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Objective • You will have a better understanding of the Six Sigma process • Objective • You will have a better understanding of the Six Sigma process • You will be able to follow a Lean Six Sigma (SOP) project presentation using the tools as applied in the Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control phases © Novel Idea 2004

Division Project Title Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology Application of Six Sigma Green Belt Name Division Project Title Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology Application of Six Sigma Green Belt Name Date: © Novel Idea 2004

I D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 I D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Y f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Y = Define We begin with the “Y”: } Performance of the Y over Time Variation of the Y Project Charter Process Map C&E Matrix, Capability Measure Initial Capability Assessment FMEA Analyse Measurement variation Reproducibility (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” Multi-Vari Actual variation Improve Repeatability (equipment) The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Process DOE Improvement. DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Control Plan Control Final Capability Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Identify Phase - Purpose From Strategy to project selection Some key steps: • Drive Identify Phase - Purpose From Strategy to project selection Some key steps: • Drive project selection through linking the Corporate strategy and the business strategy • Understand the value stream of the organisation • Identify projects using a balance Scorecard aproach © Novel Idea 2004 Champion Toolkit : Project Selection

Identify Phase - Outcomes • Value stream map of process • Corporate objective identified Identify Phase - Outcomes • Value stream map of process • Corporate objective identified and linked with overall business objectives • Business Unit objective identified • Process clusters identified • Project Ideas selected • Project selection • Identify resources for project © Novel Idea 2004 Champion Toolkit : Project Selection

Project Selection • Department – • Substrate • Department strategic objective: • Project selection Project Selection • Department – • Substrate • Department strategic objective: • Project selection methodology: © Novel Idea 2004 Champion Toolkit : Project Selection

Introduction and Background to the Project …………. . is a Selected due to the Introduction and Background to the Project …………. . is a Selected due to the following reasons: • Background The 6 -sigma methodology was followed. Project ………………. is a process improvement project and the DMAIC methodology was used Project still in progress © Novel Idea 2004

Goal Tree Alignment • Indicate where project will focus for example: © Novel Idea Goal Tree Alignment • Indicate where project will focus for example: © Novel Idea 2004 Champion Toolkit : Project Selection

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's

Identify phase review Project selection Project ideas Process clusters Business Objective Corporate objective Strategy Identify phase review Project selection Project ideas Process clusters Business Objective Corporate objective Strategy © Novel Idea 2004 Champion Toolkit : Project Selection

Define Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 Define Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Project Charter Define Process Map We begin with the “Y”: } Performance of the Y over Time Variation of the Y C&E Matrix, Capability Measure Initial Capability Assessment FMEA Analyse Measurement variation Reproducibility (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” Multi-Vari Actual variation Improve Repeatability (equipment) The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Process Simulation DOE Improvement. DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Control Plan Control Final Capability Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Define Phase - Purpose To develop a fully-defined project Some key steps: • Drive Define Phase - Purpose To develop a fully-defined project Some key steps: • Drive project selection through linking the Corporate strategy and the business strategy and the value stream map • Incorporate the Voice of the Customer (VOC) • Define the project objectives • Scope the project appropriately © Novel Idea 2004

Define Phase - Outcomes • Process Definition: there is a clear description of the Define Phase - Outcomes • Process Definition: there is a clear description of the process to be improved. • Customer and CTQ Identified • Set up of the project team • Project Charter with metrics completed • Project Y: Business Case Linked. Is measurable with a from A to B statement (not Rands). Strategic objective tied to the business objective. • Financial Estimate for the project • Baseline determined • Goal established • Best State determined • Inside and Outside of Scope defined • Project Plan with detailed time lines identified • High level view of the Process © Novel Idea 2004

Progress to date © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Home Page Progress to date © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Home Page

Executive Summary © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Executive Summary Executive Summary © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Executive Summary

High level Deliverables Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. High level Deliverables Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech Define Phase Project Charter - Defines the direction of the project, What do you want to achieve with this project? © Novel Idea 2004 High level view of the process - Defines the process that will be focused on as well as the defect in the process

Define Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of Define Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech VOC – voice of the customer Project Y – “From …. To …. By when …. Counter balance”. Linked to Financial benefit Financial Estimate Scope – In and out scope, what you project is focus on Process – which process is your project working on Process Defect - what is broken / where is the pain Project Timelines – project plan, start and end date of project. Baseline – your measure today Goal – project goal, what you want to achieve (75% of gap between Baseline and Entitlement) Entitlement – what is the best that has been achieved High Level view of the Process Elevator Speech – 30 seconds describe what the project is working on © Novel Idea 2004

Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech Project Charter DMAIC Project Charter: (Define Phase) - Identifies the Corporate & Business Critical Y, the best state and the justification for considering the best state - Define the one process that you would look to improve - Project Y statement ( goal - from & to, broad process area, Deadline) - Metrics with goal baseline and best state (Counterbalance if required) - Team working on the project & their role in the project - Project deadlines based on the phase - Financial Benefits -Scope and boundaries of the project © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Project Charter

Source of your Project Y © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Project Y Source of your Project Y © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Project Y Source Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech

Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech Baseline Data Baseline data ( Initial data before MSA) : Project Charter: (Define Phase) • Select Baseline Time Frame • Initial Data Collection on the Project Primary Metrics or Project Y. Collect data on all Key Metrics, including Secondary Y and Counterbalance Y • Collect data in time order if at all possible - This data includes measurement variation. © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Initial Data

Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech Project Goal : Set SMART Goals Specific Measurable A Realistic Timebound © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Entitlement/ Best State

Performance Size of Opportunity Performance Goal Six Sigma Difference Baseline © Novel Idea 2004 Performance Size of Opportunity Performance Goal Six Sigma Difference Baseline © Novel Idea 2004 Traditional Goal Setting Closing the Gap Best State

Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech Entitlement Justification : DMAIC Best State Determination: (Define Phase) - Best Possible Performance Defines what’s possible - a vision Low Best State limits your thinking Provides a performance level for which to aim Tells you how your process performance relates to perfection Provides an internal benchmark Best observed performance over a “short” period of time Observed by benchmarking Predicted by business process design Performance specified by equipment manufacturer Predicted by engineering & scientific fundamentals Best performance predicted by causal relationship studies developed from process data © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Entitlement/ Best Ste

Metrics summary © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Spreadsheet Outcomes: 1. Completed Metrics summary © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Spreadsheet Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech

Scope of Project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of Project Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech • Describe what is in and out of scope © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Project Charter

Project - Team Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Project - Team Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech • List team members and identify the champion. © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Project Charter

High Level view of the process • Outputs (Insert a copy of the Cross High Level view of the process • Outputs (Insert a copy of the Cross functional Process Map here) – Visual representation of the process – “ Walk the Process” – Process Steps – verbs © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Cross functional map Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech

Timeline and Resource timing Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) Timeline and Resource timing Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech DMAIC Timeline & Resources - Plan for the Project Timeline and Resource Requirements per deliverable as well as per phase © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Time lines

Financial Impact © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Benefit Tracking Outcomes: 1. Financial Impact © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Benefit Tracking Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech

Elevator Speech Corporate Y Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) Elevator Speech Corporate Y Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech __ Growth __ Productivity / Cost __ Cash Business Y Project Y Financial Benefit © Novel Idea 2004

Gate Review for Define with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Gate Review for Define with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Review Outcomes: 1. Completed charter 2. Metrics (baseline, goal & entitlement) 3. Scope of project 4. Resource allocation / team members 5. High Level view of the process 6. Timelines – Project Plan 7. Financial Estimate 8. Elevator speech

Project Start Date 20/01/05 # Xs Define Champion MBB 26 Belt Measure Project name Project Start Date 20/01/05 # Xs Define Champion MBB 26 Belt Measure Project name Analyze Project Y Increase Market Share Management DEFINE Define Change Core and Common Components Improve Cash Control Cash Database Metric Baseline Target (P) (S) Infrastructure PRO Roles & Increase Account Penetration Responsibility Increase Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Project Benefit Business Results © Novel Idea 2004 Entitlement ENGAGEMENT CESS Improve Reduce Cost 20/01/05 PROJECT Increase Growth Date Complete Project : Business Objectives Lower Expense to Revenue Ratio DEFINE PHASE REVIEW Review with Champion

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's

Define Phase Review Refine Project Scope Map High Level Process Identify CTQs Identify Customer Define Phase Review Refine Project Scope Map High Level Process Identify CTQs Identify Customer Define Problem © Novel Idea 2004 Update Project Charter

Measure Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 Measure Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Project Charter Define Process Map We begin with the “Y”: Performance of the Y over Time } Variation of the Y C&E Matrix, Measure Capability Initial Capability Assessment FMEA Analyse Measurement variation The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” Multi-Vari Actual variation Improve MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Process Improvement. DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Repeatability (equipment) Reproducibility (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 Control Plan Control Final Capability Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Measure Phase - Purpose To define the current process and establish metrics for the Measure Phase - Purpose To define the current process and establish metrics for the project • Some key steps: • Document the process using a process map • Identify process output variables (Y’s) and process input variables (X’s) X’s • Develop a Cause and Effects Matrix (C&E) • Establish measurement system capabilities • Establish baseline process capability for outputs (Y) © Novel Idea 2004

