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Opening Higher Education to Adults Conclusions of the HEAD report on Hungarian Higher Education Opening Higher Education to Adults Conclusions of the HEAD report on Hungarian Higher Education Dr. Balázs Németh Institute of Adult Education - Faculty of AE and HRD nemeth. [email protected] pte. hu

Background of the HEAD Report I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Background of the HEAD Report I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 General development orientations of the European Commission in the field of Adult Learning – Adult Learning Policy Background and related Surveys - Quality in the Adult Learning Sector – PANTEIA, NL; - ALFI - Financing Adult Learnnig in Europe; FIBS, DE - Opening Higher Education for Adults - HEAD (Public open tender EAC/26/2011: Developing the adult learning sector. URL: http: //ec. europa. eu/education/calls/doc 3032_en. htm)

Background of the HEAD Report II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Background of the HEAD Report II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 Impact of particular trends indicated by particular IGOs (e. g. EU, OECD, UNESCO) and NGOs (e. g. CEDEFOP, EAEA) - UNESCO CONFINTEA VI (2009) – Impact of the „Belém Framework for Action”; - UNESCO. Confintea VI. Harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. Belém Framework for Action. December 2009. www. unesco. org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/INSTITUTES/UIL/confintea/pdf/working_documents/Bel%C 3%A 9 m%20 Framework_Final. pdf - CEDEFOP data on the Fall of Vocations requiring low skills (2012); Cedefop Briefing Note: Europe’s skill challenge. March 2012. http: //www. cedefop. europa. eu/EN/publications/19651. aspx - The impact of the ‚Bologna-process and that of EHEA’ (1999 -) – EHEA and EALL is interconnected by HEIs. - EC Memorandum (2000) and Action Plans on Adult Learning (2007, 2011) – lifelong and lifewide dimensions (2000 – 2011)

Background of the HEAD Report – the Impact of Essential Issues I. LOT 3: Background of the HEAD Report – the Impact of Essential Issues I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 Budapest Communication of the EC (March, 2011) - - Greater knowledge regarding the returns of adult participation in higher education and need to build a better case for public investment in this area. Returns may also be examined in terms of active ‘citizenship’ and similar aspects; There is a need to decide whether provision for adults would be better placed in specific institutes for lifelong learning within universities, or ‘mainstreamed’ with the regular offer Better understanding the links between adult education participation and the quality of higher education provision, in particular looking at how/whether adult participation in higher education leads to quality improvements; Spreading ‘good practice’ in the provision of higher education to adults, financing of networks or the creation of a European Institute for Lifelong Learning, that would serve as a platform for dissemination of good practices; Clarifying the range of recognised, in the form of legal entitlements, support systems that enable adult learners’ participation in higher education (such as child and elderly care, tax benefits, study leave entitlements, etc. ); http: //adultlearning-budapest 2011. teamwork. fr/docs/Conference_Background_document. pdf

Background of the HEAD Report – the Impact of Essential Issues II. LOT 3: Background of the HEAD Report – the Impact of Essential Issues II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 Budapest Communication of the EC (March, 2011) Cont. - - Moving from systems of validation of non-formal and informal learning regulated by HEIs to more uniform systems (otherwise both general inaction and substantial geographical inequalities in this area will continue to prevail); Up-skilling higher education staff in relation to successful pedagogies for adult learners; given the small scale of adult education staff in education departments in HEIs, they should be provided with the possibility to establish international networks in order to take advantage of their complementary expertise; Need to ensure “buy in” from key stakeholders to maximise the effects of policy implementation at the local and institutional level; Articulating and maximising the benefits for adults of flexible provision, for instance through Open Universities and other distance learning provision as well as universities of the third age as ways to open up new educational pathways. http: //adultlearning-budapest 2011. teamwork. fr/docs/Conference_Background_document. pdf

Specific Objectives of the HEAD Report LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Specific Objectives of the HEAD Report LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Identifying main factors impacting on participation of adult learners in HE - Mapping Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) engaged in adult education (notably through research on adult learning from the point of view of flexible learning provisions to facilitate the participation of adult learners) - Identifying models for the flexible delivery of HE programmes as well as regulatory frameworks and financial provisions at national level designed to facilitate this process - Drawing conclusions and recommendations for action to be taken at European, national and regional level

Planned Results of the HEAD Project LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Planned Results of the HEAD Project LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - A detailed description and analysis of factors that facilitate or inhibit participation of adult learners in HE - A mapping of adult education research being undertaken in HEIs related to flexible delivery of higher education programmes and flexible learning provisions within HEIs which are conducive to good adult learner performance thus helping to increase the participation of adults in HE - An inventory of flexible types of learning, including open and distance learning, which are conducive to good adult learner performance and participation in HE - An in-depth analyses of 20 examples of good practice in the area of flexible delivery of HE programmes and learning provisions for adult learners - for each example regulatory frameworks and financial provisions at national level designed to facilitate this process should be described - Conclusions and recommendations for action to be taken at European, national and regional level to stimulate the participation of adult learners in higher education, based on the outcomes of the study

