Оливер Кромвель. Семенова Полина, 7а, 29 школа.pptx
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OLIVER CROMWELL: GREAT REFORMER OF ENGLAND POLINA SEMENOVA, 7 “A” SCHOOL № 29 “GARMONIYA” TEACHER: O. L. POLUYAN
OLIVER’S CHILDHOOD • Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599, to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. He was the second son of the ten children. Oliver Elizabeth Cromwell (Steward) – Oliver’s mother • At Cromwell’s home was an atmosphere of Puritan piety, with its belief that "every act in the sight of God. " The tone in the family asked the mother of Oliver Elizabeth Steward.
CROMWELL’S EDUCATION • Oliver attended the free school attached to the hospital of St John in Huntingdon, where he was taught by Dr Thomas Beard, then spent a year at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. However, his university career was cut short by the death of his father in June 1617. He returned home to manage his family estate and to look after his widowed mother and seven unmarried sisters. • Early biographers claim he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him.
POLITICAL CAREER • Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628– 1629, as a client of the Montagu family of Hinchingbrooke House. • After dissolving this Parliament, Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next 11 years. Cromwell was returned to Parliament as member for Cambridge in 1640. This Parliament became known as the Long Parliament. It was the beginning of a political career Cromwell.
POLITICAL CAREER On the outbreak of the First Civil War in August 1642, Cromwell took up arms for Parliament. Cromwell gained experience in a number of successful actions in East Anglia in 1643. Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics. His strengths were an instinctive ability to lead and train his men, and his moral authority. He became a regimental commander in the rank of Colonel soon.
CROMWELL’S REFORM The new English army, which became the military force of the Parliament, Cromwell abolished the privilege of gentlemen to the replacement command positions. Under his command, to the rank of Colonel were promoted, thanks to their personal dignities, the skipper, driver, shoemaker, a boilermaker and the other soldiers of the parliamentary army.
CROMWELL’S REFORM A leading supporter of the Self-Denying Ordinance, Cromwell was one of the few Members of Parliament exempted from resigning his commission in the army under its terms. He was officially appointed lieutenant-general of horse under Sir Thomas Fairfax in the New Model Army. Charles I was executed on 30 January 1649. After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the "Commonwealth of England".
THE REIGN OF LORD-PROTECTOR He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces. Cromwell was named the winner of the civil war.
THE REIGN OF LORD-PROTECTOR On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland Ireland from 16 December 1653. As a ruler he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy.
DEATH OF THE LORD Oliver Cromwell died at Whitehall on 3 September 1658—the anniversary of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. After his death from natural causes in 1658 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but after the Royalists returned to power in 1660 they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and also beheaded.
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SOURCES • https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell — Wikipedia article on Cromwell • http: //www. olivercromwell. net/ — essential facts, dates and statistics • http: //www. olivercromwell. org/ — The Cromwell Association website • http: //bcw-project. org/biography/oliver-cromwell • http: //www. history. com/topics/british-history/oliver-cromwell