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Oakland Unified School District The Most Improved Large Urban District in California Over the Oakland Unified School District The Most Improved Large Urban District in California Over the Past Six Years 118 Point API Gain since 2006

Oakland USD Data (2009) • Students – – – • 41, 082 25, 138 Oakland USD Data (2009) • Students – – – • 41, 082 25, 138 104 23. 1% 70. 18% 94. 5% Student Ethnic and Racial Distribution – – – – • District enrollment (includes 1, 827 Pre-K) Adult Education Programs Number of Schools English Learners Free or reduced lunch Attendance rate African American Hispanic or Latino Asian White (not Hispanic) Multiple or No Response Pacific Islander Filipino American Indian or Alaska Native 35. 3% 34. 7% 14. 6% 7. 0% 6. 2% 1. 1% 0. 8% 0. 4% Oakland Charter Schools (1993 -2010) – 42 Petitions approved, 32 Operating, 5 Revoked, 3 Surrendered – District authorized charter school enrollment 7, 621

VISION: All students will graduate as caring, competent and critical thinkers, fully informed, engaged VISION: All students will graduate as caring, competent and critical thinkers, fully informed, engaged and contributing citizens, prepared to succeed in college and career. — GOALS — All students will meet or exceed rigorous standards in all academic disciplines. All students will: Students take responsibility for themselves and the common good. Graduate prepared to succeed in college and the workplace. Succeed in Algebra by the end of ninth grade. Read and write by the end of third grade. Students will possess personal motivation, skills and resiliency necessary for success in life and the workplace. — BOARD PRIORITIES — Effective Instruction for Every Student, Every Classroom, Every Day Safe and Supportive Schools Literacy for College and Career Readiness ACHIEVEMENT • EQUITY • ACCOUNTABILITY Core Values Underlying Our Work

District Goals and Strategic Priorities 12 th Grade: Ready for College and Career 9 District Goals and Strategic Priorities 12 th Grade: Ready for College and Career 9 th Grade: Proficient in Algebra 3 rd Grade: Proficient in Reading and Writing Effective Instruction Every Day Safe and Supportive Schools Success in College and Career

The Results So Far… Five Year Data: • 118 point district API growth past The Results So Far… Five Year Data: • 118 point district API growth past five years, highest by far of any large urban in CA • 14 point increase in graduation rate, narrowed gap w African American and Latino students • 30+ point gain in CST in Elementary math and ELA proficiency • Significant gains by schools and central office depts. on satisfaction surveys New Data: • All subgroups growing, Latinos narrowing achievement gap • District math CST grade 4 at 65%, grade 5 at 61% proficient/adv. , beating the state average • Strong growth in 9 th grade, extending grade spans with growth • Almost 50% of schools with 25+ pt. API gain

District API: OUSD Moves Ahead in 2010 District API: OUSD Moves Ahead in 2010

OUSD Demonstrates Largest 6 Year API Gains 118 API points OUSD Demonstrates Largest 6 Year API Gains 118 API points

8 every student. every classroom. every day. 8 8 every student. every classroom. every day. 8

7 9 every student. every classroom. every day. 9 7 9 every student. every classroom. every day. 9

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Management Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Management Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

Created a Culture of Accountability and Support at Each Level Board of Education Vision, Created a Culture of Accountability and Support at Each Level Board of Education Vision, Values, Goals Cabinet Strategy & Strategic Projects Schools & Central Office Coherent Governance Strategic Planning Cycle School Goals/Scorecards Service Area Goals/Scorecards Homerun Projects SPSA, RBI & Team Awards • Safety • Pay Concerns Substitute Fill Rate • SIPs, CPI & Team Awards On-boarding • Individuals Contracting • Individual Goals • Clean Schools Employee Evaluations, Individual Learning Plans & Individual Awards

Performance Accountability: Created a Data-Driven, Results-Oriented Culture Leadership Rewards & Consequences Data Collection & Performance Accountability: Created a Data-Driven, Results-Oriented Culture Leadership Rewards & Consequences Data Collection & Reporting Evaluation Professional Development Inquiry & Accountability Cycle

Results-Based Cycles of Inquiry Schools have the flexibility to partner with a professional development Results-Based Cycles of Inquiry Schools have the flexibility to partner with a professional development provider or data coach of their choice. Principals provide evidence of their inquiry work to Network Executive Officers. Central Office Supports Results-Based Inquiry in the following ways: • Every administrator, teacher and coach has online access to real time student level data. Additional reports are released regularly. • Standards-based common assessments are administered four times per year in Math and English Language Arts, and teachers have access to a robust item bank to create their own assessments. • Principals receive data training and support from their Network Executive Officer, central office coaches, and peers at network meetings two times per month.

Central Office Accountability Central Office Accountability

Annual Scorecards Ensure Public Accountability Every school posts a scorecard outside of the main Annual Scorecards Ensure Public Accountability Every school posts a scorecard outside of the main office. Scorecards include information regarding: • Enrollment, • Summary performance data • Student achievement and school climate and culture data, • Qualitative description of the school.