Measure Phase - Outcomes • • Stop matrix’s, RACI or stakeholder analysis Process Mapping Measure Phase - Outcomes • • Stop matrix’s, RACI or stakeholder analysis Process Mapping – Lower level Cause and Effect Matrix’s Data Collection Plan for Project’s key Metrics Measure and Validate the Measurement System Process Capability for baseline Financial validation for project benefits © Novel Idea 2004

Measure 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s PROCESS MAP – Describes the Measure 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s PROCESS MAP – Describes the steps / major activities in the process 3. RACI Process Steps – verbs Deliverables 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y # of process Steps Input / Output – nouns (be specific) 5. MSA # of Inputs 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation CAUSE & EFFECT MATRIX – Prioritisation of inputs Bring the Input into the rows Use the critical output (Y’s) from the process map – put into the columns Deliverables Weightings for Y’s 1 to 10 (10 been most important) # Key X’s to FMEA Rank the X’s against the individual Y’s use 9 , 3 , 1 or 0 (9 been high impact) Determine cut off – look for step changes in the total column (sum of input X output) MEASURE MENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS – Audits / tests the measurement system for integrity Measurement system of project Y (source of data for project Y) Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement Tools to use – statistical analysis – Gage R&R (repeatability or reproducibility) or attribute gage R& R for discrete data System Is there integrity? Do manual audit of the system INITIAL CAPABILITY – how capable is the current process (use Minitab) Stats tool – do normal capability six pack Looking for Stability, Outliers, Centre, Spread & Shape (SOCSS) e. g. tools – Box plot, Dotplot, I-MR, Histogram, Descriptive statistics CP, CPK, PPK © Novel Idea 2004 Deliverables I-MR chart, Six graph summary chart Process Capable and in control today?

1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation Process Maps • Outputs (Insert a copy of the Process Map here) – A complete list of Process Input Variables by step – Visual representation of the process – Each Process Input Variable classified as Controlled or Uncontrolled – Describes the steps / major activities in the process – Process Steps – verbs – Input / Output – nouns (be specific) © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Lower level Map Deliverables # of process Steps # of Inputs # of Outputs # Xs # Ys Define 26 00 Measure 11 00

1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation C&E Matrix • Outputs (Insert a copy of the C&E matrix here) – – – To prioritize the Xs with respect to the correlation of the X to the Ys Steps: Key in the Outputs (Ys) for the project (Measurable - either from the charter and Process map) Consider not more than 3 to 4 Ys for the project Rate them in a scale of 1 to 10 based on their importance for your projects (10 max, 1 min) From the Process Map consider all the inputs (Xs) and process step Relate the Inputs (Xs) with respect to each Output (Y) Use a scale of 1, 3, 9 for relating the Xs to the Ys (9 - strong co relation, 3 - medium correlation, 1 - Low or no correlation Multiply the column and add across the row. Sort and prioritize the total Draw the line based on the Xs to be considered for the next step Remember experience plays an important to decide the Xs. © Novel Idea 2004 # Xs # Ys Define – 26 00 Measure 11 00 Deliverables # Key X’s to FMEA DMAIC Project Tracker: C&E Matrics

Raci Matrix – Is Map 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. Raci Matrix – Is Map 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation • Matrix which highlights who's Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed of activities in a process. • Process steps are listed in rows down the left side; groups/individuals are listed across the top. • Team works through the matrix and identifies level of involvement for each cell in the matrix. • Tool can then be used to troubleshoot the process. In fact, just using this tool often helps teams realise where the issues and conflicts are. DMAIC Project Tracker: RACI # Ys Define © Novel Idea 2004 # Xs 26 00 Measure 11 00

SCONSS What it tells you Deliverables I-MR chart, Process in control, data normally distributed, SCONSS What it tells you Deliverables I-MR chart, Process in control, data normally distributed, any outliers? ( Stability, Centering, Outliers, Normality, Spread, Shape) Basic Stats (Define or Measure Phase ) - To check for Stability, Centering, Outliers , Normality, Spread, Shape (SCONSS). In Analyse phase to determine some of the basic assumptions of the test to use. Steps: - Collect the data to determine baseline (Define or Measure Phase) - Collect data after MSA improvements ( if MSA improvements have been made) - Decide the sample size of the data - Remember the sample size must be a true representative of the data Type of data needed Process data on your Project Y or Critical X’s ( In Improve Phase) Tool Various in Statistica Command Industrial Stats Six Sigma>Variables>Six Graph>. Variables select >Charts>Six Graph options> Graph Training Reference Green Belts and Black Belts : Week 1 Basic Stats and Quality tools Cautions Using the wrong chart, always double check data points Shows the Delivery time is stable the process is in control The points in this plot are all very close to the line, so we conclude that Delivery time is normally distributed (histogram leads to the same conclusion). The second chart plots the Range (max-min) of the data © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica

