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Opioid Receptors – The Basis of Pain Relief and Addiction: Bidirectional Translational Research Mary Opioid Receptors – The Basis of Pain Relief and Addiction: Bidirectional Translational Research Mary Jeanne Kreek, M. D. Patrick E. and Beatrice M. Haggerty Professor Head of Laboratory The Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases The Rockefeller University March 5, 2007 Pain, Opioids, and Addiction: An Urgent Problem for Doctors and Patients National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD funded primarily by NIH-NIDA, NIH-NIMH, NIHCRR and NYS OASAS

Pain, Addictions, and the Endogenous Opioid System • Pain is modulated by endogenous opioid Pain, Addictions, and the Endogenous Opioid System • Pain is modulated by endogenous opioid peptides • Exogenous opioids are effective analgesic agents • Many drugs of abuse act at or impact upon the endogenous opioid system Three major addictive diseases under study: • Heroin Addiction • Cocaine Dependency • Alcoholism Role of endogenous opioid system in each: • Extent of Role? • Precise Mechanism of Role? Kreek, 2007

Endogenous Opioids and their Receptors Opioid Classes Opioid Receptor Types Endorphins Mu Enkephalins Delta Endogenous Opioids and their Receptors Opioid Classes Opioid Receptor Types Endorphins Mu Enkephalins Delta Dynorphins Kappa H 2 N S Extracellular fluid S Endomorphins (? ) AA identical in 3 receptors AA identical in 2 receptors AA different in 3 receptors cell membrane cell interior HOOC La. Forge, Yuferov and Kreek, 2000

Role of Mu Opioid Receptor and Related Endorphin Systems in Normal Physiological Functions* • Role of Mu Opioid Receptor and Related Endorphin Systems in Normal Physiological Functions* • Endogenous Response to Pain • Neuroendocrine Functions – Stress responsive systems including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis – Reproductive function including hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis • Immunological Function • Gastrointestinal Function • Cardiovascular Function • Pulmonary Function • ? Mood, Affect; Cognition * All disrupted by chronic abuse of the short acting opiate, heroin Kreek, 2007

Prevalence of Specific Drug Abuse and Vulnerability to Develop Addictions National Household Survey and Prevalence of Specific Drug Abuse and Vulnerability to Develop Addictions National Household Survey and Related Surveys – 1996 – 2002 Alcohol Use – ever Alcoholism ~ 177 million ~ 15 million Cocaine Use – ever Cocaine Addiction ~ 26 million ~ 2 to 3 million Heroin Use – ever Heroin Addiction ~ 2. 5 to 3 million ~ 0. 5 to 1 million Illicit Use of Opiate Medication – ever Resultant Opiate Medication Addiction ~ 4. 4 million ? Development of Addiction After Self Exposure Alcoholism Cocaine Addiction Heroin Addiction ~ 1 in 8 to 1 in 15 ~ 1 in 3 to 1 in 5 NIDA, SAMHSA Reports, 1998 -2005

Hypothesis (1964) Leading to Development of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Heroin (opiate) addiction is a Hypothesis (1964) Leading to Development of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Heroin (opiate) addiction is a disease – a “metabolic disease” – of the brain with resultant behaviors of “drug hunger” and drug self-administration, despite negative consequences to self and others. Heroin addiction is not simply a criminal behavior or due alone to antisocial personality or some other personality disorder. Dole, V. P. , Nyswander, M. E. and Kreek, M. J. : Narcotic blockade. Arch. Intern. Med. , 118: 304 -309, 1966; 2006

Impact of Short-Acting Heroin versus Long-Acting Methadone Administered on a Chronic Basis in Humans Impact of Short-Acting Heroin versus Long-Acting Methadone Administered on a Chronic Basis in Humans 1964 Study and Opioid Agonist Pharmacokinetics: Heroin Versus Methadone Limited (<30%) ose) "Straight" Functional State (Methadone) Major Route of Biotransformation 3 min (30 min for active 6 -acetyl-morphine metabolite; 4 -6 h for morphine and active morphine-6 glucuronide metabolite) Successive deacetylation and morphine glucuronidation Essentially Complete (>70%) "High" Apparent Plasma Terminal Half-life (t 1/2 Beta) 24 h (48 h for active [R](l)-enantiomer) N-demethylation (overd Functional State (Heroin) Systemic Bioavailability After Oral Administration "Sick" AM PM Days AM "High" "Straight" "Sick" AM PM AM Days H PM AM Dole, Nyswander and Kreek, 1966; Kreek et al. , 1973; 1976; 1977; 1979; 1982; Inturrisi et al, 1973; 1984

