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On the Way to ILC Shekhar Mishra Fermilab Talk presented on behalf of ILC-GDE On the Way to ILC Shekhar Mishra Fermilab Talk presented on behalf of ILC-GDE 2/16/06 Talk Presented at the 2006 Aspen Winter Conference: "Particle Physics at the Verge of Discovery"

International Linear Collider: Performance Specification (White Paper) – Initial maximum energy of 500 Ge. International Linear Collider: Performance Specification (White Paper) – Initial maximum energy of 500 Ge. V, operable over the range 200 -500 Ge. V for physics running. – Equivalent (scaled by 500 Ge. V/ s) integrated luminosity for the first four years after commissioning of 500 fb-1. – Ability to perform energy scans with minimal changeover times. – Beam energy stability and precision of 0. 1%. – Capability of 80% electron beam polarization over the range 200 -500 Ge. V. – Two interaction regions, at least one of which allows for a crossing angle enabling gg collisions. – Ability to operate at 90 Ge. V for calibration running. – Machine upgradeable to approximately 1 Te. V.

Road to: Reference Design Report ITRP Recommendation (Aug 2004) : Superconducting RF is accelerating Road to: Reference Design Report ITRP Recommendation (Aug 2004) : Superconducting RF is accelerating technology for ILC • 1 st ILC Workshop at KEK (11/2004) – working groups (WG) formed to begin identifying contentious design issues • 2 nd ILC Workshop Snowmass (8/2005) – modified WG continue identifying baseline design and alternatives – newly formed ‘Global Groups’ begin to discuss and catalogue global design issues – 2 nd Snowmass week: concentrate on the list of ‘Top 40’ critical design questions • 1 st Meeting of the ILC-GDE (12/2005) – – Acceptance of the Baseline Configuration Document (BCD) Start work towards the Reference Design Report (12/2006, with Cost) Formation of Accelerator System, Technology and Global systems Formation of • Design and Cost Board, Change Control Board and R&D Board

GDE RDR / R&D Organization FALC ICFA FALC Resource Board ILCSC GDE Directorate GDE GDE RDR / R&D Organization FALC ICFA FALC Resource Board ILCSC GDE Directorate GDE Executive Committee GDE R & D Board GDE Change Control Board Global R&D Program GDE Design Cost Board RDR Design Matrix

GDE RDR / R&D Organization FALC ICFA FALC Resource Board ILCSC GDE Directorate GDE GDE RDR / R&D Organization FALC ICFA FALC Resource Board ILCSC GDE Directorate GDE Executive Committee GDE R & D Board ILC R&D Program GDE Change Control Board Global R&D Program GDE Design Cost Board RDR Design Matrix ILC Design Effort

Mission of Global Design Effort • Produce a design for the ILC that includes Mission of Global Design Effort • Produce a design for the ILC that includes – – – A detailed design concept Performance assessments Reliable international costing An industrialization plan Siting analysis Detector concepts and scope • Coordinate worldwide prioritized proposal driven R & D efforts – To demonstrate and improve the performance – Reduce the costs – Attain the required reliability, etc.

The Baseline Machine (500 Ge. V) ~30 km RTML ~1. 6 km 20 mr The Baseline Machine (500 Ge. V) ~30 km RTML ~1. 6 km 20 mr 2 mr ML ~10 km (G = 31. 5 MV/m) BDS 5 km e+ undulator @ 150 Ge. V (~1. 2 km) R = 955 m E = 5 Ge. V not to scale x 2

Luminosity Table Bunch charge Number of bunches Linac bunch interval Bunch length Vertical emittance Luminosity Table Bunch charge Number of bunches Linac bunch interval Bunch length Vertical emittance IP beta (500 Ge. V) IP beta (1 Te. V) N nb tb sz gey bx by min 1 1330 154 150 0. 03 10 0. 2 nom 2 2820 308 300 0. 04 21 0. 4 30 0. 3 max 2 x 10^10 5640 461 ns 500 mm 0. 08 mm. mrad 21 mm 0. 4 mm 30 mm 0. 6 mm

Baseline Electron Source • DC Guns incorporating photocathode illuminated by a Ti: Sapphire drive Baseline Electron Source • DC Guns incorporating photocathode illuminated by a Ti: Sapphire drive laser. • Long electron microbunches (~2 ns) are bunched in a bunching section • Accelerated in a room temperature linac to about 100 Me. V and SRF linac to 5 Ge. V. laser E=70 -100 Me. V Positron-style roomstandard ILC temperature SCRF modules accelerating section sub-harmonic bunchers + solenoids diagnostics section

