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Origins of Scientific Revolution: • Renaissance scholars re-discovered science of the Classical Age • Origins of Scientific Revolution: • Renaissance scholars re-discovered science of the Classical Age • Age of Exploration- greater need for knowledge • Humanism encouraged questioning and testing of accepted knowledge Discipline ---------------- Classical Scientist Physics Aristotle Astronomy Ptolemy Anatomy Galen

Nicholas Copernicus 1473 -1543 Polish Heliocentric Theory Nicholas Copernicus 1473 -1543 Polish Heliocentric Theory

Copernicus • Commissioned by the church • Could not prove theory • Published- 1543 Copernicus • Commissioned by the church • Could not prove theory • Published- 1543 Concerning the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies • Book was placed on the Index • G. Bruno burned at the stake for supporting Copernicus

Tycho Brahe 1546 -1601 Imperial Mathematician for HRE Godfather of Astronomy Teaches Kepler http: Tycho Brahe 1546 -1601 Imperial Mathematician for HRE Godfather of Astronomy Teaches Kepler http: //www. nada. kth. se/~fred/tycho/death. html

Tycho Brahe • Lost his nose in a duel • Built Europe’s most modern Tycho Brahe • Lost his nose in a duel • Built Europe’s most modern astronomical laboratory • Collected detailed data on the positions of stars and planets • Discovered a new star and a comet • Demanded further proof for Copernicus’ ideas

Johannes Kepler 1571 -1630 German - Imperial Mathematician for HRE - planetary motion in Johannes Kepler 1571 -1630 German - Imperial Mathematician for HRE - planetary motion in an ellipse http: //www. kepler. ar c. nasa. gov/johannes. html

Johannes Kepler • Assistant to Tycho Brahe, inherited his star charts • Interested in Johannes Kepler • Assistant to Tycho Brahe, inherited his star charts • Interested in proving Copernicus’ heliocentric theory • Three laws of planetary motion- planets move in elliptical orbits • Published- 1616 - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy • Placed on Index of Forbidden Books

Galileo Galilei 1564 -1630 Italian Prof. Of Mathematics Invents telescope Supports Copernicus House Arrest Galileo Galilei 1564 -1630 Italian Prof. Of Mathematics Invents telescope Supports Copernicus House Arrest by Church for 9 years

Galileo Galilei • Used telescope to confirm work of Copernicus and Kepler by observation Galileo Galilei • Used telescope to confirm work of Copernicus and Kepler by observation • Published- 1610 - Starry Messenger • Brought before Inquisition • Published- 1632 - Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World in Italian so it reached a wide audience • Brought before Inquisition again at age 70. Forced to recant. Lived under house arrest for the rest of his life

Biblical Scripture Used Against Galileo Psalms 104: 5 – “You have set the Earth Biblical Scripture Used Against Galileo Psalms 104: 5 – “You have set the Earth firmly on its foundations, and it will never be moved. ” Ecclesiastes 1: 4 -5 – “Generations come and generations go, but the world stays just the same. The sun rises, and it still goes down, going wearily to where it must start all over again.

Francis Bacon (1561 -1626) First philosopher to argue that science can improve society. Scientific Francis Bacon (1561 -1626) First philosopher to argue that science can improve society. Scientific Method Inductive Reasoning Father of Empiricism

In March 1626, Bacon conducted an experiment to see how long a dead chicken In March 1626, Bacon conducted an experiment to see how long a dead chicken could be preserved by stuffing it with snow. After spending time outdoors, he caught cold and died due to complications arising from bronchitis, on April 9, 1626.

Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650) - Cartesian doubt - God exists and it can Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650) - Cartesian doubt - God exists and it can be proven through reason -Founder of Analytic Geometry - Deductive Reasoning

Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662) mathematician Theory of Probabilities Deductive reasoning Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662) mathematician Theory of Probabilities Deductive reasoning

"If you believe, and God exists, you gain everything. If you disbelieve, and God exists, you lose everything. “ - Pascal’s Wager

Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) English Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Calculus Laws of Motion 1) Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) English Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Calculus Laws of Motion 1) Absence of force, motion continues in a straight line 2) Rate of change of motion determined by forces acting on it 3) Action and reaction of two bodies are equal and opposite

Critiqued ancient texts in medicine, science and theology Used observation of nature rather than Critiqued ancient texts in medicine, science and theology Used observation of nature rather than ancient writings. 1 st to say some diseases had psychological causes Paracelsus (Philippus von Hohenheim) 1493 -1541 Swiss

Andreas Vesalius 1514 -1564 Belgian • Doctor to Charles V • Founder of modern Andreas Vesalius 1514 -1564 Belgian • Doctor to Charles V • Founder of modern human anatomy • Wrote- On the Fabric of the Human Body

William Harvey 1578 -1657 London 1 st to describe the circulation of blood William Harvey 1578 -1657 London 1 st to describe the circulation of blood

Women in the Scientific Rev • Humanist ideas gave women some new opportunities • Women in the Scientific Rev • Humanist ideas gave women some new opportunities • Participation was informal • Noblewomen in France and England • Craft production in Germanyentomology and astronomy

 • Margaret Cavendish- Scientific debater. Excluded from membership in Royal Society • Maria • Margaret Cavendish- Scientific debater. Excluded from membership in Royal Society • Maria Merian- Metamorphosis of Insects of Surinam • Maria Winkelmann- astronomereducated by her father, discovered a comet, denied position as astronomer by Berlin Society

Querelles des Femmes • Arguments about women • Traditional view- Adam and Eve • Querelles des Femmes • Arguments about women • Traditional view- Adam and Eve • Women argued they were just as capable as men- needed education • Scientific Revolution • Did not improve status of women • Used to “prove” male superiority • Small head/large pelvis • Professionalization of traditional female occupations drove women out- example- midwifery