“On-Off” versus “Steady-State”: Relationship Between Blood (and Brain) Levels of Drugs of Abuse and “On-Off” versus “Steady-State”: Relationship Between Blood (and Brain) Levels of Drugs of Abuse and Their Effects on Events Related to Addictions Disruption versus Normalization • levels of gene expression • receptor mediated events • physiology • behaviors Rates of rise of blood (and presumable brain) levels of drugs of abuse are related positively to their reinforcing effects Rates of fall of blood (and presumably brain) levels of drugs of abuse are related positively to the onset of withdrawal symptoms and/or acute “craving” Kreek, 1978; 1987; 1991; 1992; 2001

Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opiate (Heroin) Addiction Number of patients currently in treatment: >500, Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opiate (Heroin) Addiction Number of patients currently in treatment: >500, 000 (worldwide) 212, 000 (USA) Efficacy in “good” treatment programs using adequate doses (80 to 150 mg/d): Voluntary retention in treatment (1 year or more) Continuing use of illicit heroin 50 – 80% 5 – 20% Actions of methadone treatment: • Prevents withdrawal symptoms and “drug hunger” • Blocks euphoric effects of short-acting narcotics • Allows normalization of disrupted physiology Mechanism of action: Long-acting narcotic provides steady levels of opioid at specific mu receptor sites. • methadone found to be a full mu opioid receptor agonist which internalizes like endorphins • methadone also has modest NMDA receptor complex antagonism) Kreek, 1972; 1973; 2001; 2005; Inturrisi et al, in progress; Evans et al, 2003

Mu Opioid Agonist and Antagonist Pharmacotherapies: Opiate Treatment Outcome* and Numbers Seeking Treatment*** OPIATE Mu Opioid Agonist and Antagonist Pharmacotherapies: Opiate Treatment Outcome* and Numbers Seeking Treatment*** OPIATE ADDICTION Long-Acting Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist or Partial Agonists Methadone Maintenance 50 – 80% Buprenorphine-Naloxone Maintenance 40 – 50%** Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonists Naltrexone Maintenance 10 – 20% Other “Drug Free” (non-pharmacotherapeutic) Short-term Detoxification (any mode) Numbers 5 – 30% 5 – 20% Illicit Opiate Users Seeking Treatment 1995 2005 Heroin (%OTR***) Prescription Opiates (%OTR***) 227, 989 254, 345 (30. 1) 16, 121 67, 887 (19. 9) * One year retention in treatment and/or follow-up with significant reduction or elimination of illicit use of opiates ** Maximum effective dose (24 to 32 mg sl) equal to 60 to 70 mg/d methadone. Data based on 6 month follow-up only. *** OTR – Pharmacotherapy with methadone or buprenorphine maintenance Kreek, 1996; 2001; 2004; 2006; Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), SAMHSA, 2005

Natural History of Drug Abuse and Addictions Primary Prevention Initial Use of Drug of Natural History of Drug Abuse and Addictions Primary Prevention Initial Use of Drug of Abuse Possible Utility of Vaccines and Selected Medications Useful and Needed Sporadic Intermittent Use Addiction Regular Use >80% WITHOUT PHARMACOTHERAPY, RELAPSE TO ADDICTION* Early Protracted Withdrawal Abstinence (abstinence) <20% SUSTAINED ABSTINENCE* *with no medications ADDICTION: Compulsive drug seeking behavior and drug self-administration, without regard to negative consequences to self or others (adapted from WHO). For entry into opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (methadone or LAAM maintenance) (U. S. Federal Regulations), above criteria, plus multiple daily self-administration of opiates for one year or more. For entry into opioid partial agonist pharmacotherapy (buprenorphine), meeting DSM-IV criteria for dependence. Kreek et al. , Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 1: 710, 2002; 2007