Baseline Positron Source • Helical Undulator Based Positron Source with Keep Alive System – Baseline Positron Source • Helical Undulator Based Positron Source with Keep Alive System – The undulator source will be placed at the 150 Ge. V point in main electron linac. Primary esource • This will allow constant charge operation across the foreseen centre-of-mass energy operating range. Beam Delivery System e. DR 150 Ge. V 100 Ge. V Helical Undulator In By-Pass Line Auxiliary Source Photon Collimators Positron Linac IP 250 Ge. V e+ DR Target e. Dump Photon Beam Dump e- Photon Target Adiabatic Matching Device e+ preaccelerator ~5 Ge. V

ILC Damping Ring: Baseline Design • Positrons: Two rings of ~ 6 km circumference ILC Damping Ring: Baseline Design • Positrons: Two rings of ~ 6 km circumference in a single tunnel. • Two rings are needed to reduce e-cloud effects unless significant progress can be made with mitigation techniques. • Preferred to 17 km due to: –Space-charge effects –Acceptance –Tunnel layout (commissioning time, stray fields) • Electrons: one 6 km ring. • Preferred to 3 km due to: –Larger gaps between mini-trains for clearing ions. –Injection and extraction kickers ‘low risk’

Main Linac: Baseline RF Unit Main Linac: Baseline RF Unit

SRF Cavity Gradient Cavity type Qualified gradient Operational Length* energy gradient MV/m initial upgrade SRF Cavity Gradient Cavity type Qualified gradient Operational Length* energy gradient MV/m initial upgrade MV/m Km Ge. V TESLA 35 31. 5 10. 6 250 LL 40 36. 0 +9. 3 500 * assuming 75% fill factor Total length of one 500 Ge. V linac 20 km

Baseline ILC Cryomodule • The baseline ILC Cryomodule will have 8 9 -Cell cavities Baseline ILC Cryomodule • The baseline ILC Cryomodule will have 8 9 -Cell cavities per cryomodule. The quadrupole will be at the center in the baseline design. • Every 4 th cryomodule in the linac would include a quadrupole with a corrector and BPM package.

Modulator Baseline Alternate Operation: an array of capacitors is charged in parallel, discharged in Modulator Baseline Alternate Operation: an array of capacitors is charged in parallel, discharged in series. (~2 m) The Bouncer Compensated Pulse Transformer Style Modulator Will test full prototype in 2006

RF Power: Baseline Klystrons Specification: 10 MW MBK 1. 5 ms pulse 65% efficiency RF Power: Baseline Klystrons Specification: 10 MW MBK 1. 5 ms pulse 65% efficiency Thales CPI Toshiba ILC (XFEL @ DESY) has a very limited experience with these Klystrons. Production and operation of these Klystron are issues that needs to be addressed.

Beam Delivery System: Baseline & Alternatives • Baseline (supported, at the moment, by GDE Beam Delivery System: Baseline & Alternatives • Baseline (supported, at the moment, by GDE exec) – two BDSs, 20/2 mrad, 2 detectors, 2 longitudinally separated IR halls • Alternative 1 – two BDSs, 20/2 mrad, 2 detectors in single IR hall @ Z=0 • Alternative 2 – single IR/BDS, collider hall long enough for two push-pull detectors

From Baseline to a RDR July Jan Frascati Bangalore Vancouver Dec 2006 Valencia Freeze From Baseline to a RDR July Jan Frascati Bangalore Vancouver Dec 2006 Valencia Freeze Configuration Organize for RDR Review Design/Cost Methodology Review Initial Design / Cost Design and Costing Review Final Design / Cost RDR Document Release RDR

ILC R&D • Major laboratories around the world are working on the ILC Accelerator ILC R&D • Major laboratories around the world are working on the ILC Accelerator R&D. – Europe • • • DESY (TESLA) (55 Institutions) European XFEL CARE (11 Institutions) Euro. Te. V (27 Institutions) UK-LCABD (15 Institutions) – Americas (9 Laboratories and Universities) • Fermilab • SLAC – Asia (6 Institution in 5 countries) • KEK Some Highlights of R&D Activities

Key Issues: ILC Main Linac Accelerator Technology • The feasibility demonstration for the ILC Key Issues: ILC Main Linac Accelerator Technology • The feasibility demonstration for the ILC requires that a cryomodule be assembled and tested at the design gradient of 35 MV/m. – Cavity technology development to routinely achieve > 35 MV/m and Q ~0. 51 e 10, • Finalize the design of an RF Unit and evaluate the reliability issues. It is important to fully test the basic building block of the Linac. • High Power Coupler, HOM, Tuner etc. • 10 MWatt Multi-Beam Klystron, Fabrication, Operation and reliability • RF Distribution, Controls and LLRF • Instrumentation and Feedback • Quadrupole, Corrector and Instrumentation package • Cryogenic Distribution