Measure System Analysis (Insert MSA planning details) Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement System Is Measure System Analysis (Insert MSA planning details) Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement System Is there integrity? © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: MSA 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation

Gage R&R Graphical Output • • • 1. Attribute R&R 2. Variable R&R Describe Gage R&R Graphical Output • • • 1. Attribute R&R 2. Variable R&R Describe MSA method 1. P. A. L. 2. Audit Show graphical output State conclusion Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement System Is there integrity? 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation %R&R (for process improvement efforts) Good: This graph shows the average value and the spread of the data for each estimator %R&R < 10% Marginal: We want the grouping to be similar across all estimators and a flat line across the means for the estimator 10% < %R&R < 30% Unacceptable: 30% < %R&R Note: In some situations the %R&R can be as high as 50% with minimal impact • The graph shows the spread of the values for each house • We want to see minimal spread for each house, and good separation between houses (means shifting) • • © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica Shows the average cost for each estimator for each house Interactions are indicated by nonparallel lines

Attribute R&R Graphical Analysis What it tells you Type of data needed Left plot: Attribute R&R Graphical Analysis What it tells you Type of data needed Left plot: For each appraiser, what % of samples did they (rightly or wrongly) rate the same every time (blue dot) with associated error bars (red lines). Right plot: For each appraiser, what % of samples did they always rate correctly (relative to the standard or expert). Values on this plot will be less than or equal to values on the left plot. Attribute data (pass/fail or other categorization) from an Attribute MSA study – data from multiple samples, multiple appraisers, and multiple assessments of each sample by each appraiser Tool NA Statistica Demand Aspire DMAIC>Gage R&R >Attribute Gage R&R…. Training Reference Week 1: MSA Cautions The two graphs generally do not have the same scale. How well the appraisers performed relative to the expert rating – okay but not great. Appraiser B was again the worst, agreeing with the expert on only 2/3 of the samples. The three appraisers in this study each had good repeatability; Appraiser B was the worst at about 87% agreement. © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement System Is there integrity?

Measure System Analysis 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Measure System Analysis 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation (Update after MSA improvements, and take Improvements to Control Plan) Deliverables Accept or Reject Measurement System Is there integrity? © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: MSA & Control Plan

Capability Six Graph Summary 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI Capability Six Graph Summary 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation What it tells you Shows process performance relative to customer specifications. Output includes an IMR Chart, histogram with normal curve superimposed, normal probability plot, and capability plot (process width relative to specifications). Numerical output includes std dev estimates (within=short-term=common cause; overall=longterm=common&special cause) and capability indices (Cp, Cpk, Ppk). Type of data needed Continuous Y data in time order, customer specifications Tool NA Statistica Command Industrial Stats Six Sigma>Variables>XMA Specs>Process Capability Training Reference Week 1: Capability Analysis Cautions Capability indices are not meaningful if the specs are not true requirements. Deliverables I-MR chart, Six graph summary chart Process Capable and in control today? Normal probability plot shows that the data is normally distributed I-MR Chart shows that this process is in control (stable) Plot shows the width of the process relative to the width of the specs. This process is not meeting customer expectations. Chart showing more detail on the last 25 data points – not very useful Estimates of standard deviation and the capability indices. Process has poor capability due to being off target with high variability. © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica Histogram with overlaid normal curve suggests that the data are normally distributed.