[18 F] Cyclofoxy (a Selective Opioid Antagonist) Binding in Human Brain: Normal Volunteer PET [18 F] Cyclofoxy (a Selective Opioid Antagonist) Binding in Human Brain: Normal Volunteer PET Study - NIH 116. 25 82. 50 48. 75

Specific Binding (ml plasma/ml tissue) Mu Opioid Receptor Density in Humans: Specific Binding of Specific Binding (ml plasma/ml tissue) Mu Opioid Receptor Density in Humans: Specific Binding of [18 F] Cyclofoxy (mean + S. E. M. ) in 13 Brain Regions of Normal Volunteers and Long-Term, Methadone Treated Former Heroin Addicts - PET Study Normal volunteers n=14 16 MTP volunteers n=14 14 12 10 8 * * 6 * MT MFr 4 2 0 Thl Amy Caud Ins ACg Put Par Crb IT Hip WMt Region of Interest Area related to pain response Dopaminergic terminals of VTA neurons (mesolimbic-mesocortical dopaminergic system regions) Dopamine terminals of substantia nigra neurons Kling et al. , 2000

Methadone Maintenance Treatment Allows Normalization of Endogenous Opioid-Related Physiological Functions Disrupted During Chronic Heroin Methadone Maintenance Treatment Allows Normalization of Endogenous Opioid-Related Physiological Functions Disrupted During Chronic Heroin Use Neuroendocrine Function – Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis – Stress Responsivity levels and circadian rhythm of release of POMC peptides ( Endorphin; ACTH and cortisol) – Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis – Reproductive Biology levels and pulsatile release of LH and testosterone levels Immune Function – Natural Killer Cell Activity – Absolute Numbers of Cells — T cells; T cell subset levels; B cells; NK cells – Immunoglobin Levels (M and G) Kreek, 1972; 1973; 1978; 1987; 1992; 2001; Novick et al. , 1989

Factors Contributing to Vulnerability to Develop a Specific Addiction use of the drug of Factors Contributing to Vulnerability to Develop a Specific Addiction use of the drug of abuse essential (100%) Genetic (25 -60%) Environmental (very high) • DNA • SNPs • other polymorphisms • prenatal • postnatal • contemporary • cues • comorbidity • stress-responsivity • m. RNA levels • peptides • proteomics • neurochemistry • synaptogenesis • behaviors Drug-Induced Effects (very high) Kreek et al. , 2000; 2005

Primary Site(s) of Major Drugs of Abuse Heroin Depressant • • • Cocaine Stimulant Primary Site(s) of Major Drugs of Abuse Heroin Depressant • • • Cocaine Stimulant • • Alcohol Stimulant & • Depressant • Acts primarily on endogenous opioid system (mu opioid receptor) Also affects dopaminergic system Enhances dopamine by inhibition of inhibitory GABAergic neurons Acts primarily on dopaminergic, as well as on serotonergic and noradrenergic presynaptic reuptake transporters Also affects mu and kappa opioid systems Undefined primary site of action Affects dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems Kreek, 1978, 1987, 2005

Reinforcing or “Reward” Effects of Drugs of Abuse Initial exposure to a drug of Reinforcing or “Reward” Effects of Drugs of Abuse Initial exposure to a drug of abuse may produce effects which are interpreted by the individual as “desirable” or “pleasurable”, i. e. , “rewarding”. These effects may lead to “craving” or “hunger” for the drug, with resultant spontaneous activity or work for drug acquisition and self-administration. Primary sites of actions of drugs of abuse with respect to their reward or reinforcing effects have been identified as specific brain regions, rich in dopamine nerve terminals or cell bodies, the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems especially the nucleus accumbens, as well as the amygdala, the anterior cingulate and the insula, with related actions in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic regions. Each of these areas also has abundant receptors and peptides of the endogenous opioid system. Kreek, 1987; 2005

Cingulate CPU Ventral Pallidum Hypothalamus Locus Coeruleus NAc Core Olfactory Tubercle VTA (A 10) Cingulate CPU Ventral Pallidum Hypothalamus Locus Coeruleus NAc Core Olfactory Tubercle VTA (A 10) NAc Shell Amygdala RAT BRAIN SNr Pituitary SNc (A 9) Modified by Schlussman (2001) from Paxinos and Watson Lateral 1. 40 mm

