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Open and Distance Learning Policy Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman Chief Executive Officer College of Open and Distance Learning Policy Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman Chief Executive Officer College of Internet Distance Education Assumption University of Thailand [email protected] au. edu www. elearning. au. edu International Seminar on “Policies and Technologies in ODL: Issues and Implementation” 1 September 14, 2006. Hanoi, Vietnam.

Open and Distance Learning Policy 1. Introduction 2. Five Generations of Distance Education 3. Open and Distance Learning Policy 1. Introduction 2. Five Generations of Distance Education 3. Definition of e. Learning by Sloan 4. Sample U. S Universities Offering e. Learning Degrees 5. Policy on Curricula 6. Human Resource Policy 2

Open and Distance Learning Policy 7. Facilities and Internet Policies 8. Financial Policy 9. Open and Distance Learning Policy 7. Facilities and Internet Policies 8. Financial Policy 9. Other Policies 10. Concluding Remarks 3

1. Introduction Online education or “e. Learning” is gaining more and more popularity all 1. Introduction Online education or “e. Learning” is gaining more and more popularity all over the world. • University level: no field of study where e. Learning is not used. • Short courses and training level: formal academic institutions, learned societies and companies are providing e. Learning. 4

Introduction (Cont. ) K 12: State of Michigan passed the first law in the Introduction (Cont. ) K 12: State of Michigan passed the first law in the world requiring e. Learning in high schools. 450, 000 students to take e. Learning. Other states may pass similar law. 5

Introduction (Cont. ) • Time Magazine: By the year 2020, e. Learning will be Introduction (Cont. ) • Time Magazine: By the year 2020, e. Learning will be the mainstream and classroom learning the supporting part. • All countries have established or are in the process of establishing e. Learning programs. 6

Introduction (Cont. ) • In the year 1999, Jones International University became the first Introduction (Cont. ) • In the year 1999, Jones International University became the first virtual university to be fully accredited. • The University of Phoenix is the university to have the highest net profit of about 150 US$ million per year. • Capella University is the first virtual university to enter Nasdaq. 7

Introduction (Cont. ) • The College of Internet Distance Education of Assumption University signed Introduction (Cont. ) • The College of Internet Distance Education of Assumption University signed or negotiating cooperation agreements with: - US National American University - Jones International University. - UKe. U - Middlesex University - Unitar 8

Introduction (Cont. ) • For ASEAN, all 10 countries are offering e. Learning. 9 Introduction (Cont. ) • For ASEAN, all 10 countries are offering e. Learning. 9

Introduction (Cont. ) • On 25 April 2002, the Board of Trustees of Assumption Introduction (Cont. ) • On 25 April 2002, the Board of Trustees of Assumption University approved the proposal by the author to establish the College of Internet Distance Education with the author as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). 10

Introduction (Cont. ) • The College is located at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center with Introduction (Cont. ) • The College is located at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center with 12 floors, 12, 000 square meters, and about 15 US$ million. • By September 2006, there are 8 universities in Thailand offering 12 e. Learning degree programs. 11

Searching Google for “Ph. D. in e. Learning Methodology” 12 Searching Google for “Ph. D. in e. Learning Methodology” 12

Searching Google for “Ph. D. in e. Learning Methodology” found over 300, 000 entries Searching Google for “Ph. D. in e. Learning Methodology” found over 300, 000 entries with Assumption University the first 3 entries 13

Introduction (Cont. ) • To promote e. Learning in Thailand, the author includes the Introduction (Cont. ) • To promote e. Learning in Thailand, the author includes the subject in his one-hour radio and TV programs: - FM 92. 5 Radio every Tuesday. - AM 891 Radio every Sunday. - UBC 89 TV every Sunday. 14

Introduction (Cont. ) • July 2006, the International Biographical Centre in the UK named Introduction (Cont. ) • July 2006, the International Biographical Centre in the UK named Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman “ The Father of Thai E-Learning” 15

The Father of Thai E-Learning by the International Biographical Centre 16 The Father of Thai E-Learning by the International Biographical Centre 16

Searching for “e-learning” provides 163, 000 entries 17 Searching for “e-learning” provides 163, 000 entries 17

Searching for “e-learning policy” provides 38, 300, 000 entries 18 Searching for “e-learning policy” provides 38, 300, 000 entries 18

