structure and poverty may force children into risky behaviors (sex labor, multiple sexual partners, working on the streets for money), which may increase their chances of stigmatization. – The intersection of poverty and gender may force young girls into relationships with older men and little voice in condom use and protection. – Cultural beliefs and social structure limit women to receiving half as much income as men, but those caring for orphans are more likely to be female headed households, pushing women further into poverty.

References – Section 5 • • • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDS. “AIDS Orphans References – Section 5 • • • Avert, AVERTing HIV and AIDS. “AIDS Orphans – Zambia. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //www. avert. org/aids-zambia. htm). Bollinger, Lori and John Stover. 1999. USAID – The Policy Project. “The Economic Impact of AIDS in Zambia. ” Retrieved November 2, 2008 (http: //www. policyproject. com/pubs/SEImpact/zambia. pdf). Central Statistical Office. “Zambia DHS Ed. Data Survey 2002: Education Data for Decision-making. ” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //www. zamstats. gov. zm/media/zdes. pdf). Fleshman, Michael. 2001. “AIDS orphans: facing Africa’s ‘silent crisis. ’” Africa Recovery 15 (3). Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //un. org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol 15 no 3/153 child. htm). International Center for Research On Women (ICRW). 2003. “Disentangling HIV and AIDS stigma in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia. ” Retrieved November 2, 2008 (http: //www. icrw. org/docs/stigmareport 093003. pdf).

References – Section 5 (cont. ) • Kattan, Raja Bentaouet. 2006. The World Bank. References – Section 5 (cont. ) • Kattan, Raja Bentaouet. 2006. The World Bank. “Implementation of Free Basic Education Policies. ” Education Working Paper Series No. 7. Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //siteresources. worldbank. org/EDUCATION/Resources/EDWP_User_Fees. pdf). • Manda, Karen Doll, Michael J. Kelly, and Mark Loudon. 1999. “Situation Analysis of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia, Summary Report. ” Volume 1, Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //www. harare. unesco. org/hivaids/webfiles/Electronic%20 Versions/Situation. Analysisof. Orphans. doc). • • • Robson, Sue and Kanyanta Bonaventure Sylvester. 2007. “Orphaned and vulnerable children in Zambia: the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on basic education for children at risk. ” Educational Research 49(3): 259 -272. UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNACY 333. pdf). UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation, Biennial Report 2006 -2007. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/Report/2008/zambia_2008_country_progress_report_en. pdf).

References – Section 5 (cont. ) • UNICEF. “Zambia Statistics. ” Retrieved September 20, References – Section 5 (cont. ) • UNICEF. “Zambia Statistics. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 • USAID. Bureau for Global Health, Success Stories HIV/AIDS. “Kaunda Campaigns Against HIV/AIDS in TV, Radio Spots. ” Retrieved November 2, 2008 (http: //www. usaid. gov/our_work/global_health/aids/News/successpdfs/zambiastory 4. pdf). USAID – Zambia. “Results of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Head of Household Baseline Survey in Four Districts in Zambia. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 • (http: //www. unicef. org/infobycountry/zambia_statistics. html). (http: //www. fhi. org/NR/rdonlyres/eu 6 n 5 zdvgoyjqjnhzzpn 5 hlqnwloaso 7 z 2 uosdeengj 2 lz 24 lfasjknxwx bektsabfdpr 5 ynpfvuco/HHHOVCREPORTfinalenhv. pdf). • USAID/Zambia. “Zambia in Brief. ” Retrieved October 15, 2008 • World Food Programme. 2006. “Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zambia: An (http: //www. usaid. gov/zm/zm. htm). Assessment of Vulnerability in Selected Districts Supported Under the Community Schools Feeding Programme. ” Retrieved November 2, 2008 (http: //documents. wfp. org/stellent/groups/public/documents/vam/wfp 117663. pdf).

Suggested Readings & Resources • “CNN Presents: Living with AIDS. ” CNN – Health Suggested Readings & Resources • “CNN Presents: Living with AIDS. ” CNN – Health (12/2/2005). Retrieved November 21, 2008 (http: //edition. cnn. com/2005/HEALTH/conditions/11/29/aids. samura) • I have not watched any of the documentaries on orphans due to AIDS; however, there are quite a few that might be worth viewing: – – – Sorious Samura: Living with AIDS, Zambia (On the Frontlines of AIDS) A Generation of Hope Tiny Tears Mercy The Orphans of Nkandla The Blood of Yingzhou District

Section 6 Responses to HIV/AIDS pandemic and orphans Section 6 Responses to HIV/AIDS pandemic and orphans

Responses and Frameworks • There are quite a large number of frameworks, policies, and Responses and Frameworks • There are quite a large number of frameworks, policies, and responses to help fight HIV/AIDS and to support the orphans and vulnerable children affected. For this module, I have included the major frameworks and global responses. Also, I have included the specific responses by the Zambian government and people. For other organizations and support efforts, see the suggested readings & resources at the end of this section.