Bidirectional-Translational Research: Novel and Conventional Animal Models • Intermittent Morphine (Heroin) Administration Model: Constant Bidirectional-Translational Research: Novel and Conventional Animal Models • Intermittent Morphine (Heroin) Administration Model: Constant or Ascending Dose (mimics most common pattern of human use in addiction) • Pump Methadone Administration Model: (converts short-acting pharmacokinetic properties of opioid agonist in rodent to long-acting human pharmacokinetic profile) • Extended Access Self-Administration Without or With High. Dose Drug (Cocaine or Opiate) • “Binge” Pattern Cocaine Administration Model: Constant or Ascending Dose (mimics most common pattern of human use in addiction) • “Binge” Pattern Oral Ethanol Administration Model: (mimics common pattern of human excessive use) Kreek et al. , 1987; 1992; 2001; 2005

Extended Session (18 h) Morphine Self-administration in Rats: Dose Escalation by Choice or No Extended Session (18 h) Morphine Self-administration in Rats: Dose Escalation by Choice or No Possible Escalation: 35 S]GTPγS binding in the thalamus and amygdala membranes Effects on [ 170 140 225 * 200 * * 140 Self-escalation 175 Morphine Consumption mg/kg Thalamus 120 150 100 125 * 90 0. 01 100 170 75 Nonescalation Control 160 † 150 50 0. 1 1. 0 Amygdala Membranes 140 25 ** 130 0 10 ** * 120 0 1 2 3 4 5 Self-administration Session Escalators Nonescalators 6 7 8 ** 110 100 90 0. 01 0. 1 1. 0 10 Kruzich, Chen, Unterwald & Kreek, 2001; Kruzich et al, Synapse, 2003

Chronic Intermittent Escalating Dose Morphine and Acute Withdrawal from Morphine: Effects on Mu Opioid Chronic Intermittent Escalating Dose Morphine and Acute Withdrawal from Morphine: Effects on Mu Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels MOP-r m. RNA (Attomole/ g RNA) 0. 8 0. 7 Lateral hypothalamus Nucleus accumbens core 0. 6 0. 5 0. 4 ** ** CONTROL Chronic Morphine * * CONTROL Chronic Morphine 0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 Acute Withdrawal from Chronic Morphine Zhou et al. , J. Endocrinology, 2006

Attomoles MOR m. RNA / µg total RNA Mu Opioid Receptor-Endorphin System: REWARD — Attomoles MOR m. RNA / µg total RNA Mu Opioid Receptor-Endorphin System: REWARD — Acute “Binge” Pattern Cocaine Increases Mu Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels and Chronic Cocaine Increases Mu Opioid Receptor Density in Rat 1. 6 1 Saline Cocaine (15 mg/kgx 3 x 1 day) 1. 4 * 1. 2 2 * 1. 0 Cocaine Control 0. 8 4 3 0. 6 0. 4 * 0. 2 0. 0 FCx NAc Amy CPu Hip Thal Hyp Control Cocaine Brain Regions Yuferov et al. , Brain Res. Bull. , 48: 109 1999; Unterwald et al. , Brain Res. , 584: 314 1992

Increased Mu Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels Induced by Subacute Cocaine Administration (3 Days) Increased Mu Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels Induced by Subacute Cocaine Administration (3 Days) are Attenuated or Prevented by Low to Moderate Dose Methadone Infused by Pump in the Rat 12 Methadone Dose 0 mg/kg/d 20 mg/kg/d 55 mg/kg/d Mean (sem) MOR m. RNA pg/mg total RNA # # 10 # # * 8 6 4 2 0 1 5 20 Cocaine dose (mg/kg) Rats sacrificed 10 days following methadone-filled osmotic pumps; shaded area represents data from control group (n=8) that received no methadone and no cocaine. * Significant difference from same cocaine-dose group in 0 -dose methadone maintained group. Leri et al. , Neuropsychopharmacology, 31: 1462, 2006