Over 450 Million Internet Hosts in the Year 2006 19 Over 450 Million Internet Hosts in the Year 2006 19

World Internet Usage and Population Statistics World Regions Population (2006 Est. ) Internet Usage, World Internet Usage and Population Statistics World Regions Population (2006 Est. ) Internet Usage, Latest Data %Population (Penetration) Usage % of World Usage Growth 2000 -2005 Africa 915, 210, 928 23, 649, 000 2. 6% 2. 3% 423. 9% Asia 3, 667, 774, 066 380, 400, 713 10. 4% 36. 5% 232. 8% Europe 807, 289, 020 294, 101, 844 36. 4% 28. 2% 179. 8% Middle East 190, 084, 161 18, 203, 500 9. 6% 1. 7% 454. 2% North America 331, 473, 276 227, 470, 713 68. 6% 21. 8% 110. 4% Latin America/Caribbean 553, 908, 632 79, 962, 809 14. 7% 7. 8% 350. 5% Oceania/Australia 33, 956, 977 17, 872, 707 52. 6% 1. 7% 134. 6% WORLD TOTAL 6, 499, 697, 060 1, 043, 104, 886 16. 0% 100. 0% 189. 0% 20

World Internet Usage • Over 1 billion Internet users, 16% of world population. • World Internet Usage • Over 1 billion Internet users, 16% of world population. • Largest penetration rate of 68. 6% in North America, 227 million users from 331 million population. • Largest number of Internet users is in Asia, 380 million users from 3. 6 billion population. 21

2. Five Generations of Distance Education • • First generation: “The Correspondence Model” Second 2. Five Generations of Distance Education • • First generation: “The Correspondence Model” Second generation: “The Multimedia Model” Third generation: “The Telelearning Model” Fourth Generation: “The Web-based Learning Model” • Fifth Generation: “The Internet Distance Education Model” 22

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) First Generation The Correspondence Model ·Print 23 Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) First Generation The Correspondence Model ·Print 23

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation: • started in the late Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation: • started in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s • was known as “correspondence study” using postal mail. • The students and instructors communicated through writing and postal mail. 24

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation (Cont. ) • Baltimore’s Calvert Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation (Cont. ) • Baltimore’s Calvert School was the first elementary school and University of Chicago was the first university to offer correspondence study in the early 1900’s. 25

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation (Cont. ) • As a Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The first generation (Cont. ) • As a matter of fact, this kind of distance education can be offered through the Internet by using e-mail instead of the postal mail which is referred to as “snail mail” to indicate its slow speed comparing to the Internet. 26

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Second Generation The Multimedia Model · Print · Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Second Generation The Multimedia Model · Print · Audiotape · Videotape · Computer-based learning (e. g. CML/CAL) · Interactive video (disk and tape) 27

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The second generation: • Is the “Open Universities” Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The second generation: • Is the “Open Universities” which started in 1970’s. • The British Open University delivered the course information via radio and television. • The philosophy of “anyone, anytime, anywhere” was adopted by open universities. 28

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The second generation (Cont. ) • Any person Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The second generation (Cont. ) • Any person may enroll in courses without regard to prior experience or education. • A student can begin and complete a course without time restrictions. • Course work and study is done anywhere the student chooses. 29

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Third Generation The Telelearning Model · Audioteleconferencing · Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Third Generation The Telelearning Model · Audioteleconferencing · Videoconferencing · Audiographic Communication · Broadcast TV/Radio and Audioteleconferencing 30

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation: • Started in 1980’s with Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation: • Started in 1980’s with videotape, broadcast, satellite, and cable. • Large organizations like the US Department of Defense invested large sum of money to set up satellite network for training purposes. 31

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation (Cont. ) • In 1981, Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation (Cont. ) • In 1981, PBS Adult Learning Service (ALS) joined with 190 public television stations and about 2, 000 colleges to offer over 80 telecourses for credit with enrollment of over 470, 000 students. 32

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation (Cont. ) • In addition Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The third generation (Cont. ) • In addition to telecourses for college degree, ALS also offers more than 1, 000 hours of satellite programming for professional development, adult literacy and other distance learning topics. 33

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Fourth Generation The Web-based Learning Model · Interactive Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Fourth Generation The Web-based Learning Model · Interactive multimedia (IMM) · Internet-based access to WWW resources · Computer-mediated communication 34

