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OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
Obstacles to Economic Growth Economists know far more about what blocks economic growth and development than what helps it. Yet we still don’t have a complete set of answers.
OBSTACLES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
OBSTACLES I POLITICAL II SOCIAL III ECONOMIC
POLITICAL OBSTACLES • POLITICAL INSTABILITY • CORRUPTION • GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS
SOCIAL OBSTACLES • LACK OF ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS • LACK OF ENTREPRENEURS • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH
ECONOMIC OBSTACLES • DISTORTING EFFECTS OF COLONIALISM/PAST HISTORY • FOREIGN AID • THE CURRENT WORLD TRADE SYSTEM
POLITICAL BARRIERS POLITICAL INSTABILITY Lack of an orderly system of government results in people only wanting to invest in the short run, not the long run.
POLITICAL BARRIERS CORRUPTION Corruption raises the costs of doing business, but in an unpredictable fashion.
POLITICAL BARRIERS GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS Often, long term development means painful, short term adjustments, such as massive layoffs. It is hard to persuade people to accept short term deprivation in exchange for long term growth.
POLITICAL BARRIERS GOOD ECONOMICS AS BAD POLITICS People with power and connections will block change, even if that means the country remains underdeveloped. The poor and powerless can vote, or riot or act to slow down changes.
INCREASES IN PER CAPITA REAL GDP Per Capita Real GDP is defined as: Real GDP Population
Increases in Per Capita Real GDP would be seen as an increase in that number. It is really a very crude measure of economic growth.
II. WHAT DETERMINES ECONOMIC GROWTH?
What Determines Economic Growth? While economists know far more about what determines economic growth, we still don’t have a complete set of answers. Neither do the people in Washington, or those who are busy exporting any quick fix solution.
What is Economic Development? Usually when economists talk about economic growth, what they really mean is ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Economic growth and economic development are not the same!
What is Economic Development? Economic development is harder to define and measure. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT is defined as: a self- sustaining transformation of the economy and society.
Economic Growth vs. Economic Development You can’t have economic development without economic growth. But you can have economic growth without economic development. An economy can expand, without any technological or social changes.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LABOR, CAPITAL, LAND
LABOR Labor is defined as: The total physical and mental effort expended by people in the production of goods and services.
LABOR is the most important determinant for economic growth and development. It is not just the size of the labor force that matters. The quality of the labor force is more important.
LABOR When we talk about quality of a labor force, we mean the level of education. The more highly educated a labor force is, the more likely a country will be able to develop. The key here is universal primary education, which is more important than number of college students.
CAPITAL We define capital as: Human made products used to produce other products.
CAPITAL The ability of a country to grow, but especially to develop, depends upon its ability to purchase or create capital goods. But the ability to obtain capital goods depends upon the ability to obtain money to buy or produce them.
CAPITAL AND THE POVERTY TRAP Poor countries have to obtain money to buy or to develop capital goods. But because they are poor, they have little savings to do either.
LAND Land is defined as: All types of natural resources.
LAND We have learned that an abundance of natural resources is not a necessary condition for economic growth. East Asia is the outstanding example of this.