Mu Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice • No morphine or other mu agonist analgesia • Mu Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice • No morphine or other mu agonist analgesia • No heroin or morphine self-administration • No heroin or morphine induced conditioned place preference • Attenuated self-administration of cocaine • Attenuated self-administration of alcohol [Different knock-out constructs and multiple research groups, including Kieffer, Uhl, Yu. Pintar, Loh, with, e. g. , Maldonado, Pasternak, Hoellt, Roberts] Reviewed in Kreek et al. , Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 1: 710 -726, 2002

Acute Intermittent Morphine Increases Preprodynorphin and Kappa Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels in Rat Acute Intermittent Morphine Increases Preprodynorphin and Kappa Opioid Receptor m. RNA Levels in Rat Whole Brain (Minus Cerebellum) pp. Dyn m. RNA KOR m. RNA 200 % of Saline Control * * 150 100 50 0 200 * * 150 100 50 0 Saline Morphine 6. 25 mg/kgx 6 x 1 day Wang et al. , 1999

Natural Dynorphin A 1 -17 Lowers Basal and Cocaine Induced Dopamine Levels in Mouse Natural Dynorphin A 1 -17 Lowers Basal and Cocaine Induced Dopamine Levels in Mouse Striatum 8 8 Dopamine in Dialysate (n. M) 10 6 4 2 0 Infusion 60 120 20 -min Sample Dynorphin Dose (nmol) 2. 0 0 1. 0 4. 4+n. BNI (10 mg/kg) 180 6 4 2 0 Infusion Injection 60 120 180 20 -min Sample Infusion and Injection a. CSF+Sal a. CSF+Coc (15 mg/kg) Dyn (4. 4 nmol) +Coc (15 mg/kg) Zhang, Butelman, Schlussman, Ho, and Kreek, Psychopharmacology, 172: 422 2004

“Craving” or “Drug Hunger”: Hypothesis (with or without drug seeking and drug self-administration) Neurochemical “Craving” or “Drug Hunger”: Hypothesis (with or without drug seeking and drug self-administration) Neurochemical mediators of “rewarding” or “reinforcing” effects of drugs of abuse • • Dopamine acting at dopamine DA 1 -like and DA 2 -like receptors Mu opioid receptor agonists acting at mu opioid receptors (e. g. , beta-endorphin and enkephlins) CRF and ACTH in stimulant and stimulant-depressant addicts only (e. g. , cocaine and alcoholism) +/- serotonin, +/- norepinephrine Neurochemical counter-modulators of “rewarding” or "reinforcing" effects • • Kappa opioid receptor agonists acting at kappa opioid receptors (e. g. , dynorphins) Orphanin/nociception acting at orphan opioid-like receptors CRF and ACTH in opiate addicts (e. g. , heroin) +/- GABA, +/- glutamate Chronic drug use leads to persistent neurochemical and neurobiological changes, with blunting of the “rewarding” components and persistence of the counter-modulatory components (lowered dopaminergic tone and relative “endorphin deficiency”), which, when coupled with learning and memory, contribute to the resultant “drug craving” and “drug hunger. ” Kreek, 2003; 2007

Hypothesis — Atypical Responsivity to Stressors: A Possible Etiology of Addictions Atypical responsivity to Hypothesis — Atypical Responsivity to Stressors: A Possible Etiology of Addictions Atypical responsivity to stress and stressors may, in part, contribute to the persistence of, and relapse to selfadministration of drugs of abuse and addictions. Such atypical stress responsivity in some individuals may exist prior to use of addictive drugs on a genetic or acquired basis, and lead to the acquisition of drug addiction. hypothalamus – CRF Endogenous Opioids (mu) – anterior pituitary + POMC -End Cortisol ACTH adrenal + Kreek, 1972; 1981; 1982; 1984; 1987; 1992; 2001; 2005

Neuroendocrine Effects of Opiates, Cocaine, and Alcohol in Humans: Hormones Involved in HPA Axis Neuroendocrine Effects of Opiates, Cocaine, and Alcohol in Humans: Hormones Involved in HPA Axis Stress Response • Acute effects of opiates • Chronic effects of short-acting opiates (e. g. heroin addiction) Suppression of HPA Axis • • Activation of HPA Axis Opiate withdrawal effects Opioid antagonist effects Cocaine effects Alcohol effects • Chronic effects of long-acting opiate (e. g. methadone maintenance treatment) Normalization of HPA Axis HPA – Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (involved in stress response) Kreek, 1972; 1973; 1987; 1992; 2001; 2003

Dissecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Humans: Single-Dose (2. 25 g) Metyrapone Effects hypothalamus CRF Dissecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Humans: Single-Dose (2. 25 g) Metyrapone Effects hypothalamus CRF ( ) Endogenous Opioids (mu – inhibition) (kappa – ? activation) anterior pituitary POMC -End ( ) Cortisol ( ) Metyrapone ACTH ( ) adrenal Kreek, 1973, 1978, 2006; Kreek et al. 1984; Schluger et al, Neuropsychopharmacology, 24: 568, 2001; 2006

Metyrapone Testing: a Chemically-Induced “Stress” • • • Heroin addicts – hyporesponsive Methadone maintained Metyrapone Testing: a Chemically-Induced “Stress” • • • Heroin addicts – hyporesponsive Methadone maintained former heroin addicts – euresponsive Drug-free, opioid medication-free former heroin addicts – hyperresponsive Cocaine addicts- recently abstinent – hyperresponsive Cocaine addicted, methadone maintained former heroin addicts – hyperresponsive “Hyperresponsive” indicates a relative endorphin deficiency Kreek, 1972; 1973; 1984; 1987; 1992; 2005; Kreek et al. , 1984; Schluger et al. , 2001

Dissecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary. Adrenal Axis in Humans: Selective Opioid Antagonist Testing hypothalamus anterior pituitary Dissecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary. Adrenal Axis in Humans: Selective Opioid Antagonist Testing hypothalamus anterior pituitary Endogenous Opioids (mu – inhibition) (kappa – ? activation) Opioid Antagonists CRF POMC -End Cortisol ACTH adrenal Kreek, 1984; 1998; 2006

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Genes: Definitions • SNP — a single nucleotide polymorphism, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Genes: Definitions • SNP — a single nucleotide polymorphism, that is, one nucleotide or base of any base pair • Allelic Frequency: <1% low or rare 1– 5% intermediate >5% high, frequent Hassin and Kreek, 2004

Hypothesis – Genetic Variability and the Mu Opioid Receptor System: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Hypothesis – Genetic Variability and the Mu Opioid Receptor System: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Moderate Allelic Frequency in the Coding Region Some of the individual genetic variability in susceptibility to the development and persistence of, or relapse to, opiate addiction may be due to polymorphisms of the mu opioid receptor. Also, individual differences in responses to endogenous opioids (“physiogenetics”) or pharmacotherapies (“pharmacogenetics”) may be mediated by variant forms of the mu opioid receptor. Allele frequency (overall – 3 ethnicities together) Variant Exon (nucleotide position) location Protein domain Corresponding amino acid change A 118 G 1 N-terminus Asn 4 Asp (N 40 D) 10. 5% (26 heterozygous; 3 homozygous) C 17 T 1 N-terminus Ala 6 Val (A 6 V) 6. 6% (14 heterozygous; 3 homozygous) * Nucleotide position 1 is first base of the start codon. Bond, La. Forge… Kreek, Yu, PNAS, 95: 9608, 1998

Human Mu Opioid Receptor: Location of Coding Region SNPs (SNPs Resulting in Amino Acids Human Mu Opioid Receptor: Location of Coding Region SNPs (SNPs Resulting in Amino Acids Changes or Synonymous Mutation) Kreek, La. Forge, Yuferov, 2005

Binding and Coupling to G Protein-Activated, Inwardly Rectifying K+(GIRK) Channels by Endogenous Opioid Peptides Binding and Coupling to G Protein-Activated, Inwardly Rectifying K+(GIRK) Channels by Endogenous Opioid Peptides to the Prototype and A 118 G Variant Mu Opioid Receptor Fraction Maximum Current Response 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 Percent Bound 100 0 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -11 -10 Log [Endomorphin -1(M)] -9 -8 -7 Log [ Endorphin (M)] 1. 0 0. 5 0 A 118 G Prototype 1. 0 0 -10 -9 -8 -7 Log [Endomorphin -1(M)] -6 -9 -8 -7 -6 Log [ Endorphin (M)] Bond et al. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95: 9608 -9613, 1998