Financial Impact Validation © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Benefit Tracking 1. Financial Impact Validation © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Financial Benefit Tracking 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation

Review with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Review 1. Process Review with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Review 1. Process Mapping 2. Cause and Effect Matrix’s 3. RACI 4. Basic Stats on Project’s Y 5. MSA 6. Process Capability for baseline 7. Financial validation

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's

Perform Capability Analysis Measure Phase Perform Data Collection Perform Measurement System Analysis Identify Measurement Perform Capability Analysis Measure Phase Perform Data Collection Perform Measurement System Analysis Identify Measurement and Variation Determine Data Type Develop Data Collection Plan C&E Matrics © Novel Idea Process Map 2004

Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Increase Growth # Xs Define Champion MBB 26 Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Increase Growth # Xs Define Champion MBB 26 Measure Belt Project name 11 Analyze Database Capability MEASUR E Infrastructure Responsibility Increase Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty - Business Results Review with Champion © Novel Idea 2004 Audit/Surv ey/R&R – C&E Matrix: # Key Xs – 12 Roles & Increase Account Penetration Copyright Novel Idea 2005 Management Measure Core and Common Components Change DEFINE MSA: PRO Increase Market Share Control Process Map: # Process Steps – I step # Input Xs - 26 # Outputs - 12 ENGAGEMENT CESS Improve Cash 20/01/05 Project: Improve Reduce Cost Date Complete PROJECT Lower Expense to Revenue Ratio MEASURE PHASE REVIEW

Analyse Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 Analyse Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Project Charter Define Process Map We begin with the “Y”: } Performance of the Y over Time Variation of the Y C&E Matrix, Capability Measure Initial Capability Assessment FMEA Analyse Measurement variation Multi-Vari Actual variation Improve The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Process Improvement. DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Repeatability Reproducibility (equipment) (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 Control Plan Control Final Capability Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Analyze Phase - Purpose To begin learning about the relationships between the X’s and Analyze Phase - Purpose To begin learning about the relationships between the X’s and Y’s and identify potential sources of process variability. Some key steps: • Reduce the number of process input variables to a manageable number • Determine high-risk inputs from Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) • Determine the presence of noise variables through Multi-Vari Studies • Plan the first improvement activities © Novel Idea 2004

Analyze Phase Outcomes • FMEA Completed on Failure mode for Key X’s • Multi Analyze Phase Outcomes • FMEA Completed on Failure mode for Key X’s • Multi Vari Planning • Multi Vari Study – Relationship between X and Y • Draw a statistical and practical conclusion • Update FMEA • Revised Project Charter • Critical few Inputs taken to the Improve Phase © Novel Idea 2004

Analyze 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Analyze 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions FAILURE MODE EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) – What potentially can go wrong, effect and what cause it to go wrong Bring your critical X from C&E matrix Each input, detail what can go wrong, the effect of it going wrong, what cause it to wrong, current Deliverables # Critical X’s control and recommended action X and Y data Rank Severity – how bad is it (1 to 10 – 10 been the very bad) as well level Rank Occurrence – how often does it go wrong (1 to 10 – 10 been very often) in X identifed ( Failure mode) Rank Detection – how easy is it to pick the failure ( 1 to 10 – 10 been difficult to pick up) Is data discrete or RPN – Risk Priority Number – multiplication of Severity X Occurrence X Detection Define what the 1 to 10 is for in your project for Severity, occurrence and Detection Continuous? Sort and Prioritise the critical X’s again – look for the step change in RPN numbers to determine cut off MULTI- VARI STUDIES - Statistical test / analysis to determine the impact (degree of impact) of Critical X from FMEA has on the Y (output). Collect data from the current process – Type of data determine the statistical tool to use (eg discrete or Deliverables continuous) Hypothesis Statement. Refer to table for which tool to use or consultant the Six Sigma team Accept or reject? ? Example of tools – 1 -t sample test, 2 -t sample test, ANOVA (analysis of means), Hypothesis testing, Practical & chi-square, Regression, Correlation Statistical p is low Ho must go Significance Multi-Vari Studies determine which Critical X goes into the improve phase - find solution to ensure that the Critical X will not fail © Novel Idea 2004

1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions FMEA • • • • Failure Mode Effect Analysis: (Analyze Phase, Use for tracking recommended action in Improve and Control Phase) - To prioritize the Xs with respect to the Failure Mode, Its effect (severity), Cause (Possibility of Occurrence) & Detection Methods (Possibility of it being detected) Steps: - Key in the Inputs selected from The Process Map and C & E matrix - For each of the input find the possible failure mode/s (with respect to the process step) - For each failure mode, analyse the effect/s of the failure mode - For each failure mode/s find out the cause/s behind why it has happened - For each of the cause/s analyse the detection methods currently in place. The detection method must be able to detect the defect before the event occurs. Refer to the document - name/number - Rate the Severity, Occurrence and detection numbers (for severity and Occurrence 1 -lowest & 10 - highest, for Occurrence 10 - least possibility of detection, 1 - maximum possibility of detection) - Calculate RPN (Severity X Occurrence X detection) - Sort the FMEA based on RPN ratings (Please copy and paste the unsorted FMEA to the next sheet before sorting the same) - Draw the line & recommend the actions for those Xs with maximum RPN numbers - Remember experience plays an important to decide the Xs. Insert a copy of the FMEA template Deliverables # Critical X’s X and Y data as well level in X identifed ( Failure mode) Is data discrete or Continuous? # Xs Analyze © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: FMEA 8