Frameworks • United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided a framework for addressing Frameworks • United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided a framework for addressing HIV/AIDS and the consequences for countries. This report, conducted in 2003, addressed the major existing policies and provided a framework entitled OVC [orphans and vulnerable children] policy package (p. 14). This package consists of twelve components that countries should address when implementing policies for children and their families. – – – – – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Laws protecting the rights of all children National HIV/AIDS strategies that include an explicit focus on OVC National OVC policy and guidelines Targeted issues-based advocacy A multisectoral OVC structure Situation analysis and needs assessment Regular national OVC consultations Mechanisms for defining and identifying the most vulnerable children State support for OVC (education, food security, etc. ) An OVC focus within development and PRSP’s and as a criterion for HIV/AIDS-related funding – 11. An emphasis on education – 12. Monitoring of policy implementation* * Smart, Rose. USAID. “Policies for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Framework for Moving Ahead”

Frameworks • Another framework for addressing the needs of orphans and vulnerable children due Frameworks • Another framework for addressing the needs of orphans and vulnerable children due to AIDS was developed and endorsed by UNAIDS in 2004. The Framework for the Protection, care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS includes five components suggesting the most effective methods of response. – 1. Strengthen the capacity of families to protect and care for orphans and vulnerable children by prolonging the lives of parents and providing economic, psychosocial, and other support. – 2. Mobilize and support community-based response to provide both immediate and long-term support to vulnerable households. – 3. Ensure access for orphans and vulnerable children to essential services, including education, health care, birth registration, and others. – 4. Ensure that governments protect the most vulnerable children through improved policy and legislation and by channeling resources to communities. – 5. Raise awareness at all levels through advocacy and social mobilization to create a supportive environment for children affected by HIV/AIDS. * *UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action” [p. 21 -24]

Frameworks • The Enhanced Protection for Children Affected by AIDS: A companion paper to Frameworks • The Enhanced Protection for Children Affected by AIDS: A companion paper to The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS offers three areas of action: – 1. Social protection – 2. Legal protection and justice – 3. Alternative care* *UNICEF. “Enhanced Protection for Children Affected by AIDS: A companion paper to The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS” [p. 19 -32]

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • President Bush’s Emergency Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • President Bush’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) - 2003 – Commitment of $15 billion over five years • $10 billion for 15 focused countries: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia • $4 billion for other PEPFAR countries and for HIV/AIDS research • $1 billion for Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria* *The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. “Strategy. ” (http: //www. pepfar. gov/about/c 19380. htm)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • Unite for Children, Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS is global campaign launched by UNICEF to support children affected by HIV/AIDS and centers around the “four P’s” – – 1. 2. 3. 4. Prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission Provide pediatric treatment Prevent infection among adolescents and young people Protect and support children affected by HIV/AIDS* • The campaign website includes information on funding resources, who is involved, statistics, partnerships, etc. *Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS. “Campaign Objectives. ” (http: //www. uniteforchildren. org/knowmore_28757. htm)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • The United Nations Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Global • The United Nations General Assembly’s Twenty-sixth session, agenda item eight developed a “Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. ” The Zambian Government, along with 189 other countries, endorsed and adopted this declaration in 2001. ** – Because this module has outlined some of the social implications for children, item number twenty on this declaration is particularly relevant. It illustrates an awareness of the importance of culture, social structure, and family in each individual society and the creators of this declaration recognize that an understanding of this is crucial in order to provide support to those countries: • 20. Emphasizing the important role of cultural, family, ethical and religious factors in the prevention of the epidemic and in treatment, care and support, taking into account the particularities of each country as well as the importance of respecting all human rights and fundamental freedoms [p. 4]. * *United Nations. General Assembly, Session 26, Agenda item 8. “Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS” (http: //www. un. org/ga/aids/docs/aress 262. pdf) **UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation, Biennial Report 2006 -2007” (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/Report/2008/zambia_2008_country_progress_report_en. pdf)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Africa • The World Bank Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Africa • The World Bank launched a campaign to help Africa specifically with HIV/AIDS. The Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) for Africa was implemented in 2000 under the Bank’s larger support effort ACTafrica. – MAP has committed $1. 6 billion to over 30 countries and five subregional projects. – The goal of this campaign is to dramatically increase access to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs, with emphasis on vulnerable groups (such as youth, women of childbearing age, and other groups at high risk). * *The World Bank. “Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP)” (http: //web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/EXTAF RHEANUTPOP/EXTAFRREGTOPHIVAIDS/0, , content. MDK: 20415735~menu. PK: 100 1234~page. PK: 34004173~pi. PK: 34003707~the. Site. PK: 717148, 00. html)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Zambia • Zambia National Response Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Zambia • Zambia National Response to HIV/AIDS (ZANARA) was approved in December 2002, but, the project status is now ‘closed’ as of August 2008. The total cost of this project was $42 million and had four major components: – 1. Support for community response to HIV/AIDS (CRAIDS), through financing activities by community based organizations – 2. Support to the National AIDS Council and Secretariat – 3. Support to the line ministries, in order to mainstream HIV/AIDS related activities into the work programs of all line ministries, and finance the Ministry of Health for support implementation activities – 4. Program administration* *The World Bank. “Zambia National Response to HIV/AIDS (ZANARA) – Overview. ” (http: //web. worldbank. org/external/projects/main? p age. PK=64312881&pi. PK=64302848&the. Site. PK=4 0941&Projectid=P 003248)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Zambia • The Zambian Government Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS – Zambia • The Zambian Government and other global organizations fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic have adopted the Three. One’s strategy to more effectively implement policies. This means: – 1. One agreed HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners • Zambia: Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP 2006– 2010) and National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (NASF 2006– 2010) – 2. One National AIDS Coordinating Authority, with a broad-based multi-sectoral mandate • Zambia: National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Council (NAC) – 3. One agreed country-level Monitoring and Evaluation System. • Zambia: the NAC has also developed a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework and Plan. * *UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation, Biennial Report 2006 -2007” (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/Report/2008/zambia_2008_country_progress_report_en. pdf)

Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS • There a number of other Responses to pandemic and orphans due to AIDS • There a number of other organizations that are doing work for orphans due to AIDS or just raising awareness about the problem. A list of some of these should be included. – Strengthening Community Partnerships for the Empowerment of Orphans and Vulnerable Children [SCOPE-OVC] (http: //www. harare. unesco. org/hivaids/webfiles/Electronic%20 Versions/S COPE%20 OVC%20 brochure 3. doc) – World AIDS Orphans Day (http: //www. worldaidsorphans. org) – Zambian Orphans of AIDS (http: //www. zambiaorphans. org)

References – Section 6 • PEPFAR. “The U. S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS References – Section 6 • PEPFAR. “The U. S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. ” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //www. pepfar. gov/about/c 19380. htm). • The World Bank. “Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP)” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/EXTAF RHEANUTPOP/EXTAFRREGTOPHIVAIDS/0, , content. MDK: 20415735~menu. PK: 100 1234~page. PK: 34004173~pi. PK: 34003707~the. Site. PK: 717148, 00. html). • The World Bank. “Zambia National Response to HIV/AIDS (ZANARA) – Overview. ” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //web. worldbank. org/external/projects/main? page. PK=64312881&pi. PK=64302848 &the. Site. PK=40941&Projectid=P 003248). • United Nations. General Assembly, Session 26, Agenda item 8. “Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //www. un. org/ga/aids/docs/aress 262. pdf).

References – Section 6 (cont. ) • • • UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral References – Section 6 (cont. ) • • • UNAIDS. “Zambia Country Report: Multi-sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation, Biennial Report 2006 -2007. ” Retrieved October 7, 2008 (http: //data. unaids. org/pub/Report/2008/zambia_2008_country_progress_report_en. pdf). UNAIDS, UNICEF, USAID. “Children on the Brink 2004: A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNACY 333. pdf). UNICEF. 2007. “Enhanced Protection for Children Affected by AIDS: A companion paper to The Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS. ” Retrieved November 7, 2008 (http: //www. unicef. org/publications/files/Enhanced_Protection_for_Children_Affected_by_AIDS. pdf ). • • UNICEF. Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS. “Campaign Objectives. ” (http: //www. uniteforchildren. org/knowmore_28757. htm). Smart, Rose. 2003. USAID. “Polices for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Framework for Moving Ahead. ” Retrieved September 20, 2008 (http: //www. policyproject. com/pubs/generalreport/OVC_Polices. pdf).

Suggested Readings & Resources • The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: U. S. Suggested Readings & Resources • The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: U. S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy. 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2008 (http: //www. state. gov/documents/organization/29831. pdf). • The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. “The Power of Partnerships: Latest PEPFAR Results. ” Retrieved November 10, 2008 (http: //www. pepfar. gov/documents/organization/106385. pdf). • The World Bank. Zambia National Response to HIV/AIDS. Retrieved November 10, 2008 (http: //web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRI CAEXT/ZAMBIAEXTN/0, , content. MDK: 21935171~page. PK: 141137~ pi. PK: 141127~the. Site. PK: 375589, 00. html)

What did you learn? • The statistics of the HIV/AIDS pandemic – global, Sub-Saharan What did you learn? • The statistics of the HIV/AIDS pandemic – global, Sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia • The number of orphans due to HIV/AIDS – global, Sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia • The implications for children/orphans who are affected by disease. Moreover, an explanation of various social factors – social structure, institutions, family, education, culture, inequalities – and how each can affect opportunities for children and their families. • Although Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Africa and hardest hit by the pandemic, frameworks have been established with an appreciation of social and cultural factors, and HIV prevalence has decreased.

Contact Information • If you have any questions about this module or resources used Contact Information • If you have any questions about this module or resources used throughout, please do not hesitate to contact me. – Shauna Sutton Graduate student, 2007 -2009 Illinois State University Department of Sociology and Anthropology slsutton [email protected] com