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OECD Conference Public-Private-Partnership for Infrastructure Financing PPP in the MENA Water Sector Challenges and OECD Conference Public-Private-Partnership for Infrastructure Financing PPP in the MENA Water Sector Challenges and Opportunities Istanbul, Turkey November 8, 2006

The MENA region is one of the driest regions in the world, with most The MENA region is one of the driest regions in the world, with most countries falling below the water scarcity level Renewable Water Resources (2005) (m 3/capita/year) Turkey Iraq Iran 2, 022 1, 426 Syria Lebanon 1, 150 Morocco 886 Egypt 752 Tunisia 496 440 Algeria 333 Oman Israel 271 Palestine 213 Yemen 198 Jordan 156 Bahrain 145 Qatar 116 Libya 104 KSA 91 Water scarcity UAE 78 1, 000 m 3/person Kuwait 0 3, 292 2, 892 1

However, some of the MENA region countries have relatively high water consumption rates Urban However, some of the MENA region countries have relatively high water consumption rates Urban Water Consumption and GDP per Capita Consumption per Capita (l/capita/day) 900 800 Canada Inefficient distribution 700 600 Armenia 500 400 300 200 100 0 Lifestyle drivers United States UAE Venezuela Australia Mexico Japan Qatar Lebanon Georgia Sweden Argentina Chile England & Wales Saudi Arabia Austria Cyprus Germany Switzerla Finland nd Jordan Morocco Oman Netherlands China Indonesia Yemen Tight Senegal 0 supply 10, 000 20, 000 Norway Environmental concerns 30, 000 40, 000 GDP Per-Capita Adjusted by Purchasing Power Parity (USD) 2

The water sectors in the region are facing a number of serious challenges across The water sectors in the region are facing a number of serious challenges across the whole value chain Sourcing 4 Fast depletion of nonrenewable reserves 4 Ineffective supply management policies and plans (e. g. , desalination vs. ground and surface water, reuse water) Treatment Transmissi on & Distribution 4 Issues with 4 Water quality of water distribution supplied coverage rates well below 4 Environmental international challenges in average desalination and ground water reserves Customer Service Usage Sewage Collection & Treatment 4 Lack of service continuity 4 Lack of effective 4 Limited demand collection management network 4 Long response (consumer coverage time awareness of 4 Very low 4 Tariffs below water scarcity; capacity for cost recovery conservation 4 High level of wastewater level policies and unaccounted for treatment 4 High rate of unplans) water compared 4 Operational metered water to international efficiency and technical best practices issues problems with 4 High water meters delivery costs 4 Very low revenue collection rates 3

Water and especially wastewater coverage is limited Network Coverage (2005) Potable Water MENA Average Water and especially wastewater coverage is limited Network Coverage (2005) Potable Water MENA Average 75% Wastewater MENA Average 48% 4

Unit costs are relatively high and tariffs cover less than 20% of delivery cost Unit costs are relatively high and tariffs cover less than 20% of delivery cost Tariff to Cost Ratio vs. Water Delivery Cost 1. 2 Oman UK 1 Cost Recovery (Tariff/Cost) Finland Sweden 0. 8 Denmark Europe Average Netherlands(1) Australia 0. 6 0. 4 Lebanon 0. 2 0 0 Tunisia Iran Egypt Morocco Jordan Iraq Algeria Syria Libya 0. 5 1 Bahrain 1. 5 Saudi Arabia 2 Water Delivery Cost ($ per m 3) 5

Delivery is burdened by low productivity in the water sector 19. 9 19. 7 Delivery is burdened by low productivity in the water sector 19. 9 19. 7 Water and Wastewater Staffing Efficiency (Number of Staff per 1000 Water and Wastewater Connections) MENA Countries Best Practice Average = 2. 5 -3 6

MENA governments plan to spend around USD 100 billion by 2015 to meet the MENA governments plan to spend around USD 100 billion by 2015 to meet the growing demand Expected Investments by 2015 in MENA Water and Wastewater Sectors (USD Billion) 24. 5 5% 18. 7 22% 13. 2 6% 8. 2 95% 78% 94% 12% 4. 6 5. 7 5% 88% 31% 95% 69% 3. 9 10% 90% 3. 4 2. 8 2. 3 2. 5 7% 93% 10% 9% 91% Water 21% 79% 1. 9 1. 3 1. 4 1. 1 8% 92% 6% 19% 94% 81% 0. 8 0. 7 0. 3 0. 2 Wastewater 7