1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions Multi Vari Planning & Analysis ( Analyse Phase) - To check the relation of the X to the Y based on the data & further filter the Xs which do not correlate to the Y/s Steps: - Key in the X identified in the FMEA, as well as failure mode ( level in X) - Frame the Question you want to know referring/relating the X to the Y - The Question can be written in the form of Hypothesis statement itself (Null Hypothesis & Alternative Hypothesis ) - Identify the data(X & Y) you need to collect (also the frequency i. e. by week, by month etc. ) for proving / disproving the Hypothesis - Update MSA issues, if any - Reflect the source of the data (both X & Y) and also the recording/storage method - Decide the Type of Analysis to be carried out and the tool to be used based on the type of Data - Record the result and conclusion after the analysis (with reference to the Hypothesis) include p value & r value where applicable) Multi Vary Data Collection © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: MV Plan

1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions Multi-Vari • (Insert Multi-Vari study details) – One Page per Key X. Indicate Null and Alternative Hypotheses. Show finding – Process Input Variables for further evaluation using DOE – Recommended actions for reducing variation caused by Uncontrolled variables © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica

1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions Multi-Vari Summary Description Hypothesis Discrete X Discrete Y Assumption and Graph H 0: Factors are independent Continuous Y compared to target/goal Chi Square SCONSS One Sample T – Test SCONSS H 0: m = Target Two Sample T Test ANOVA 2 levels of Discrete X, Continuous Y H 0: m 1 = m 2 2+ levels of Discrete X, Continuous Y H 0: m 1=… m 2 SCONSS Test for Equal variance Residuals Analysis Continuous X; Continuous Y H 0: Slope = 0 SCONSS Residuals Analysis © Novel Idea 2004 Test E- Learning version Regression Analysis Statistical finding

FMEA – Key Actions • • • 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection FMEA – Key Actions • • • 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions Failure Mode Effect Analysis: (Analyze Phase, Use for tracking recommended action in Improve and Control Phase) - Draw the line & recommend the actions for those Xs with maximum RPN numbers - Remember experience plays an important to decide the Xs. Insert a copy of the FMEA template and track recommended actions moving forward Deliverables # Critical X’s Recommended actions implemented # Xs Analyze © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: FMEA 8

Review with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Review 1. FMEA Review with MBB © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Gate Review 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's 1. FMEA 2. Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's 1. FMEA 2. Multi Vary Data collection 3. Multi Vary data Analysis 4. Summary of findings 5. FMEA Key Actions

Analyse Phase Review Conclusion Multi Vari Data Analysis Hypotheses Setting Multi Vari Data Collection Analyse Phase Review Conclusion Multi Vari Data Analysis Hypotheses Setting Multi Vari Data Collection FMEA © Novel Idea 2004

Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Increase Growth Project: # Xs Define 26 Measure Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Increase Growth Project: # Xs Define 26 Measure Analyze 11 Project name: 8 Database MEASUR E ANALYZ E • • • Multi-Vari: • • • Multi- Vari Findings: • • Responsibility Increase Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Business Results Review with Champion © Novel Idea 2004 PRO Infrastructure DEFINE Project Difficulties: Roles & Increase Account Penetration Copyright Novel Idea 2005 Management Analyse Increase Market Share Change Core and Common Components Improve Cash Control FMEA: # Critical Xs – • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 - ENGAGEMENT CESS Improve Reduce Cost 20/01/05 PROJECT Lower Expense to Revenue Ratio Date Complete ANALYSE PHASE REVIEW

Improve Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 Improve Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Project Charter Define Process Map We begin with the “Y”: } Performance of the Y over Time Variation of the Y C&E Matrix, Capability Measure Initial Capability Assessment Analyse Improve Repeatability Reproducibility (equipment) (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Multi-Vari Actual variation MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” FMEA Measurement variation The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” Process Improvement DOE Simulations Control Plan DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Control Capability Final Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Improve Phase - Purpose To quantify the relationship between the critical X’s and Y’s Improve Phase - Purpose To quantify the relationship between the critical X’s and Y’s Some key steps: • For the suspected critical X’s, actively experiment to manipulate the inputs and determine their effects on the Y’s • This phase is characterized by a sequence of experiments • “Critical” variables (X’s) are identified during this process • Design of Experiments (DOE) and Process Improvement are the backbone of this phase © Novel Idea 2004