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Accountability Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

School Portfolio Management Framework School Portfolio Management: Managing the Success and Quality of Schools School Portfolio Management Framework School Portfolio Management: Managing the Success and Quality of Schools The District will provide a diverse portfolio of high quality schools for students and families both within neighborhoods and district-wide Quality Enrollment / Capacity Programmatic Diversity SUPPLY OUSD is continually managing its dynamic portfolio of schools across these three dimensions High quality and diverse educational options DEMAND

Tiered School Accountability and Support In order to accelerate achievement in every school, OUSD Tiered School Accountability and Support In order to accelerate achievement in every school, OUSD differentiates the supports and interventions provided based on where schools currently exist along the continuum from needing intervention to having demonstrated a capacity to accelerate achievement. This differentiation also allows for innovation while increasing accountability across the system Tiering Criteria: i) Absolute Performance ii) Accelerated Student Level Growth iii) Closing the Achievement Gap BLUE Tier GREEN Tier YELLOW Tier ORANGE Tier RED Tier Increased Monitoring and Support Increased Curricular Flexibilities awarded through application process Accountability for Results

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Accountability Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

Common Vision and Aligned System Requires Effective Practice Defined at Each Level Accountability Equity Common Vision and Aligned System Requires Effective Practice Defined at Each Level Accountability Equity Achievement Effective Learner Effective Instruction Effective Leadership Effective Schools Vision & Core Values Effective District Office 22

To Implement the District Priorities, we must have Effective Leadership Our Theory of Action To Implement the District Priorities, we must have Effective Leadership Our Theory of Action for Principal Leadership is… If we recruit, develop, support, and retain strong, learning-focused principals at each school, hold them accountable for achieving ambitious goals, and allow guided budget authority and opportunities for curricular flexibility to meet the goals, those principals will develop highly effective teachers, empower their communities, and create a vibrant, collaborative culture so that all students achieve at high levels.

OUSD Network Model Effective Instruction Every Day Regional Team Network Officers Recruits, develops, supports, OUSD Network Model Effective Instruction Every Day Regional Team Network Officers Recruits, develops, supports, challenges, holds accountable Al s. S up p or t Central Service Departments orts, supp Supt. & Cabinet Board Strong Learning. Focused Principals • • Safe and Supportive Schools Supports lops, deve uits, Recr nges, ble e chall accounta holds ign School Leadership Team Literacy for College and Career Success Defines goals and targets Defines district-wide strategies Brokers relationships (internal and external) Supports, challenges, inspires, holds accountable High Levels of Student Learning

Developing and Supporting Principal Leadership • Pipeline partnerships to find and select the best Developing and Supporting Principal Leadership • Pipeline partnerships to find and select the best possible site administrators • Coaching for new administrators • Network Officers intensively support and supervise principals, monitor school progress toward goals • Small networks and inquiry groups allow principals to share effective practices and create a learning focused culture • Results-Based Budgeting gives principals real cost control over resources • School Quality Practices set the standard and path for school improvement

Effective School Practices & Supports Effective School Practices Supports & Resources 1. School-wide focus Effective School Practices & Supports Effective School Practices Supports & Resources 1. School-wide focus on effective instruction and assessing student learning • Curriculum & Pacing Guides 2. Grade level standards based curriculum, aligned assessments, and effective instructional strategies for all students • Tools and Coaching for Collaborative Inquiry 3. Data-based collaborative inquiry on individual student progress 4. Aligned resources and structures to support effective and student learning • Assessments • Professional Development in Core Curriculum, Interventions and Instructional Strategies (Swun Math; OCR; Writing; ELD) 5. Safe, positive school climate and culture • Principal Learning and Leadership Coaching 6. Partnerships with parents and the community • Operations Support • Extended Learning • Linked Learning & “a-g”

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Accountability Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

Hills: #7 Kaiser 274 Students #10 Thornhill 350 Students #10 Hillcrest 260 Students #10 Hills: #7 Kaiser 274 Students #10 Thornhill 350 Students #10 Hillcrest 260 Students #10 Joaquin Miller 356 Students #9 Chabot 370 Students Color Key: # API Ranking: 10 is the highest Enrollment #7 Grass Valley 240 Students #7 Munck 315 Students #10 Redwood Heights 280 Students #10 Montclair 350 Students School Size Matters: Is This Fair? Flatlands: #3 Fruitvale 730 Students #2 Bella Vista 750 Students #3 Franklin 860 Students #2 Allendale 590 Students #3 Manzanita 921 Students Lake Merritt #2 Garfield 950 Students #8 Lincoln 640 Students #1 Hawthorne 1447 Students #1 Webster 990 Students #2 Melrose 490 Students #1 Jefferson 1009 Students #1 Whittier 682 Students #2 Horace Mann 540 Students #2 Lockwood 876 Students #1 Woodland 265 Students #2 Cox 1240 Students #1 Highland 830 Students #2 Stonehurst 800 Students

