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Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Africa’s Size 4600 MILES 5 0 0 0 M I L E S # Second largest continent 11, 700, 000 sq. mi. # 10% of the world’s population. # 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.
A Satellite View
Mediterranean Sea ed R Bodies a Se er R L. Chad--> ive r of A Water lf Gu <-- Of Nile River Nig r ve L. Albert--> g den n Co i o. R L. Victoria L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Limpopo River Orange River Pacific Ocean
The Congo River Basin # Covers 12% of the continent. # Extends over 9 countries. # 2, 720 miles long. # 99% of the country of Zaire is in the Congo River basin.
The Niger River Basin # Covers 7. 5% of the continent. # Extends over 10 countries. # 2, 600 miles long.
ts. M las At Mountains & Peaks Δ Mt. Kenya . ts i. M or z en w Ru Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro . ts rg je u sb n D ra M
Libyan Deserts Sahara Desert Sahel rt ese ib D Nam hari Kala ert Des
The Sahara Desert
Plains ley Rift Va l & Great Valleys
Great Rift Valley 3, 000 miles long
Africa: The “Tropical” Continent Tropic of Cancer 20° N Equator 0° Tropic of Capricorn 20° S
The African Savannah: 13 million sq. mi.
African Rain Forest # Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. # Rapid decomposition (very humid). # Covers 37 countries. # 15% of the land surface of Africa.
Mt. Kilimanjaro: Snow on the Equator?
ts. M las Mediterranean Sea At a Sahel lley Nile River Great of A L. Albert--> Δ Mt. Kenya R go L. Victoria n Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro Co r ive we Ru L. Tanganyika-> den Equator 0° Rift Va er R L. Chad--> ive r Indian Ocean ib D hari Kala ert Des Limpopo River. Orange River Mts urg sb n aje Dr Pacific Ocean rt ese Tropic of Capricorn 20° S ts. Zambezi River M ori nz Nam Atlantic Ocean lf Gu <-- Nig Of AFRICA Se Sahara Desert Complete Topography ed R The Libyan Desert Tropic of Cancer 20° N
Geographic Considerations • North- Mediterranean- access to tradecoastal mountains- land for agriculture • East- Rift Valley- some mountains- Indian Ocean • West- grasslands and some rainforest along the Niger river • Central - equatorial- Congo-only real rainforest • South- high plateau- temperate climatesavanna
Bantu Migrations • The most prominent event in Sub. Saharan Africa • migrations of the Bantu-speaking peoples and the establishment of agricultural societies in regions where Bantu speakers settled. • spread to most other regions of Africa south of the Sahara and supported the emergence of distinct tropical agricultural societies.
The Bantu • Located initially in the lower Niger Valleys, • migrated from West Africa spreading their language, knowledge of iron production, and their experience with settled tropical agriculture. • Between 500 B. C. E. to 500 C. E. , this migration would move Bantu innovations and inherited innovations throughout central Africa and onto to southern Africa.
Bantu Migrations: 1000 BCE To 500 CE
African Society • Towns & Villages – Grew from smaller villages into centers of gov’t & trade – Most Africans lived in small villages. – matrilineal, based on extended family units – Lineage group- collection of ppl descended from a common ancestor. • Education – Taught by their mothers. – Boys learned nec. Skills from their fathers. – At puberty – initiation ceremonies & were accepted as adults • Captives & Slavery – Some societies raided or warred w/ other groups to enslave for their own use or for sale.
Religion • Traditional Beliefs & New Religion –Gods & Rituals • Single creator god, accompanied by lesser gods • Diviners- carried out rituals for the purpose of communication with gods –Ancestors • Important element, ceremonies dedicated to ancestors –Spread of Islam • Spread quickly across N. Africa as Arabs conquered the region. • Through Trade, ideas spread t/o rest of Africa
African Culture • Religious purpose of Art –Masks & statues • Rep gods & ancestors • Metalwork –Bronze & Iron • Music, dance, & Storytelling –Songs conveyed folktales & religious stories –Griots- African storytellers
African Kingdoms 800 C. E. -1600 C. E.
African Kingdoms • Ghana 750 -1076 • Mali 1235 -1610 • Songhay 1464 -1612 • Great Zimbabwe 11 th -15 th C. E. • Swahili coast 12 th -15 th C. E. • Many of the dates for these kingdoms are still debated
Gold-Salt Trade SALT GOLD Berbers
The Kingdom of Ghana • 6 th century • b/w the Sahara and the W. African Coast • Kings ruled as powerful rulers • Iron ore – iron tools & weapons • Gold ore –Made Ghana a major center for trade. –Traded gold for salt • Also traded ivory, animal hides & slaves
Ghana Empire [4 c-11 c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast
Ghana Empire • The empire owed much of its prosperity to trans-Saharan trade and a strategic location near the gold and salt mines. Both gold and salt seemed to be the dominant sources of revenue, exchanged for various products such as textiles, ornaments and cloth, among other materials. • Many of the hand-crafted leather goods found in old Morocco also had their origins in the empire. The main centre of trade was Koumbi Saleh.