Improve Phase - Outcomes • Critical X’s identified • Solution generated for Improvement • Improve Phase - Outcomes • Critical X’s identified • Solution generated for Improvement • Improvement and Implementation plan for project • Pilot the solution • Generate a should map • Establish a reaction plan on the failure modes • Establish a new process baseline • Communication to rest of the organisation © Novel Idea 2004

Improve Critical X’s identified Plan Improvement Pilot Implementation plan Generate a should map Should Improve Critical X’s identified Plan Improvement Pilot Implementation plan Generate a should map Should RACI Establish a reaction plan on the failure modes Short term Capability EXPERIMENTATION – Can do experimentation or Design of experiment (DOE) to find the correct solution There may be Just Do Solutions that you can just implement All solution must be tested before rolling out the solution Other tools to use is simulation models Draw up the “should Map” of the new process, as well as RACI on new Process Can you show capability? Deliverables Improvements tested & Documented Should map and RACI in place? Are you capable and in control? © Novel Idea 2004

Experimentation • (Insert the following details: ) – Identified and verified Critical Process Input Experimentation • (Insert the following details: ) – Identified and verified Critical Process Input Variables and interactions of Process Input Variables with their optimal performance limits – Validation of experimental results – Prediction model for process performance based on Critical Process Input Variables – Sequence of experiments to optimize the process – Final report documenting the results (statistical and practical) of the experimental findings – Updated Process Map, FMEA, and Control Plans © Novel Idea 2004

Experimentation Fractional Factorial Fit Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Thicknes Term Constant Air. Press Experimentation Fractional Factorial Fit Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Thicknes Term Constant Air. Press Visc Solvent Air. Press*Visc Air. Press*Solvent Visc*Solvent Effect 2. 3000 -0. 5000 0. 1500 1. 0000 -0. 0000 Coef 6. 4250 1. 1500 -0. 2500 0. 0750 0. 5000 -0. 0000 St. Dev Coef 0. 02500 0. 02500 T P 257. 00 0. 002 46. 00 0. 014 -10. 00 0. 063 3. 00 0. 205 20. 00 0. 032 -0. 00 1. 000 Analysis of Variance for Thicknes Source Main Effects 2 -Way Interactions Residual Error Total © Novel Idea 2004 E- Learning version Statistica DF 3 3 1 7 Seq SS 11. 1250 2. 0450 0. 0050 13. 1750 Adj SS 11. 1250 2. 0450 0. 0050 Adj MS F 3. 70833 741. 67 0. 68167 136. 33 0. 00500 P 0. 027 0. 063

Should map © Novel Idea 2004 Should map © Novel Idea 2004

Final Capability © Novel Idea 2004 Final Capability © Novel Idea 2004

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's

Improve Phase - Elements Implementation Planning Update FMEA “Should Be” Process Map Validate Improvement Improve Phase - Elements Implementation Planning Update FMEA “Should Be” Process Map Validate Improvement DOE/Simulation Generate Improvement © Novel Idea 2004 Alternatives 2

Review with BB © Novel Idea 2004 Review with BB © Novel Idea 2004

Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Project: . . . # Xs Define 26 Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Project: . . . # Xs Define 26 Measure Analyze Improve Cash Increase Market Share 8 Change Increase Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty © Novel Idea 2004 Copyright Novel Idea 2005 Management Database Infrastructure DEFINE MEASUR E Solution: ANALYZ E • • IMPROVE • PRO Increase Account Penetration DOE: 3 Control Core and Common Components Reduce Cost Project name: ENGAGEMENT CESS Improve 11 Improve Increase Growth 20/01/05 PROJECT Lower Expense to Revenue Ratio Date Complete IMPROVE PAHSE REVIEW Roles & Responsibility Business Results

Control Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004 Control Phase D M A I C © Novel Idea 2004

Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . Y = f (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, . . . xn) Project Charter Define Process Map We begin with the “Y”: } Performance of the Y over Time Variation of the Y C&E Matrix, Capability Measure Initial Capability Assessment Analyse Multi-Vari Actual variation Improve MSA FMEA reduces variation and effects for “inputs gone wrong” FMEA Measurement variation The Roadmap “funnels” down the Xs from the trivial many to a “vital few” Multi-Vari identifies Noise variables and reduces the x’s for DOE Process Improvement. DOEs identify the Critical x’s and their relationship to the Y Repeatability Reproducibility (equipment) (people / methods) Reduced measurement error , “true” capability assessment ! © Novel Idea 2004 Control Plan Control Final Capability Controls in place for Critical x’s Results