While PPP is likely to be one of the main enablers of future sector While PPP is likely to be one of the main enablers of future sector development, it should be supported by a holistic reform approach Sector Reform and Privatization Approach Select and implement suitable PPP approach Introduce private sector to increase efficiency, improve service and ensure continuous and universal access to quality water Review water sector policies Review policies related to water usage and resources, tariffs, water quality and environment, and investment climate Redefine Institutional Setting Review role of existing institutions and restructure/reorganize as required, and establish new institutions to support PPP and reform initiatives 8

MENA countries should explore different PPP approaches and tailor them to the water sector MENA countries should explore different PPP approaches and tailor them to the water sector maturity and local environment PPP Participation vs. Sector Maturity Full cost recovery Divestiture / BOO Concession / BOT Water Sector Maturity Lease Management Contract Low cost recovery Service Contract Responsibility of No asset ownership; with Private Sector operational responsibilities Key Considerations 4 Service contracts are at best a cost-effective way to meet special technical needs, but their benefits are limited 4 Management contracts are a good first step, and are most likely to be useful where the main objective is to rapidly enhance a utility’s technical capacity and its efficiency in performing specific tasks, or to prepare for greater private involvement 4 Leases are an efficient way to pass on commercial risk and are most appropriate where there is scope for big gains in operating efficiency but only limited need or scope for new investments 4 Concessions have advantages in that they pass full responsibility for operations and investment to the private sector and so bring to bear incentives for efficiency in all the utility’s activities 4 Build-operate-transfer (BOT) or variations resemble concessions for providing bulk services but are normally used for greenfield Asset ownership projects, such as a water or wastewater treatment plant with operational and commercial responsibility 9

PPP initiatives should be driven by clear objectives and targets and monitored by a PPP initiatives should be driven by clear objectives and targets and monitored by a set of evolving KPIs VE TI TRA S LLU PPP – Key Performance Indicators I Develop Best. In-Class Water Operations Focus of KPIs Meet Basic Needs • Asset utilization • Productivity levels • Water re-use • Customer service • Revenue collection • Wastewater treatment rate Fix Infrastructure • Unaccounted for water • Water / wastewater network coverage KPIs Success Factors 4 Easily measurable (uncontested measures) 4 Reasonable targets (balance cost and benefit) 4 Aligned with government objectives 4 Evolving with sector maturity 4 Limited in number Sector Maturity 10

In parallel, governments should develop comprehensive water resources and usage policies … Policies/Initiatives Focus In parallel, governments should develop comprehensive water resources and usage policies … Policies/Initiatives Focus Water Resources Policies/Initiatives 4 Balancing desalination and groundwater resources (balancing cost, national interest and availability) Water Usage Policies/Initiatives 4 Water conservation technologies for urban, agriculture and industrial usage 4 Driving other water resources including treated water, surface water, etc. 4 Coordinated awareness campaigns among various ministries (e. g. , industry, agriculture, etc) 4 Monitoring legal usage of water resources (mainly for ground water) 4 Technical standards for high water consuming equipment/machines 11

… and should carefully manage tariff changes and their impact on the privatization process … and should carefully manage tariff changes and their impact on the privatization process VE TI TRA S LLU Tariff Changes – Approach and Requirements I Key Success Factors Manage demand Tariff Differentiation End Use Based Volume Based 4 Alignment of redesigned tariffs with affordability indicators Approach full cost recovery Customer Based Current State Low Cost Recovery 4 Phasing of tariff increases with noticeable service improvements Increase cost recovery Degree of Cost Recovery 4 Decoupling of tariff increase from privatization initiatives 4 Setting effective control systems for illegal water use Full cost Recovery 12