Islamic Mosque in Ghana blankbluesky. com/ travel/ghana/
Berbers & Camel Caravans • Berbers –Nomads who carried goods across the Sahara. –Vital link b/w opposite sides of the Sahara • Camel Caravans –Used to transport goods across the desert
http: //es. encarta. msn. com/media_461532998_761558787_1_1/Caravana_de_camellos. html news. nationalgeographic. com/. . . /salt/photo 6. html
The Kingdom of Mali • Sundiata Keita • Mid 1200 s • United the ppl of Mali and est. a stable central gov’t
• Gold & Salt –Like Ghana, gold & salt were major trading commodities. –Timbuktu- Legendary center of trade & education
Mansa Musa • One of the greatest African leaders of the era. • Doubled size of Mali • Created strong central gov’t • Made hajj –Brought huge quantites of gold –Distributed gifts of gold and brought home many goods home. • After his death, Mali fell to civil war
Mansa Musa (1312 -1337). He developed the gold and salt trade of Mali and his kingdom became very powerful and rich.
Mansa Musa [r. 1312 -1337]
Mali Empire • Flourished b/c of Trade • The empire taxed every ounce of gold or salt that entered its borders. • By the beginning of the 14 th century, Mali was the source of almost half the Old World's gold exported
Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque
Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali
Distant Mosque at Djenne, Mali
http: //www. exzoobera nce. com
Songhai Empire SALT GOLD [15 c-16 c]
Songhai Empire Gao- capital city
The Kingdom of Songhai • Arose in a fertile area along the Niger River • Sunni Ali – 1464 created dynasty based on Sunni Islam –Strong military leader –Captured Timbuktu –Gold & Salt key to trading empire
The great Songhay leader, Sunni Ali saw that the kingdom of Mali was weakening and he led his soldiers to conquer the area. He began the kingdom of Songhay. He also set up a complex government to rule all the lands he had conquered. http: //www. abcorpaffairs. com/gallery /
Sunni Ali [r. 1464 -1492]
• Muhammad Ture –Height of Songhai power –Expanded – thousands of miles along the Niger River –Gov’t based on provinces –Est. Navy • Decline –Askia Dawud, biggest empire in history of Africa –After his death, Songhai went into decline and lost territory to the sultan of Morocco
Mosque in Gao
This map was created in 1375. The same trade routes were used by the merchants of the Songhai kingdom. http: //www. sfusd. k 12. ca. us/schwww/sch 618/Travelers/Catal_Atlas. Africa. jpg
http: //www. exzoobera nce. com
African Trade Routes
Swahili-Speaking Areas of E. Africa SWAHILI [“the coast’] = Bantu + some Arabic
Swahili coast • 1800 miles long • Diffusion from Indian, Arab, Chinese, and others • Islam perhaps most enduring
Thriving Sea Trade East African Coast • Muslim Trade outpost –Muslim traders from Arab lands est. bases along the E. Coast –While the Swahili Coast had kingdoms, it was not controlled by just one kingdom.
• Port of Kilwa –Tanzania –Magnificent buildings • Coral buildings. - Great Mosque of Kilwa & Husani Kubwa • City had indoor plumbing • Port of Mogadishu –Mogadishu- capital of Somalia • Port of Mombasa –Mombasa- Kenya
Swahili Coast • interior of e Africa –gold, slaves, ivory, and exotic local products. • In exchange, the Swahili city-states received from Muslim Merchants –pottery, glass, and textiles –brought from Persia, India, and China.
http: //www. exzoobera nce. com
From Independent Villages to States • Stateless Societies –Until 11 th century lived in groups of indep. Villages –Eventually villages began to unite • Zimbabwe & Gold Trade –Became one of the most powerful States in S. Africa in early 1300’s –Traded Gold w/ Swahili merchants
• Ruins of Great Zimbabwe –Early Capital of Zimbabwe –Overlook Zambezi River –Include stone walls
Great Zimbabwe [1200 -1450] “Zimbabwe” = “stone enclosure”
Great Zimbabwe Street
Great Zimbabwe • “House of Stone”
African Society • Africa is a land of tremendous diversity. • The continent supported a wide array of societies and economies: – mobile bands of hunting and gathering peoples, fishing peoples – nomadic herders – subsistence farmers – to city-based societies that drew their livelihoods from mining, manufacturing, and trade. • In kingdoms, empires, and city-states, African peoples developed complex societies with clearly defined classes: ruling elites, military nobles, administrative officials, religious authorities, wealthy merchants, artisans, business entrepreneurs, common people, peasants, and slaves.
African Society • These societies resembled those found in other settled, agricultural lands of Eurasia organized by powerful states. • In the small states and kin-based societies of sub-Saharan Africa, social structures were different. • Kinship, sex and gender expectations, and age groupings were the principal considerations that determined social position.
Kinship Groups • Extended families and clans served as the main foundation of social and economic organization in small-scale agricultural societies. • Private owned property did not exist; common lands • Gender roles and expectations were different than in other lands • Creator god and lesser gods and spirits to the arrival of Christianity and Islam
Conclusions • States and societies of sub-Saharan Africa differed considerably from those in other parts of the eastern hemisphere. • Agricultural based kin groups rather than state structures • Interaction with other groups forged large city-states and imperial empires • Gold, salt, ivory, and slaves from Africa became mainstays in other regions • By 1500 C. E. African traditions and Islamic influences had combined to fashion a series of powerful, productive, and distinctive societies in sub-Saharan Africa.
African Kingdoms • • • Ghana 750 -1076 Mali 1235 -1610 Songhay 1464 -1612 Great Zimbabwe 11 th -15 th C. E. Swahili coast 12 th -15 th C. E. • Many of the dates for these kingdoms are still debated