Скачать презентацию October 2003 Precision Time-Domain Reflectometry Helping to solve Скачать презентацию October 2003 Precision Time-Domain Reflectometry Helping to solve

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October 2003 Precision Time-Domain Reflectometry: Helping to solve today’s difficult signal integrity/transmission problems October 2003 Precision Time-Domain Reflectometry: Helping to solve today’s difficult signal integrity/transmission problems

Agenda 1. Brief TDR review Some new things and some old things seen in Agenda 1. Brief TDR review Some new things and some old things seen in a new way 2. Advanced calibration techniques unique to Agilent 3. New techniques for improved 2 -event resolution and impedance accuracy 4. S-parameter results from the TDR Where to find out more: New Application Note (see last slide) TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 2

1. What is TDR? • Time domain reflectometry • Analyze the quality of highspeed 1. What is TDR? • Time domain reflectometry • Analyze the quality of highspeed components and channels for transmission quality • Are there any reflections due to impedance discontinuities? Incident energy Transmitted energy • How big are they? • Where are they? Reflected energy TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 3

TDR: Launch a fast step into the DUT and measure anything that reflects back TDR: Launch a fast step into the DUT and measure anything that reflects back OSCILLOSCOPE Ei Er ZL TRANSMISSION SYSTEM UNDER TEST STEP GENERATOR Typical Step: 200 m. V, 250 k. Hz ‘square wave’ with 35 ps rise time TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Incident energy Transmitted energy Reflected energy 4

What is TDR? • Launch a fast pulse into the device under test • What is TDR? • Launch a fast pulse into the device under test • Measure what reflects back from the DUT • The size and polarity of any reflections indicates the magnitude of any discontinuity • The time it takes for the reflection to return is used to indicate the location of any discontinuity TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Input pulse Transmission lines with changing impedance Reflected pulse(s) 5

Displaying impedance in the Time Domain: TDR provides “Instantaneous Impedance” Typical TDR result F Displaying impedance in the Time Domain: TDR provides “Instantaneous Impedance” Typical TDR result F • A: 50 Ohm cable • B: Launch to microstrip • C: 50 Ohm microstrip A B D C E • D: 75 Ohm microstrip • E: 50 Ohm microstrip • F: “open” circuit Compare to a network analyzer which provides impedance as a function of frequency TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 6

2. Some important advantages of the 86100 TDR • Would you buy a network 2. Some important advantages of the 86100 TDR • Would you buy a network analyzer without a calibration kit? No! • Without calibration we are forced to rely completely on the raw performance of the instrument and have no ability to remove error causing mechanisms outside the instrument that are in the measurement path TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 DUT 7

Systematic TDR measurement errors can be removed through simple calibration • A simple concept: Systematic TDR measurement errors can be removed through simple calibration • A simple concept: By placing known reflections on the system, the measurement errors can be identified and removed • Simple to perform: Connect a short and a load at the reference plane • Errors caused by cabling, attenuation etc. can be removed from the measurement • Agilent is the only provider to use TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Test Fixture Device Under Test Blue Trace - Normalized Green Trace - Standard Error = 2. 3 ohms 8

What arguments might you hear against this? • “We don’t need fancy calibrations. We What arguments might you hear against this? • “We don’t need fancy calibrations. We have a precision airline inside the TDR” • But what can you do for error mechanisms beyond the TDR output? • Agilent doesn’t need to do a calibration either, unless there is something beyond the TDR output that degrades the results (which, in real life, there almost always is) • “Calibration is a weak excuse for bad hardware” • Calibration techniques are a proven route to a better measurement • Can you imagine doing network analysis without a good calibration process? This is all explained in more detail in the new Application Note (see last slide) TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 9

3. Some problems the industry faces…. . • Data speeds are getting faster in 3. Some problems the industry faces…. . • Data speeds are getting faster in electrical circuits • Devices are getting smaller and more complex • As edge speeds increase, more high-frequency energy is present • More difficult to control impedance TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 10

The edgespeed of the TDR step sets two important measurement levels The two-event resolution The edgespeed of the TDR step sets two important measurement levels The two-event resolution (how close can two reflections be and still be seen as separate events) Closely spaced reflections can get blurred together Two-event resolution set by material velocity and TDR system risetime How accurate is the measurement of the reflection magnitude • As step speeds increase, more high frequency content • Reflections often get worse • Reflections for a 20 ps edge can be much larger than a 35 ps edge TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 11

A 35 picosecond step is insufficient to see closely spaced reflections • With a A 35 picosecond step is insufficient to see closely spaced reflections • With a 35 ps step, all you know is the device is there • If there is more than one reflection, we can’t tell 35 ps TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 12