Additional Surveys to Influence the HEAD Report Focusing on Adult Learning and the Roles Additional Surveys to Influence the HEAD Report Focusing on Adult Learning and the Roles of Higher Education I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Adults Learning and Participating in Education (ALPINE); http: //www. qub. ac. uk/alpine/ALPINE/MAIN_PAGE. htm - Benchmarking Flexibility in the Bologna Reforms (Be. Flex); http: //www. eucen. eu/Be. Flex/Final. Reports/Be. Flex. Full. Report. PD. pdf - Engaging in Lifelong Learning: Shaping Inclusive and Responsive University Strategies (SIRUS 14) http: //www. eua. be/pubs/Engaging_in_Lifelong_Learning. pdf - Bologna Stocktaking Report; http: //www. ond. vlaanderen. be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/conference/documents/Stocktaking_report_2009_FINAL. pdf - Eurydice Study on Modernisation of HE in Europe http: //eacea. ec. europa. eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/131 EN. pdf

Additional Surveys to Influence the HEAD Report Focusing on Adult Learning and the Roles Additional Surveys to Influence the HEAD Report Focusing on Adult Learning and the Roles of Higher Education II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Eurydice Study on Adults in Formal Education; http: //eacea. ec. europa. eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/128 EN. pdf - Pre-study on the role of HEIs as providers of continuous professional learning and adult education delivered by the DG Education and Culture; http: //ec. europa. eu/education/more-information/doc/2011/higher_en. pdf - the EUROSTUDENT IV Report http: //www. eurostudent. eu/download_files/documents/EIV_Synopsis_of_Indicators. pdf

HEAD Report and its Glossary LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract HEAD Report and its Glossary LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Adult education research related to flexible education for adults undertaken in higher education institutions; - Adult learners in higher education institutions; - Factors facilitating or inhibiting adult participation in higher education; - Flexibility; - Higher education and higher education institutions; - Increase of participation of adults in higher education.

The HEAD Report and its Glossary LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) The HEAD Report and its Glossary LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Opening higher education; - Recognition of prior learning; - Regulatory frameworks and financial provisions.

Closed model of HEI/region interface HEIs Region Education Skills Innovation R&D Service to Community Closed model of HEI/region interface HEIs Region Education Skills Innovation R&D Service to Community Active citizenship Culture Community and Sustainability OECD IMHE-CERI (2007) Higher Education and Regions. Globally Competitive, Locally Engaged. OECD, Paris. p. 40. upon Goddard and Chatterton (2003)

Lifelong Learning New Educational Order „Five elements of a future strategy: • rethinking the Lifelong Learning New Educational Order „Five elements of a future strategy: • rethinking the role of schooling in a learning society – University LLL (? ) • widening participation in adult learning – EC communications (? ) • developing the workplace as a site of learning – HRD (? ) • building active citizenship by investing in social capital - HEI (? ) • pursuing the search for meaning - HEI (? ) J. Field (2007) Lifelong Learning and the New Educational Order. Trentham Books, Stoke on Trent. p. 148.