Europe: ILC R&D • DESY is leading the ILC R&D in Europe. The XFEL Europe: ILC R&D • DESY is leading the ILC R&D in Europe. The XFEL at DESY uses ILC Technology and have common R&D goals. – Cavity Gradient – Industrial studies and development of Main Linac Components. • • • Coupler RF Power Cryogenics (LHC) Instrumentation Beam Delivery System

DESY: ILC Accelerator Modules in Operation RF gun Diagnostics Bunch Laser Compressor 5 Me. DESY: ILC Accelerator Modules in Operation RF gun Diagnostics Bunch Laser Compressor 5 Me. V 127 Me. V Accelerating Structures Collimator Bunch Compressor 370 Me. V 445 Me. V Undulators bypass FEL diagnostics 250 m In single cavity measurements 6 out of 8 cavities reach 30 MV/m! At present DESY is operating modules 2* ACC 1 Febr 04 1* ACC 2 June 02 3* ACC 3 April 03 4 ACC 4 April 03 5 ACC 5 April 03 ACC 5

ILC R&D at Fermilab • ILC R&D effort at Fermilab is focused on key ILC R&D at Fermilab • ILC R&D effort at Fermilab is focused on key design & technical issues in support of the RDR, cost estimate and eventually the CDR for the ILC. • We also have the goal of positioning the Americas to host the ILC at Fermilab • Our efforts are focused on two main areas of the ILC – Main Linac Design – Civil and Site Development • Main Linac R&D: – The goals are to demonstrate the feasibility of all Main Linac technical components, develop engineering designs, estimate costs, explore cost reduction, and engage US industry • Civil and Site Development – Fermilab is working with the GDE and international partners to develop a matrix for comparing possible ILC sites – We also work to develop U. S. sites on or near Fermilab

ILC 1. 3 GHz Cavities @ FNAL Bead pull RF Testing @ FNAL Joint ILC 1. 3 GHz Cavities @ FNAL Bead pull RF Testing @ FNAL Joint ANL/FNAL BCP/EP Facility 4 cavities received from ACCEL 4 cavities on order at AES 4 cavities expected from KEK • • Industrial fabrication of cavities. BCP and vertical testing at Cornell (25 MV/m) EP and vertical testing at TJNL. ( 35 MV/m) Joint BCP/EP facility being developed ANL (late 06) High Power Horizontal test facility @ FNAL (ILCTA-MDB) Vertical test facility under development @ FNAL ( IB 1) Single/large Crystal cavity development with TJNL

Jlab: Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Nb Discs LL cavity 2. 3 GHz Epeak/Eacc = Jlab: Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Nb Discs LL cavity 2. 3 GHz Epeak/Eacc = 2. 072 Hpeak/Eacc = 3. 56 m. T/MV/m

SLAC: Accelerator Design (RDR) • Strong efforts throughout the design effort – Electron and SLAC: Accelerator Design (RDR) • Strong efforts throughout the design effort – Electron and positron sources – Contributions to the damping rings and RMTL – Main linac design and instrumentation – Rf sources – Beam Delivery System – Civil construction and conventional facilities • Able to provide leadership for some RDR Area Sub-systems

SLAC: ILC R&D Program • Broad R&D Program (cont. ) – Linac rf sources SLAC: ILC R&D Program • Broad R&D Program (cont. ) – Linac rf sources • Marx generator modulator Positron capture structures 12 KV Marx Cell – Electron and Positron sources • NC structure, E-166, electron laser, and cathode SEY Test Chamber for PEP-II – Damping rings • SEY studies in PEP-II

KEK: ILC Activities Highlights KEK: ILC Activities Highlights

KEK ATF Facility for DR and FF KEK ATF Facility for DR and FF

KEK: Main Linac RF Unit R&D Goal: Achieve Higher Gradient >40 MV/m in a KEK: Main Linac RF Unit R&D Goal: Achieve Higher Gradient >40 MV/m in a new Cavity Design

Summary • After the technology selection the ILC Collaboration has made considerable progress towards Summary • After the technology selection the ILC Collaboration has made considerable progress towards the design of the ILC. • The Baseline and Alternate design for each major Accelerator subsystems were defined at Snowmass 2005. • The ILC-GDE has a approved the Baseline Configuration Document. • The ILC-GDE is developing the ILC Reference Design Report, with cost estimate. It is expected to be done by the end of CY 06 • The ILC R&D around the world is moving fast with focus on key Accelerator Issues.