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Office of Highway Safety Motorcoach Run Off Bridge and Rollover Sherman, Texas August 8, Office of Highway Safety Motorcoach Run Off Bridge and Rollover Sherman, Texas August 8, 2008

Office of Highway Safety Introduction Robert Accetta Office of Highway Safety Introduction Robert Accetta

Background Information • • 2002 MCI 56 -passenger motorcoach Operated by Iguala Bus. Mex Background Information • • 2002 MCI 56 -passenger motorcoach Operated by Iguala Bus. Mex Left 8: 30 p. m. , August 7, 2008 55 passengers Completed 309 miles (600 -mile-trip) Right front tire failed 12: 45 a. m. - August 8, 2008 Recorded speed of 68 mph

Collision Sequence Brakes applied 110 feet 1. 1 seconds Tire blowout Source: NTSB Impact Collision Sequence Brakes applied 110 feet 1. 1 seconds Tire blowout Source: NTSB Impact bridge railing 143 feet 1. 9 seconds 253 feet 3. 0 seconds 136 feet Final rest

Pieces of tire Impact with bridge railing Source: NTSB Tire mark Pieces of tire Impact with bridge railing Source: NTSB Tire mark

Area of displaced bridge railing Source: NTSB Area of displaced bridge railing Source: NTSB

Source: NTSB Source: Sherman, Texas Police Department Source: NTSB Source: Sherman, Texas Police Department

8 feet to the earthen median Displaced railing Orientation and final rest position of 8 feet to the earthen median Displaced railing Orientation and final rest position of motorcoach Source: NTSB

Front of motorcoach Bridge railing Source: NTSB Source: Sherman, Texas Police Department Front of motorcoach Bridge railing Source: NTSB Source: Sherman, Texas Police Department

Detached overhead luggage rack Failed tire Source: NTSB Detached overhead luggage rack Failed tire Source: NTSB

Injuries • 17 Passenger fatalities • 38 Passengers injured, minor to serious injuries • Injuries • 17 Passenger fatalities • 38 Passengers injured, minor to serious injuries • Driver serious injuries Source: NTSB

On-scene Staff • • • Chris Voeglie – Vehicle & Recorder Factors David Rayburn On-scene Staff • • • Chris Voeglie – Vehicle & Recorder Factors David Rayburn – Highway Jim Le. Berte – Motor Carrier Hank Hughes – Survival Paula Sind-Prunier, Ph. D – Human Performance Eric Grosof – Family Assistance Bridget Serchak – Media Relations Robert Accetta – IIC Chairman Hersman – Member On-Scene Nancy Lewis – Special Assistant

Report Development • • • Deborah Bruce, Ph. D – Project Manager Gwynne O’Reagan Report Development • • • Deborah Bruce, Ph. D – Project Manager Gwynne O’Reagan – Editor Julie Perrot – Safety Recommendations Dr. Mitch Garber – Medical Analysis Kristin Poland, Ph. D – Biomechanical Engineer Avis Clark – Audiovisual Support

Parties To Investigation • Federal Motor Carrier Safety • • • Administration Texas Department Parties To Investigation • Federal Motor Carrier Safety • • • Administration Texas Department of Public Safety Sherman Police Department Texas Department of Transportation Motor Coach Industries (MCI), Inc. Bridgestone Tire Company

Safety Issues • Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems • Commercial Vehicle Inspections • Bridge Railing Safety Issues • Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems • Commercial Vehicle Inspections • Bridge Railing Standards • FMCSA Oversight • Occupant Protection Source: NTSB

Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections Chris C. Voeglie Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections Chris C. Voeglie

Tire Failure Source: Bridgestone Puncture location on failed tire Tire Failure Source: Bridgestone Puncture location on failed tire

Tire Failure Source: Bridgestone Close-up Exterior View of Puncture Location Tire Failure Source: Bridgestone Close-up Exterior View of Puncture Location

Evidence of Excessive Heat Source: Bridgestone Tearing within 2 nd and 3 rd belts Evidence of Excessive Heat Source: Bridgestone Tearing within 2 nd and 3 rd belts & areas of excessive heat discoloration

Evidence of Over-Deflection Source: Bridgestone Circumferential Rim Flange Compression Grooving & Diagonal Undulations Evidence of Over-Deflection Source: Bridgestone Circumferential Rim Flange Compression Grooving & Diagonal Undulations

Investigative Findings Source: Bridgestone Tread Splice Interface and Heat-Related Discoloration Within the Torn Shoulder Investigative Findings Source: Bridgestone Tread Splice Interface and Heat-Related Discoloration Within the Torn Shoulder

Summary • Retread did not cause failure • Failure caused by excessive heat Source: Summary • Retread did not cause failure • Failure caused by excessive heat Source: Bridgestone • Heat caused by under-inflation • Under-inflation caused by slow leak

Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections

Importance of Proper Inflation • Under-inflation is the leading cause of tire failure • Importance of Proper Inflation • Under-inflation is the leading cause of tire failure • Pretrip inspection • TREAD Act • TPMS for passenger vehicles • TPMS for commercial vehicles

Visual Inflation Inspection Source: http: www. safecar. gov 32 psi Source: http: www. safecar. Visual Inflation Inspection Source: http: www. safecar. gov 32 psi Source: http: www. safecar. gov 16 psi

Visual Inflation Inspection Source: Michelin Source: Micvhelin 130 psi 85 psi Visual Inflation Inspection Source: Michelin Source: Micvhelin 130 psi 85 psi

Visual Inflation Inspection Source: Michelin, NA 130 psi 85 psi Visual Inflation Inspection Source: Michelin, NA 130 psi 85 psi

Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections Office of Highway Safety Tire Failure Tire Pressure Monitoring Vehicle Inspections

Commercial Vehicle Inspection • FMCSRs require annual inspection • FMCSA certifies state criteria • Commercial Vehicle Inspection • FMCSRs require annual inspection • FMCSA certifies state criteria • Texas program approved in 1994 • No quality assurance and oversight program

Commercial Vehicle Inspection • Certificate issued 8 days before the accident • “ 5 Commercial Vehicle Inspection • Certificate issued 8 days before the accident • “ 5 -Minute Inspections” Texas state -certified facility • Numerous unsafe conditions – Retreaded tire on steer axle – Under-inflated tag-axle tires – Wrong tag-axle wheels – Grossly contaminated brake assembly

Commercial Vehicle Inspection • Placed out-of-service next day • Reports contained errors & omissions Commercial Vehicle Inspection • Placed out-of-service next day • Reports contained errors & omissions • Not equipped for commercial vehicles • Not enough time to inspect • Inspection fee restricted to $62 • Insufficient oversight of inspection facilities

State Oversight of Inspections • “ 5 -Minute Inspections” recertified • Lack of an State Oversight of Inspections • “ 5 -Minute Inspections” recertified • Lack of an official audit process • No review of inspector knowledge or experience • Inadequate inspection of facility/equipment

State Oversight of Inspections • Texas Department of Public Safety – Took no action State Oversight of Inspections • Texas Department of Public Safety – Took no action with the facility or inspector – Audit insufficient to provide meaningful information – No oversight of inspection facilities or inspectors it authorizes

Summary • FMCSA performs inadequate oversight of approved state equivalent inspection programs • FMCSA Summary • FMCSA performs inadequate oversight of approved state equivalent inspection programs • FMCSA requires no oversight or quality control by the states