University Lifelong Learning? „University departments of adult, continuing and community education have always stood University Lifelong Learning? „University departments of adult, continuing and community education have always stood on the edge of the academy – as marginal, potentially creative, but vulnerable places. Historically, perhaps what distinguished them most clearly has been their role as agents of civic mission of the academy. ” „In this sense, they have worked as instruments of the ‘democratic intellect’ and sought to sustain some connection between the idea of the university and the ideal of an ‘educated public’. ” „It is very much against the odds, therefore, that we have tried to reinvent elements of the civic mission of the university, understood as a public institutions, in some of our work. ” J. Crowther, I. Martin, M. Shaw: Re-inventing the Civic Tradition: In and Against the State of Higher Education. In: R. V. de Castro, A. V. Sancho, P. Guimaraes (eds. ) (2006) Adult Education. New Routes in a New Landscape. University of Minho, Braga. Pp. 135 -147.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE I. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Most adult learners in Hungarian higher education, according to HEAD distinction, are recurrent learners, deferrers or returners. Recurrent learners – learners who return to HE for a further, usually higher degree Deferrers – learners with credentials who defer entry into HE, decision to participate in HE is made after a phase of employment or other activities Returners - learners who drop-in to higher education, having ‘dropped-out’ or deferred HE studies at an earlier stage Refreshers - participation in continuing HE programs with or without traditional educational qualifications to refresh knowledge and skills Learners in later life - learners at the third age who enrol in mainly non-credit HE programs for personal development purposes Source: HEAD Glossary, DIE (2012) Pp. 3 -4.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE II. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - One must note that HE in Hungary developed and has maintained some special roles in the education of adults in special part-time, evening or corresponding forms/structures of education during the last six decades; - This kind of varying and changing partial role in adult education and learning has NOT yet turned most universities and colleges to recognise such actions belonging to their mainstream functions until the very end of the twentieth century; - Universities and colleges have started to show more attention and interest towards university lifelong learning and adult learners through their shortcycle programmes, VET programmes, and particular distance/e-learning courses.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE III. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE III. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - The number of such programmes have been growing rather slowly and reflects the lack of an overall institutional interest and engagement, the lack of adult training skills of most lecturers and the lack of appropriate and flexible curricula, proper teaching methodology and technical facilities; - Most universities are not yet fully interested in raising of the number of their students from adult learners, other than from those who would enrol to traditional BA, Ma and/or doctorate programmes; - RPLand VPL system in Hungarian higher education is still in experimental and early phase of use; - In Hungarian higher education recurrent learners and returners are the majority of lifelong learners, but refreshers and learners in later life are people who expand the number of new learners entering higher education to gather kbnowledge ansd skills.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE IV. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE IV. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - The funding system in Hungarian HE is oriented mainly to support full-time students as part-timers are financing their studies form individual sources in most cases; - A more specific strategy on adult and lifelong learning would be of social benefit, on the one hand, to help raising participation and, on the other, to get universities involved into local and regional learning partnerships for better learning performance; - It is fairly difficult to overcome barriers amongst sectors of education and training, as most adult education and training programmes are organised in the non-formal sector and consider HE as a separate actor in the education of adults. Co-operation is very rare and mainly demonstrated by departments of adult education/andragogy through their special education and research programmes.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE V. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE V. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Most Hungarian HEIs have no or limited practice in the validation of prior learning, however, a new model was achieved in 2011 for general testing and use; - The New 2011 Act on Higher Education urges for better higher education developing ed. and training provisison to support adult learning and develop partnerships with local stakeholders; - Universities and colleges make every efforts to turn their institutions easily accessible for special groups and, for example, to raise the number of Roma adults students; - A significant dimension of a successful HE policy is how an institution can become learner-centred lifelong learning university.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VI. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VI. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Universities and colleges have had to turn their physical infrastructures as open learning spaces to adult learners and demonstrate an open and partnermood for mutual actions and communication; - It is very difficult to measure the number of adult learners in HE as the figures which are accessible are the figures to show up adults engaged in formal learning. Non-formal learning activities in HEIs are not referenced in statistical data collection; Data collection ought to be expanded to university lifelong learning; - There are not enough outreach and extramural programmes of universities and colleges to rural communities based upon local partnerships and collaboration.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VI. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VI. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - The characteritics of of most adult-centred programmes is to open higher education to adults through non-degree special courses, further professional development and upgraiding of skills and competencies, continuing ed. and trainings for graduated professionals, short introductory courses for young adults; - Some of the courses help adults to use ICT in their jobs and businesses, promote open and distance education in flexible time-framed/modularised curricula so as to help students to proceed in their studies with guidance – However, such programmes and the management of trainings for adults have not yet been embedded into the philosophy of each faculties and respected educational units; - Most HEI-based programmes for adult learners are accredited programmes, therefore, they fit into the system of adult and continuing education.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VII. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VII. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Flexible learning provision for adult learners mainly indicate studies/courses in all forms other than full-time, namely, non-degree courses, special trainings, post-grad. Specialisation, higher vocational training in part-time mode, language courses, distance ed. /e-learning courses, etc. ; - Most programmes of universities and colleges with an adult learning orientation have a dominance of natural sciences, information and technology, however, other sciences try to be represented too; - One problematic aspect of all education and training provision is the lack of reliable learning needs assessment and its incorporation of its results into planning and development of HE provision of education and trainings.

The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VIII. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – Key findings on Hungarian HE VIII. LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - Significant factors which may deter others from learning at universities are the cost of education and training programmes, the lack of avaliable courses learners actually need in their localities and a bad learning experience of theirs in the community or family. Situational barriers can also turn as factors to constrain an adult in HE. - One major barrier to open HE to adults is the fear of academic cycles that it may cause the fall of quality education as growing numbers may turn universities away from research and innovation. - Another barrier is the perception of some professors and lecturers that they might have to develop their own teaching skills and methodologies so as to be able to provide effective teaching to adult learners. - What are the conditions of implementing a proper monitoring of adult learning in HE?

The HEAD Report - Recommendations LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract The HEAD Report - Recommendations LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074 - A thorough systematization, dissemination and exchange of information is needed; - An expansion of HE-based training programmes for adults and that of atypical knowledge transfer is essential; - The development and spreading of appropriate financing and funding mechanisms is needed across Europe; - More care is required towards adult learners belonging to specific target groups.

The HEAD Report – A Clearer Picture on Hungarian HE? LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER The HEAD Report – A Clearer Picture on Hungarian HE? LOT 3: OPENING HIGHER EDUCATION TO ADULTS (HEAD) Contract EAC 2012 -0074