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The fourth generation: • Is “Web-based” or through Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The fourth generation: • Is “Web-based” or through the Internet. • Providing instructions via the World Wide Web. • Business travelers, students in isolated areas can enjoy interactive classrooms no matter where they are and what time it is. 35

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Fifth Generation The Internet Distance Education Model · Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) Fifth Generation The Internet Distance Education Model · Interactive multimedia (IMM) · Internet-based access to WWW resources · All facilities of the Internet 36

Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The fifth generation: • “Internet Distance Education” offers Five Generations of DE (Cont. ) The fifth generation: • “Internet Distance Education” offers the potential to decrease significantly the cost of online learning and thereby increase significantly access to education and training opportunities worldwide. • Delivers a quantum leap in economy of scale and associated cost-effectiveness. • All existing and any new facilities of the Internet could be used. 37

3. Definitions of e. Learning There are many definitions of e. Learning. Searching for 3. Definitions of e. Learning There are many definitions of e. Learning. Searching for “define: elearning” from Google, four sources were founded. 38

Searching for “define: elearning” from Google, four sources 39 Searching for “define: elearning” from Google, four sources 39

Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) • From <en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Eleaarning>, “E-learning most often Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) • From , “E-learning most often means an approach to facilitate and enhance learning through the use of devices based on computer and communications technology”. • From the web , “Online Learning” is the same as “e. Learning”. 40

Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) • From the web <www. intelera. com/glossary. html>, Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) • From the web , “Online Learning” has the same meaning as “e. Learning”. 41

Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) Another important definition of e. Learning was given Definitions of e. Learning (Cont. ) Another important definition of e. Learning was given in the report “Growing by Degrees: Online Education the United States, 2005” released in November 2005. Four types of learning. - Traditional Learning. - Web-Facilitated Learning. - Blended/Hybrid Learning. - Online Learning or e. Learning. 42

Four Types of Distance Education Proportion of Content Delivered Online 0% 1 to 29% Four Types of Distance Education Proportion of Content Delivered Online 0% 1 to 29% 30 to 79% 80+ % Type of Courses Typical Description Traditional Course with no online technology used-content is delivered in writing or orally. Web Facilitated Course which use web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course management system (CMS) or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments, for example. Blended/ Hybrid Course that blends online and face-to-face delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-to-face meetings. Online or e. Learning A course where most of all of the content is delivered online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings. 43

Four Types of Distance Education Traditional. 0% online. Course with no online technology used. Four Types of Distance Education Traditional. 0% online. Course with no online technology used. Content is delivered in writing or orally. Web Facilitated. 1 to 29% online. Course which use web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course management system (CMS) or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments, for example. 44

Four Types of Distance Education (Cont. ) Blended/ Hybrid. 30 to 79% online. Course Four Types of Distance Education (Cont. ) Blended/ Hybrid. 30 to 79% online. Course that blends online and face-to-face delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-to-face meetings. 45

Four Types of Distance Education (Cont. ) Online or e. Learning. 80 -100% online. Four Types of Distance Education (Cont. ) Online or e. Learning. 80 -100% online. A course where most of all of the content is delivered online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings. 46

4. U. S Universities with e. Learning Degrees. • The university with the largest 4. U. S Universities with e. Learning Degrees. • The university with the largest number of students is Phoenix with more than 140, 000 students. • Phoenix made about 150 US$ million net profit per year. • Baker College has the second largest enrollment of about 101, 000 students. 47

Sample U. S. Universities Offering e. Learning Courses. University Year Started e. Learning Phoenix Sample U. S. Universities Offering e. Learning Courses. University Year Started e. Learning Phoenix 1989 Number of e. Learning Courses 23 programs Number of ELearning Students 140, 000+ Baker College, Auburn Hills Maryland 1994 252 programs 101, 000+ 1993 597 programs 37, 000+ Arizona State 1996 358 programs 16, 900+ Capella 1996 675 programs 12, 000+ Brigham Young 1997 178 programs 10, 000+ Boston 1985 44 programs 5, 400+ Missouri-Columbia 1996 265 programs 2, 700+ Stanford 1997 228 programs (Not mentioned) 48

Searching for “US Universities e. Learning Statistics found 2. 5 million entries. 49 Searching for “US Universities e. Learning Statistics found 2. 5 million entries. 49

US Universities with e. Learning Programs found 1, 369 online degrees from 132 online US Universities with e. Learning Programs found 1, 369 online degrees from 132 online colleges. 50