High resolution allows your customers to see what they could never see before hermetic High resolution allows your customers to see what they could never see before hermetic feedthrough 9 ps V-connector pin-collette coaxial feedthrough coaxialmicrostrip launch microstrip transmission line • At 9 ps step speed, we see 5 separate reflections • Each event is easily seen and quantified TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 13

A faster step often yields a higher reflection magnitude • At 35 ps, the A faster step often yields a higher reflection magnitude • At 35 ps, the reflections look very small (~52 Ohms) • At 9 ps the reflections increase to over 58 Ohms • The 35 ps result isn’t necessarily wrong and the 9 ps right • Test at an edge speed similar to how the device will be used • Some examples • 20 to 35 ps for 10 Gb/s • 5 to 12 ps for 40 Gb/s TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Designers working at the very high data rates or with very small devices need a very fast TDR 14

How can I test faster than the 35 ps the TDR is specified at? How can I test faster than the 35 ps the TDR is specified at? Two choices • Digitally increase the edge speed through some signal processing • “Normalization calibration” (discussed earlier) can use DSP to enhance the effective edge speed • Electrically speed up the pulse • Use external hardware to produce a much faster edge • Can decrease the risetime to less than 20 ps TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 15

86100/Picosecond Pulse Labs 4020 Measurement capabilities The Picosecond Pulse Labs 4020 modules takes the 86100/Picosecond Pulse Labs 4020 Measurement capabilities The Picosecond Pulse Labs 4020 modules takes the 35 Picosecond pulse from the Agilent TDR and increases the speed to under 9 picoseconds Two-event resolution is improved by a factor of 4! (1. 5 mm ‘air’, less than 1 mm in common dielectrics) <9 ps 35 ps TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 16

Optimizing Measurements • You will lose your edge speed if you have: • Excess Optimizing Measurements • You will lose your edge speed if you have: • Excess or poor quality cabling to and from the DUT • The scope receiver channel has insufficient BW • Recommend TDR with the 86118 A ~75 GHz remote plug-in: 54754 A TDR module 86118 A Sampling Port 4020 Remote TDR Head • Max. bandwidth • Minimum cabling distances TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Device Under Test 17

Configuring a system • 86100 A or B mainframe (3. 05 FW or above) Configuring a system • 86100 A or B mainframe (3. 05 FW or above) • 54754 A TDR plug-in • 86118 A 70 GHz plug-in • Lower BW channels can be used, but edgespeed and resolution will be reduced • Cabling between the DUT and the receive channel degrades TDR speed • Picosecond 4020 TDR or TDT enhancement module TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 18

Using the 4020 with TDR’s that don’t use Normalization • PSPL 4020 works with Using the 4020 with TDR’s that don’t use Normalization • PSPL 4020 works with other TDRs: • Significant pulse aberrations. Cannot be calibrated out TDR without Normalization 4020 pulse 86100 4020 pulse • If pulse aberrations are not removed, they can be misinterpreted as close-in reflections • 86100 TDR calibration significantly improves the 4020 pulse quality • Normalization also provides an excellent way to eliminate fixturing errors TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 19

4. Frequency domain analysis is critical for completely understanding device performance Transmitted wave Incident 4. Frequency domain analysis is critical for completely understanding device performance Transmitted wave Incident wave t d te flec e e wav Transmitted wave S 21 DUT R TDR Incident wave t S 11 TDT DUT ve wa d cte le Ref TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 20

Benefits of S-parameter analysis “There is no fundamental difference in the information content between Benefits of S-parameter analysis “There is no fundamental difference in the information content between the time domain and the frequency domain” Eric Bogatin Chief Technical Officer Giga. Test Labs • Some things are just easier to see in the frequency domain • Resonances • Frequency response • Device modeling can be more accurate with frequency domain data • Some critical measurements of differential devices are better understood as a function of frequency TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 21

Changing the way high speed digital customers view VNA’s “Everything you ever wanted to Changing the way high speed digital customers view VNA’s “Everything you ever wanted to know about your device… and more” VNA covers all combinations of in, out, reflections, & crosstalk. All combinations contained in a 16 element matrix for a 4 port DUT TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 22

For differential circuits, frequency domain analysis helps even more • Differential are circuits becoming For differential circuits, frequency domain analysis helps even more • Differential are circuits becoming more important at high speeds • Differential behavior can be much different than viewing each port individually (there is transmission line coupling designed in ) • Differential circuits reduce emissions and are less susceptible to radiation • Like making the crosstalk work for you. TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Balanced (Differential) devices can be analyzed as pairs (Mixed-Mode S-parameters) rather than single ended Port 1 Differential • Less far field emissions (crosstalk) • More cancellation of incoming interference Port 2 Common 23

