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Old Testament Canon • Pentateuch/Torah • Prophets – Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, 1 and Old Testament Canon • Pentateuch/Torah • Prophets – Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings – Latter Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets • Writings – Psalms, Job, Proverbs – Megilloth (Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, and Esther) – Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1 and 2 Chronicles

Prophecy in the Torah • Individuals identified as prophets or in prophetic roles – Prophecy in the Torah • Individuals identified as prophets or in prophetic roles – Abraham— Genesis 20—prays for Abimelech – Miriam—Exod 15: 20 music, dancing – Aaron—Exod 7: 1: Moses like God to Pharaoh; Aaron shall be your prophet

Prophetic activity • 70 elders “prophesied” once Num 11: 25 (Yahweh took some of Prophetic activity • 70 elders “prophesied” once Num 11: 25 (Yahweh took some of the spirit of Moses and put it on the elders) • Eldad and Medad prophesied in the camp • Joshua: “My lord Moses, stop them!” • Moses: “Would that all Yahweh’s people were prophets!” (Num 11: 26 -30).

Balaam: Numbers 22 -24 • Balak king of Moab hired him • As a Balaam: Numbers 22 -24 • Balak king of Moab hired him • As a non Israelite, he nevertheless possessed Yahweh’s word • Blesses Israel though he had been hired to curse them • A star shall come out of Jacob, and a scepter shall arise out of Israel 24: 17 • Counsels Israel at Baal Peor and is executed as a foreign diviner (Num 25; 31: 16; Deut 23: 3 -6; Josh 13: 22) • Micah 6: 5 • 2 Pet 2: 15; Jude 11; Rev 2: 14 = all negative.

Eighth century inscription of Balaam, son of Beor sees coming disaster and weeps. Balaam Eighth century inscription of Balaam, son of Beor sees coming disaster and weeps. Balaam had a vision of divine council, that had decided to send a drought. Balaam prays to gods to reverse their decision.

Moses in Numbers 12 • Aaron and Miriam complain about marriage of Moses to Moses in Numbers 12 • Aaron and Miriam complain about marriage of Moses to a Cushite • Miriam and Aaron: Has Yahweh spoken only through Moses? • Yahweh: I speak to prophets in a vision or dreams. With Moses I speak mouth to mouth. • Why were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?

Moses as Prophet in Deuteronomy • Yahweh will raise up a prophet (a line Moses as Prophet in Deuteronomy • Yahweh will raise up a prophet (a line of prophets) like me. You shall listen to such prophets Deut 18: 15 • Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom Yahweh knew face to face. He worked signs and wonders Deut 34: 1012.

Eschatological prophet • I will send you the prophet Elijah before the great and Eschatological prophet • I will send you the prophet Elijah before the great and terrible day of Yahweh Mal 4: 5 • Stones from contaminated altar stored until a prophet would arise 1 Macc 4: 46 • Simon high priest forever or until a prophet would arise 1 Macc 14: 41 • Expected prophet at Qumran • John the Baptist and Jesus as prophets

Moses in the Latter Prophets • Hos 12: 3 By a prophet Yahweh brought Moses in the Latter Prophets • Hos 12: 3 By a prophet Yahweh brought Israel up from Egypt • Micah 6: 4 I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Miriam • Jer 15: 1 Though Moses and Samuel stand before me, yet my heart would not turn toward this people (prophet as intercessor) • Isa 63: 11 -12 The people remembered the days of Moses. Where is the one who caused his glorious arm to march at the right hand of Moses? • Mal 4: 4 -5 Remember the teaching (Torah) of Moses…. I will send you the prophet Elijah before the day of Yahweh comes.

Deuteronomistic History (Former Prophets) • • • Deuteronomy 1 -4, 29 + 30 Joshua Deuteronomistic History (Former Prophets) • • • Deuteronomy 1 -4, 29 + 30 Joshua Judges 1 and 2 Samuel 1 and 2 Kings Final form: mid sixth century during the exile (some also identify an earlier, preexilic edition)

Deuteronomistic “Sermons” • Deuteronomy 4, 29 • Joshua 1 and 23 (24? ) • Deuteronomistic “Sermons” • Deuteronomy 4, 29 • Joshua 1 and 23 (24? ) • Judges 2: 11 -23 (introductory comments); 10: 6 -16 • 1 Samuel 12 (farewell speech) • 1 Kings 8 (prayer of Solomon at the dedication of the temple) • 2 Kings 17 (sermon on the fall of the Northern Kingdom)

Themes for this historian • • • No other gods No sanctuary but the Themes for this historian • • • No other gods No sanctuary but the one in Jerusalem The promise to David in 2 Samuel 7 A theodicy that explains why Jerusalem fell Yahweh will scatter you among the peoples…From there you will seek Yahweh and you will find him if you seek him with all your heart (Deut 4: 27, 29) • The secret things belong to Yahweh our God, but the revealed things belong to us and to our children forever, to observe all the words of the law. (Deut 29: 29)

Joshua • All the promises about the land were fulfilled 21: 43 -45 • Joshua • All the promises about the land were fulfilled 21: 43 -45 • Joshua rehearses great events of the conquest 23: 3 -5; 24: 8 -13 • Joshua urged people to avoid worship of other gods 23: 16; 24: 14, 20, 23 • Israel completely faithful during lifetime of Joshua Josh 24: 31 and Judg 2: 7

Judges • • Israel sinned Was handed over to an enemy Cried to Yahweh Judges • • Israel sinned Was handed over to an enemy Cried to Yahweh raised up a saving hero Land had rest Worship of other gods 2: 12 -13; 10: 6, 10, 13 -14 Climactic sin: demanded king like the nations

Kingship and the Promise to David • Saul rejected because of his own behavior Kingship and the Promise to David • Saul rejected because of his own behavior (1 Samuel 13 and 15) and because the people had chosen him 1 Sam 12: 19 • 2 Samuel 7 Oracle of Nathan—unconditional promise to David. Conditional in 1 Kgs 2: 3 -4; 8: 25; 9: 4 -5 • David a perfect man (only Moses, Joshua, and David are called Yahweh’s servants) 1 Kgs 5: 3 -5 (except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite!) • 2 Kgs 25: 27 -30 release of Jehoiachin from prison

North Israel • Jeroboam—sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan (1 Kgs 12: 30; 13: 34) North Israel • Jeroboam—sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan (1 Kgs 12: 30; 13: 34) • The sins of Jeroboam who made Israel to sin • Ahab—Jezebel, prophets of Baal, built a temple for Baal • Defeat by Assyria in 721 BCE • Sermon on the fall of the north 2 Kgs 17

Southern Kingdom • Rehoboam did more provocations than his fathers; built high places • Southern Kingdom • Rehoboam did more provocations than his fathers; built high places • Manasseh more evil than the Amorites; built high places; restored idolatrous practices after the reforms of his father Hezekiah; altar for Baal and Asherah • Good king Josiah who turned to Yahweh • But after Manasseh it was too late 2 Kgs 23: 2627; 24: 3 -4 • 597 and 587

Whispers of hope • Turn! Deut 4: 29 -31 (a promise that Israel will Whispers of hope • Turn! Deut 4: 29 -31 (a promise that Israel will turn/repent) and 30: 1 -10 (deliverance conditional upon turning/repenting); cycle in the book of Judges; Solomon’s sermon at dedication of temple (1 Kgs 8: 48 -49) • Promise to the ancestors: Yahweh will not fail you or forget the covenant with your ancestors (Deut 4: 31) • Promise to David; release of Jehoiachin • The secret things and the things revealed