24 A/A (n=29) A/G (n=7) 22 20 18 N N N 16 14 P 24 A/A (n=29) A/G (n=7) 22 20 18 N N N 16 14 P I 12 N 10 8 50 0 50 100 150 200 Cumulative Survival (Time to Relapse) Serum Cortisol (ug/dl) Physiogenetics and Pharmacogenetics Related to A 118 G Variant of Human Mu Opioid Receptor Gene Time (min) Basal plasma levels of cortisol significantly higher in persons with the A 118 G variant. Bart et al, 2006 Wand et al, 2002 Oslin et al. , 2003 1. 0 0. 9 0. 8 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0. 4 0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0 14 28 42 Days 56 70 Naltrexone/ Asp 40 Allele (A/G, G/G) (n=23) Naltrexone/ Asn 40 Allele (A/A) (n=48) Placebo/ Asp 40 Allele (A/G, G/G) (n=18) Placebo/ Asn 40 Allele (A/A) (n=41) 84

Association Between a Functional Polymorphism in the mu Opioid Receptor Gene and Opiate Addiction Association Between a Functional Polymorphism in the mu Opioid Receptor Gene and Opiate Addiction and also Alcoholism in Central Sweden Opiate Dependent (n=139) Control (n=170) G/G; A/G 41 23 A/A 98 147 118 G Allele Frequency 0. 155 0. 074 Thus, in the entire study group in this central Swedish population: Attributable Risk due to genotypes with a G allele: 18% (with confidence interval ranges from 8. 0 to 28. 0%) Bart G , Heilig M, La. Forge KS… Ott J, Kreek MJ, et al. , Molecular Psychiatry, 9: 547 -549, 2004 Alcohol Dependent (n=389) Control (n=170) G/G; A/G 90 23 A/A 299 147 118 G Allele Frequency * 0. 125 0. 074 * Overall 118 G Allele Frequency = 0. 109 Thus, in the entire study group in this central Swedish population: Attributable Risk due to genotypes with a G allele: 11. 1% (with confidence interval ranges from 3. 6 to 18. 0%) Bart G , Kreek MJ, La. Forge KS… Ott J, Heilig M, Neuropsychopharmacology, 30: 417, 2005

Hypothesis (1998 -2000) and Findings (2002 -2007) Concerning the Functional A 118 G Variant Hypothesis (1998 -2000) and Findings (2002 -2007) Concerning the Functional A 118 G Variant of the Mu Opioid Receptor 1) One or two copies of the functional A 118 G variant of the mu opioid receptor gene will result in differences in basal levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, and in stress responsivity, as objectively measured using a specific opioid antagonist (e. g. , naloxone, naltrexone, nalmefene). 2) One or two copies of the functional A 118 G variant of the mu opioid receptor will predict a positive (“good”) outcome to treatment of alcoholism with an opioid antagonist (since we hypothesized and have now shown that alcoholics seek and like modest activation of the stressresponsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). 3) Further, the A 118 G variant of the mu opioid receptor will be found to be associated with alcoholism and also opiate addiction – two addictive diseases which are characterized by disruption of HPA axis function and alter stress responsivity. Bond et al, 1998; Kreek, 1999; La. Forge, 2000; Kreek et al. , Nature Neuroscience, 2005; 2007

LABORATORY OF THE BIOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE DISEASES, 2007 Mary Jeanne Kreek, MD – Professor LABORATORY OF THE BIOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE DISEASES, 2007 Mary Jeanne Kreek, MD – Professor and Head BACK ROW: Marek Mandau, Caitlin Smith, Melanie Johncilla, Matthew Swift, Kitt Lavoie, Susan Russo, Johannes Adomako, Julia Allen, Kimberly O’Hara, Laura Nunez MIDDLE ROW: Morgane Rouault, Dmitri Proudnikov, Brenda Ray, Anne Dalton, Lisa Borg, Yong Zhang, Roberto Picetti, Brian Reed, Matthew Randesi FRONT ROW: Orna Levran, Elizabeth Khuri, Vadim Yuferov, David Nielsen, Ann Ho, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Eduardo Butelman, Yan Zhou, Stefan Schlussman, K. Steven La. Forge