What About Non-Ideal Devices? Undesirable mode conversions cause emission or susceptibility problems l Differential-stimulus What About Non-Ideal Devices? Undesirable mode conversions cause emission or susceptibility problems l Differential-stimulus to common-response conversion + = EMI Generation Imperfectly matched lines mean the electromagnetic fields of the signals are not as well confined as they should be – giving rise to generation of interference to neighboring circuits. l Common-stimulus to differential-response conversion + = EMI Susceptibility Imperfectly matched lines mean that interfering signals do not cancel out completely when subtraction occurs at the receiver. Measured by stimulating common-mode to simulate interference. TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 24

S-Parameters describe differential well. Four quadrants of differential/common mode S parameters: S(response, stimulus, output, S-Parameters describe differential well. Four quadrants of differential/common mode S parameters: S(response, stimulus, output, input) Example SCD 21: Drive port 1 differentially and measure what has been converted to common mode at port 2 TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 25

Everything you ever wanted to know…. . Frequency domain s-parameters can be used to Everything you ever wanted to know…. . Frequency domain s-parameters can be used to gain insight in frequency domain plots and time domain views. Single ended S Parameters TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 Mixed Mode S Parameters Displayed in the Time Domain 26

VNA, TDR, or both? • All of the S-parameter data available using the Physical VNA, TDR, or both? • All of the S-parameter data available using the Physical Layer Test System (PLTS) is now available using the 86100 TDR! • N 1930 A • Controls 86100 TDR • Guided setup and calibration • Automatic deskew • Conversion of TDR data to complete S parameter results TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 27

“True” differential measurements • Some TDRs make a big deal of producing both a “True” differential measurements • Some TDRs make a big deal of producing both a negative and a positive step for doing differential TDR. “True” differential • Agilent produces only positive pulses and then uses math to build a differential measurement A differential system has coupled lines. The electromagnetic fields will be very different for two positive pulses. How can you get the right impedance result if you don’t have the correct voltages present? Agilent’s method provides differential, common mode, cross terms, all with a single, accurate setup. And this method simplifies the design to allow almost perfect matching of the two positive pulses giving the most accurate results. . TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 28

There are very good reasons why we do what we do…. • We use There are very good reasons why we do what we do…. • We use superposition techniques to combine the results of multiple separate measurements • “I learned superposition in my first course in electronics. I believe it for circuits with wires and resistors…but I’m not sure about electromagnetics” From the classic text on electromagnetics, “Fields and Waves in Communications Electronics” by Ramo, Whinnery, and Van Duzer, (1965, John Wiley and Sons) we read “It is frequently possible to divide a given field problem into two or more simpler problems, the solution of which can be combined to obtain the desired answer. The validity of this procedure is based on the linearity of the Laplace and Poisson equations. That is 2( 1 + 2 ) = 2 1 + 2 2 and 2(k 1 ) = k 2 1 The utility of the superposition concept depends on finding the simpler problems with boundary conditions which add to give the original boundary conditions”. Or…. . TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 29

Don’t worry…. it’s covered in the new Application Note! • Easy to read and Don’t worry…. it’s covered in the new Application Note! • Easy to read and digest • TDR is valid only for linear passive devices (or active devices configured as linear and passive). So our technique is completely valid • We could have built it with a + and – pulse. Important reasons we did what we did • Allows almost perfect symmetry in the stimulus on each leg Linear, passive device to be tested 86100 channel steps overlaid – almost exactly the same • Asymmetry leads to mode conversion and potentially critical measurement errors TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 30

By the way…. . the VNA analysis is also based on superposition • The By the way…. . the VNA analysis is also based on superposition • The VNA can only stimulate one port at a time • The VNA uses sinewaves (doesn’t even use pulses!) • Precision results obtained by combining results after taking several individual measurements • No one ever questions the accuracy of a VNA. “True differential is best” is a myth, and one that is keeping you from making the most accurate measurements. TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 31

Summary ü Review of TDR ü Why Calibration gives superior results ü Speeding the Summary ü Review of TDR ü Why Calibration gives superior results ü Speeding the pulse up significantly for higher resolution ü Using frequency domain analysis from TDR data to get more insight ü Why ‘true differential is better’ is a myth that may be keeping you from making the best measurements • New literature • Application Note: High-precision Time Domain Reflectometry: 5988 -9826 EN • Flyer: 86100 and the Picosecond 4020 lit # 5988 -9825 EN • Accessories Flyer: lit # 5980 -2933 EN TDR Customer Presentation, Oct ‘ 03 32