Control Phase - Purpose To establish a control plan and maintain the gains achieved Control Phase - Purpose To establish a control plan and maintain the gains achieved through the project Some key steps: • Document and implement a control plan for the new/improved procedure • Sustain gains identified in the Improvement Phase • Establish and monitor long-term capability • Implement continuous improvement efforts © Novel Idea 2004

Control Phase - Outcomes • • • In Control and Capable Process Control Plan Control Phase - Outcomes • • • In Control and Capable Process Control Plan established Process Owner hand over Best practice's opportunities identified Financial Validation of the project Document Control Procedure established Technical Review of project by a panel Project Close review Project Control phase complete © Novel Idea 2004

Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's Key Learning's: © Novel Idea 2004 DMAIC Project Tracker: Key Learning's

Control phase Project Control Final Close Review Training Handover Plan Develop Control © Novel Control phase Project Control Final Close Review Training Handover Plan Develop Control © Novel Idea 2004 Strategy

Control Phase © Novel Idea 2004 Control Phase © Novel Idea 2004

Control Plan Hand Off Training Final Capability Owner Sign-off Final Project Report Control CONTROL Control Plan Hand Off Training Final Capability Owner Sign-off Final Project Report Control CONTROL PLAN – Maintain the gain (ensure that the process improvements are sustained Critical Inputs from FMEA that we need to review continuously Deliverables Specification – the expected results from the process input Control plan completed Control Method - how to measure / control the inputs and by who With process owner Frequency - how often to measure & review RACI matrix Reaction plan – what needs to happen if the control method is not followed / contingency plan HAND OFF TRAINING – training requirements and methods who needs the training Trainings done? Deliverables Training completed for All impacted stakeholders FINAL CAPABILITY – I-MR chart demonstrating the results, new process capabilities charts for primary and counter balance merics Deliverables Final I-MR chart (two step to show improvement) OWNERS SIGN-OFF - Acknowledgement from process owner and sign off on the project FINAL PROJECT REPORT – Executive report to summary the critical findings from the project © Novel Idea 2004

Control Plans • (Insert the following details) – Updated Control Plans and methods for Control Plans • (Insert the following details) – Updated Control Plans and methods for all critical Process Output Variables and Process Input Variables – Completed Reaction Plan for each Process Input Variable / Process Output Variable – Sampling methods and measurement system controls in place for each Critical Process Input Variable and Process Output Variable – Procedures and appropriate documentation – Identified and completed training for all pertinent personnel / functions affected by changes in the process © Novel Idea 2004

Control Plans © Novel Idea 2004 Control Plans © Novel Idea 2004

Review with BB © Novel Idea 2004 Review with BB © Novel Idea 2004

Hand-off Training • (Insert the Hand-off Training action plan) • Process area, owner, action, Hand-off Training • (Insert the Hand-off Training action plan) • Process area, owner, action, completion date © Novel Idea 2004

Hand-off Training • Have the process owners and operators been properly trained to support Hand-off Training • Have the process owners and operators been properly trained to support long term performance? • How was the process knowledge transferred to the operators and support personnel? • How will new personnel be trained in process operation and maintenance? • What methods are in place to ensure that all appropriate personnel have been impacted? © Novel Idea 2004

Final Capability © Novel Idea 2004 Final Capability © Novel Idea 2004

Project sign off © Novel Idea 2004 Project sign off © Novel Idea 2004

Final Project Report © Novel Idea 2004 Final Project Report © Novel Idea 2004

Learnings © Novel Idea 2004 Learnings © Novel Idea 2004

Team Regognition © Novel Idea 2004 Team Regognition © Novel Idea 2004

Review with Coach for Close of project and learnership assesement © Novel Idea 2004 Review with Coach for Close of project and learnership assesement © Novel Idea 2004

Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Project: # Xs Define Measure Analyze Increase Market Project Start Date 20/01/05 Business Objectives Project: # Xs Define Measure Analyze Increase Market Share 3 2 Management DEFINE MEASUR E Database ANALYZ E Infrastructure Final Capability: PRO Responsibility Project Benefit © Novel Idea 2004 Copyright Novel Idea 2005 IMPROVE Roles & Increase Account Penetration Increase Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Control Plan: 8 Change Core and Common Components Improve Cash Control Project name: 11 ENGAGEMENT CESS Improve Reduce Cost 26 Control Increase Growth 20/01/05 PROJECT Lower Expense to Revenue Ratio Date Complete CONTROL PHASE REVIEW CONTROL Business Results Hand-off Training Owner Sign-off

© Novel Idea 2004 © Novel Idea 2004