MENA governments should also review their institutional setting, focusing involvement more on policy as MENA governments should also review their institutional setting, focusing involvement more on policy as opposed to operations VE TI TRA S LLU I Water Sector – Change in Institutional Roles Current Regulation WRM Planning Policy Setting Government/ Ministry Target Setting Government/ Ministry National Utility Company Independent Regulator Private Operator (PSP) Setting Long-term Water Sector Policy Developing and Implementing PPP Schemes Setting Tariffs Planning and Managing Demand Planning Long-term Infrastructure Requirements Promoting Water Conservation Allocating Inter-regional Water Resources Monitoring Economic Performance Settling Disputes Operations Enforcing Quality Standards Coordinating Operations Developing, Operating and Maintaining Water Systems 13

As they restructure and create new institutions, governments should effectively plan for employee transition As they restructure and create new institutions, governments should effectively plan for employee transition PPP – Employee Transition Challenges and Strategies Challenges Strategies 4 May require some lay-offs 4 Training of employees 4 Induce uncertainty that may impact efficiency 4 Effective redeployment plan 4 Time to prepare/perform 4 Face push-back from political figures 4 Effective change management 4 Create lack of motivation 4 Assurances/guarantees 14

Finally, governments should think through the best approach to adopt when restructuring the water Finally, governments should think through the best approach to adopt when restructuring the water sector Alternative Approaches for Restructuring Evaluation Criteria iv C ate on S tr ec ol to s r High Pr Privatized Utlitiy 4 Staying independent form strategic investors 4 Improved exit options C 4 Speed of transformation / privatization Pu Public Water Utility Today b C lic on U tr til ol ity s B A 4 Access to management / technical expertise Low 4 Acceptance of stakeholders 4 Number of potential investors H A igh pp R ro is ac k h Degree of Privatization 4 Higher price for privatized assets Restructuring/ Value Creation High 15

UAE – Abu Dhabi’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water UAE – Abu Dhabi’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water sector policies Redefine Institutional Setting Treatment • ADWEA introduces private sector participation in water and power through IWPPs Transmission & Distribution Customer Service Usage Sewage Collection & Treatment • ADWEA seeks an 8 -year operation and maintenance contract in ADDC & AADC • ADWEA is responsible for implementing policy towards the water sector, including its privatization • ADWEA and ERWDA organizes Water and Energy Conservation Campaign • Abu Dhabi Government establishes an independent regulator (the Regulation and Supervision Bureau) to regulate all companies operating in the water and electricity sectors • ADWEA established TAQA as holder of its shares in IWPPS • ADWEA creates Transco a state-owned company responsible for transmission of water and electricity • ADWEA establishes ADDC & AADC state-owned companies responsible for water and electricity distribution 16

Saudi Arabia’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water sector policies Saudi Arabia’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water sector policies Redefine Institutional Setting Treatment • SEC approves 4 IWPPs (3 are already awarded) Transmission & Distribution Customer Service Usage • MOWE seeks Management Contracts for main cities • SWCC develops privatization strategy • MOWE undertaking national water resources study • SWCC launches restructuring and unbundling of Desalination and Transmission Sewage Collection & Treatment • MOWE seeks BOT for Jeddah and Riyadh wastewater treatment • MOWE develops strategic transformation plan • MOWE launches national water conservation campaign • SEC approves set up of National Water Company (NWC) • MOWE launches restructuring of sector into regional utilities 17

Oman’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water sector policies Redefine Oman’s experience Sourcing Select and implement suitable PPP approach Review water sector policies Redefine Institutional Setting Transmission & Distribution Treatment Customer Service Usage • MHEW introduces private sector participation in billing and collection – contracts awarded to two companies • MNE approves Barka and Sohar IWPPs and is in the process of privatizing Ghubra Sewage Collection & Treatment • MNE seeks to review the concession agreement awarded and to involve the private sector in the state owned companies • MNE is developing a water and wastewater sector privatization strategy • MNE seeks to draft a water sector law • MNE seeks to redefine the water and wastewater sector structure and institutional setting and to introduce new legal and regulatory requirements • MNE forms two state-owned companies OWSC and SSDSC, which operate as a concession, to develop sewage network and STPs in Muscat and Salalah 18

OECD Conference Public-Private-Partnership for Infrastructure Financing PPP in the MENA Water Sector Challenges and OECD Conference Public-Private-Partnership for Infrastructure Financing PPP in the MENA Water Sector Challenges and Opportunities Istanbul, Turkey November 8, 2006 19