The Sloan Survey of over 1, 000 universities and colleges in the US November The Sloan Survey of over 1, 000 universities and colleges in the US November 2005 • e. Learning in the US grew 10 times faster than originally predicted by the National Center for Education Statistics. • Nearly 2. 4 million students were enrolled in one or more e. Learning courses. • More than 200, 000 students are enrolled at the University of Phoenix alone. 51

 • 63 -65% of colleges offered courses in e. Learning mode. • 65% • 63 -65% of colleges offered courses in e. Learning mode. • 65% used classroom-based faculty members to teach e. Learning. • Both teachers and students have to work harder in e. Learning mode. • 82% of faculty members believed that it would not be more difficult to measure the quality of e. Learning mode than measuring the quality of classroom mode. 52

5. Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit Elearning provider should establish policy on: • 5. Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit Elearning provider should establish policy on: • Curricula or programs to offer, e. g. - Short course. - One degree program. - Several degree programs. • Field of study to offer e. Learning, e. g. - Business Administration. - ICT. - Some other fields. 53

Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit (Cont. ) • A policy should be established Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit (Cont. ) • A policy should be established which of the existing unit in the university should be responsible for e. Learning. • For example, the Extension Department may be in charge of e. Learning. 54

Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit (Cont. ) In the decree published in the Policy on Curricula and Responsible Unit (Cont. ) In the decree published in the Royal Gazette of the government of Thailand, a college-level organization must be established to be responsible for e. Learning. For example, Assumption University established the College of Internet Distance Education headed by the Chief Executive Officer who reports directly to the University President and the University Board of Trustees. 55

6. Human Resource Policy In the college-level unit responsible for e. Learning, there must 6. Human Resource Policy In the college-level unit responsible for e. Learning, there must be human resource policy. For example, the policy may state that the following positions must be available: 1) Chief Executive Officer: A full time CEO should be appointed from those holding doctorate degrees or equivalent or at least associate professorship. 56

6. Human Resource Policy 2) Executive Officers: The CEO could be assisted by a 6. Human Resource Policy 2) Executive Officers: The CEO could be assisted by a Chief Technology Officer (CTO), Chief Academic Officer (CAO), Chief Operating Officer (COO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), and etc. Each school should have a Dean, and each program a Program Director. 57

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 3) Administrative Officers: such as • Director of Network Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 3) Administrative Officers: such as • Director of Network Operation Center • Director of Radio and TV Courseware Production Center • Director of Web-based Courseware Production Center • etc. 58

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 4) Educational and Communication Technology Specialist: - educational technology. Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 4) Educational and Communication Technology Specialist: - educational technology. - instructional technology. - audio-visual education to assist in systems instructional design, supervise and control media production, utilization and evaluation. 59

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 5) Testing and Evaluation Specialists: • Holding at least Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 5) Testing and Evaluation Specialists: • Holding at least a Master’s degree in educational measurement and evaluation. • In charge of developing and analyzing on -line and off-line test instruments based on objectives and learning experiences. 60

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 6) Faculty Members: (1) Content Expert (2) Facilitating Instructor Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 6) Faculty Members: (1) Content Expert (2) Facilitating Instructor (3) Thesis Advisor 61

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) (1) Content Expert: A specialist in a subject must Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) (1) Content Expert: A specialist in a subject must be appointed to be in charge of the course in his area of specialization. • Create the course syllabus with course description, course objectives, list of textbooks and journal articles, additional reading materials, course assessment, and etc. 62

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Establish the contents of Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Establish the contents of the course and the Power. Point presentation. • Deliver the lectures in the studio to be videotaped and taped in voice. • Create the handout for students to download. 63

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Set up online activities. Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Set up online activities. • Define all activities such as exercises, assignments, reports, quizzes and examinations. • Set up assessment guidelines for the facilitating instructor to follow. 64

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Develop many sets of Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Content Expert (Cont. ) • Develop many sets of examinations. • Provide a list of glossary. • The College paid the content expert 180, 000 baht per course, totaling over 4 million baht for 23 courses in the M. Sc. in Management program. 65

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) (2) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) • May be responsible Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) (2) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) • May be responsible for not more than 40 students in a course and perform the following duties: 1) Acknowledge the receipt of email from the student within 24 hours. 2) Give responses to questions from the students within 72 hours. 66

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) 3) Monitor student activities in Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) 3) Monitor student activities in the chat room and the collaborative group. 4) Check and review the student homework or assignment within seven days after the date of receipt. 67

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) 5) Grade the examination and Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) Facilitating Instructor (Cont. ) 5) Grade the examination and post the result on the web within seven days after the date of examination. 6) Submit weekly progress report of teaching to the Program Director. 68

(3) Thesis Advisor: • May be appointed and, as required by the rules and (3) Thesis Advisor: • May be appointed and, as required by the rules and regulations, may supervise not exceeding a number of graduate students both at the Master’s and Doctoral degree levels. 69

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 7) Internet Personnel: Full-time Internet personnel are needed to Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) 7) Internet Personnel: Full-time Internet personnel are needed to perform the tasks of controlling and overseeing the use of Internet-based learning. - Director: Should be appointed from those holding at least a Master’s degree in the field of information technology or educational and communication technology 70

Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) - Internet Experts: Should be appointed from those holding Human Resource Policy (Cont. ) - Internet Experts: Should be appointed from those holding at least a Bachelor’s degree in informational technology or educational and communication technology. - Internet Specialists: Systems operators, System administrator, Webmaster, Web developer, Help desk assistants, Engineers, and Technicians. - Supporting Staff: Other positions maybe required to support the Internet services. 71

7. Facilities and Network Policy • • Physical Facilities Policy Network Policy Hardware Policy 7. Facilities and Network Policy • • Physical Facilities Policy Network Policy Hardware Policy Software Policy 72

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Physical Facilities Policy: Required for the personnel Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Physical Facilities Policy: Required for the personnel and the network operation center. 73

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) - Example at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center with Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) - Example at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center with 12 floors, 12, 000 square meters, and worth about 15 US$ million. - All personnel of the College have their offices in the building. - The network operation center and the computer rooms are also in the building. 74

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Network Policy: Network Must be highly reliable. Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Network Policy: Network Must be highly reliable. There must be at least two sets of servers to back up each other. In the case of the College of Internet Distance Education of Assumption University, four sets of servers were installed. 75

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) - Two at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center in Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) - Two at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center in Bangna Campus. - The other two at Huamark Campus or at the ISP. 76

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Hardware Policy: The quality of hardware for Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Hardware Policy: The quality of hardware for the servers and the terminals should be very high. For example, at Srisakdi Charmonman IT Center with over 1, 000 computers, spare parts and technicians are available right at the building 24 hours a day and seven days a week. 77

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Software Policy: - Learning Management System (LMS) Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) • Software Policy: - Learning Management System (LMS) - E-Learning Activities 78

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) Learning Management System (LMS) consists of at least Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) Learning Management System (LMS) consists of at least 12 parts: (1) Homepage with navigation menu. (2) Learning centers. (3) Self Access Learning Resource. (4) External resource centers. (5) Laboratories. 79

Learning Management System (Cont. ) (6) AV Media Center. (7) Assessment Center. (8) Web Learning Management System (Cont. ) (6) AV Media Center. (7) Assessment Center. (8) Web board. (9) Chat room. (10) E-mail. (11) Frequently Asked Questions-FAQ. (12) Personal Information/Profiles. 80

Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) E-Learning Activities: (1) Orientation for each course. (2) Facilities and Network Policy (Cont. ) E-Learning Activities: (1) Orientation for each course. (2) Studying from the courseware. (3) Studying supplementary packages in prints, AV media and external sources via Internet links. (4) Perform the assignment, activities and projects and submit them via the Internet for marking. 81

E-Learning Activities (Cont. ) (5) Sit in the examinations at the designated examination centers. E-Learning Activities (Cont. ) (5) Sit in the examinations at the designated examination centers. (6) Get access to the knowledge bases(KB) or knowledge centers (KC), students and instructors profile centers, and databases. (7) Seek advice or consultation via the Internet with classmates and facilitating instructors. 82

 • To ensure the minimum required participation or attendance - The software must • To ensure the minimum required participation or attendance - The software must keep records of the log-in with date, time and time-intervals for each student’s participation during each learning sessions. • This information should have sufficient details and made available to the facilitating instructor. • This will help determine the student: - Learning progress. - Learning styles. - Commitment to his/her study. 83

8. Financial Policy Financial policy is required for the e. Learning providers: • The 8. Financial Policy Financial policy is required for the e. Learning providers: • The amount of initial investment and how to raise it. • The annual budget and the desired period to breakeven point. • Profit margin should also be stated. 84

Financial Policy (Cont. ) In case of Assumption University, it is a not-for-profit organization Financial Policy (Cont. ) In case of Assumption University, it is a not-for-profit organization but it has been profitable. However, all the profits have been utilized in improvement of the University. • The Master’s Degree Programs seem to be the most profitable. • The Bachelor’s Degree Programs seem to be less profitable than the Master’s Degree Programs. • The Doctoral Degree Programs may not be profitable but have to be offered to keep the university in high standing. 85

9. Other Policies 9. 1 Student Policy: All kinds of student supports should be 9. Other Policies 9. 1 Student Policy: All kinds of student supports should be provided. For example, a Call Center must be available for students to contact by telephone in case the students have difficulty in using the Internet. 9. 2 Textbook and e. Book Policy: In courses where the contents do not change at all like Calculus, a new courseware could be developed and used for years without any modification 86

Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 3 Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy: • In Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 3 Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy: • In the classroom-based program, a Bachelor’s Degree program can usually be completed in not less than three years. • In the e. Learning mode, a Bachelor’s Degree program can be completed in 18 months. 87

Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • A Bachelor’s Degree may require Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • A Bachelor’s Degree may require 120 semester credits. - each credit 13 hours of lecture or 39 hours of work. • The total hours of work required is 120 x 39 = 3, 480. 88

Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • If students do not work Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • If students do not work and is fully committed to studying, they can make 8 hours per day available. • They would need 3, 480 / 8 = 435 days or 435 / 30 = 14. 5 months to complete a Bachelor’s degree. 89

Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • There maybe: - 12 overlapping Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • There maybe: - 12 overlapping terms per year. - 2 semesters with one summer per year. - 4 quarters per year. • The student may choose to complete the term in: - 4 months. - 3 months. - 2 months - 1 month. 90

Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • At Assumption University, the rate Program Length and Tuition Fees Policy (Cont. ) • At Assumption University, the rate of tuition fees for e. Learning mode is made a little less than for the classroom mode. • For a subject which does not change, e. g. Calculus, and Statistics, once the initial investment has reached the breakeven point, the rate of tuition fees can be made very low. 91

Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 4 Evaluation Policy: • The evaluation of process: The Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 4 Evaluation Policy: • The evaluation of process: The pretest, activities, assignments and practical work performed while taking the course. The assignments and practicum may be marked and the scores may be used as parts of the final evaluation. 92

Other Policies (Cont. ) • The evaluation of product: This must comprise the final Other Policies (Cont. ) • The evaluation of product: This must comprise the final examinations and final projects. The e. Learning provider must develop the guideline or the operation plan for both the mid-term and final examinations to be administered in an examination center where the inspection of student identification is possible. 93

Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 5 Library Policy: The e. Learning provider must have Other Policies (Cont. ) 9. 5 Library Policy: The e. Learning provider must have a present and future development plan for libraries for students, both conventional and e-libraries. Existing libraries may be utilized but they should be converted to e-libraries. 94

Other Policies (Cont. ) Library Policy (Cont). Each library must make available at least Other Policies (Cont. ) Library Policy (Cont). Each library must make available at least five types of documentation and information: (1) e-books/texts; (2) e-journals, (3) databases, (4) abstracts on-line, (5) knowledge-base/databases. 95

10. Concluding Remarks • Internet Distance Education or e. Learning will be the mainstream 10. Concluding Remarks • Internet Distance Education or e. Learning will be the mainstream and classroom-based education the supporting part. • More and more regions may follow Michigan’s lead in requiring that every student must take at least one e. Learning course. • More and more e. Learning programs will be developed and related policies have to be established. 96

Concluding Remarks (Cont. ) This paper presented • Five generations of distance education. • Concluding Remarks (Cont. ) This paper presented • Five generations of distance education. • Definitions of e. Learning. • US universities with e. Learining degrees. • Policy on curricula. • Human resource policy. • Physical facilities policy. • Network policy. • Hardware policy. • Software policy. • Financial policy. • Other policies 97

Concluding Remarks (Cont. ) All parties concerned should join hands in developing and improving Concluding Remarks (Cont. ) All parties concerned should join hands in developing and improving the e. Learning policies for the benefits of themselves, their organizations, their countries, and the world. 98

Thank you 99 Thank you 99