New Small Schools Theory of Action • Effective leaders guide effective teams of leaders New Small Schools Theory of Action • Effective leaders guide effective teams of leaders who have control over the variables for success in an accountable system will create success. • Schools that are filled with at-risk student populations need to be small so they can develop strong adult relationships, personalized learning, and safety nets. • Teachers working with such populations need strong intimate learning communities to be effective

OUSD New Small School Incubation • New schools emerge from an identified community need OUSD New Small School Incubation • New schools emerge from an identified community need • Incubator converts small declining enrollment, failing schools into new up-and-coming school that attract enrollment, through community-based design team process. • Incubator converts large, over-utilized failing school into new optimally sized up-and-coming school, through community-based design team process. Process INCUBATOR Design Team Small, underutilized, declining enrollment, failing schools New optimally-sized upand-coming school INCUBATOR Design Team Large, over-utilized failing school New optimally-sized upand-coming school

Who is on the Design Team? Example: Design Team of 10 Parents, Community Members, Who is on the Design Team? Example: Design Team of 10 Parents, Community Members, Students, and Educators Design Community Large group of parents, community members, students, and educators School Community School staff, administration, students, and families. Community organizations and neighborhoods. Oakland Unified School District and New School Development Group • • • Liz O. , Design Team leader Marley C. , parent Elisa E. , parent Myesha L. , parent Jesus R. , community partner (OCO) Gilbert Z. , community partner (Evenstart) Eduardo E. , teacher Tim H. , teacher Linda T. , teacher

49 New Small Schools in Oakland: 2000 - 2008 Fall 2000 2001 Fall 2004 49 New Small Schools in Oakland: 2000 - 2008 Fall 2000 2001 Fall 2004 Fall 2003 Fall 2002 Fall 2005 * KIPP *Met. West ACORN Woodland ASCEND * Urban Int’l Promise Community School Melrose Life Leadership Academy Bridges Academy Coliseum New College Highland Prep Encompass Academy School of Social Justice & Community Development Sankofa Academy **Explore Leadership Think College Now Media College Prep YES College Prep & Architecture Mandela HS Prep Fall 2006 *BEST EXCEL HS Roots Int’l Alliance Academy Elmhurst East Oakland Community Esperanza School of East Prep Elementary the Arts Reach Academy Oakland Manzanita Community SEED United for Peralta HS CBITS Success Creek Kizmet Academy RISE PLACE @ Manzanita Prescott Closed (7) Community Fred T. School Opened befpre incubation (2) Korematsu Discovery National model, no OUSD incubation (3) Academy HS * * Robeson School * of Visual & * Performing Arts * Graphic: Courtesy of Jean Wing, OUSD New School Development Group - 32 - Fall 2007 Fall 2008 West Oakland MS Maxwell Park Int’l Academy Learning Futures Without Elementary Limits *Community Global Family United Elementary School East Greenleaf Oakland Elementary PRIDE *International HS

OUSD INCUBATION PROCESS: 2004 -09 New School Incubator Curriculum – 1 st Semester Strand OUSD INCUBATION PROCESS: 2004 -09 New School Incubator Curriculum – 1 st Semester Strand Name Strand 1 The New School Incubator: The Year, The Work, The Movement Strand 2 Know Thyself: Understanding who you are as a leader in the context of this work Strand 3 Getting Started: Forming and working with a design team SCHOOL VISITS Strand 4 Visioning: Who is the child walking out of your doors? Strand 5 Know Thy Community: Who is the child walking into your doors? Strand 6 Theory of Action: Bridging the gap between the child walking in the door and the child walking out of the door SCHOOL VISITS Strand 7 The School Program: Laying the foundation for the development of your new school Graphic: Courtesy of OUSD New School Development Group

New School Incubator Curriculum – 2 nd Semester May - Jun Mar - Apr New School Incubator Curriculum – 2 nd Semester May - Jun Mar - Apr Jan - Feb Instructional Program Recruiting Students Fiscal Realities Recruiting & Selecting Teachers School Culture Supporting & Training Teachers Supporting Students Community and Family Involvement Governance SCHOOL DESIGN PROPOSAL = THE FOUNDATION Community Analysis Theory of Action Vision District Operations Graphic: Courtesy of OUSD New School Development Group OUSD INCUBATION PROCESS: 2004 -09

Conditions That Have Promoted New School Success in OUSD Leader • • • Desires Conditions That Have Promoted New School Success in OUSD Leader • • • Desires to start a new school and willing to embrace the challenge Has successful experience as an administrator, and as a leader in OUSD Has experience in the specific school community in which s/he is started a school Community • • Wants a new school Participates in the leadership selection and on the design team Staff • • • Selected because their vision aligns with the school vision Chooses to be part of the new school Participates in the design (majority)

Conditions That Have Promoted New School Success in OUSD Planning & Design (Incubation) • Conditions That Have Promoted New School Success in OUSD Planning & Design (Incubation) • • • Happens before school opens Led by the person who becomes the principal Comprehensive one-year process Coaching provided to design team Clear theory of action and aligned program Opening • • Identified permanent facilities Received coaching in year 1 to support implementation of design Received operations support in year 1 to allow leadership to move past operations to instruction and culture Limited starting grade span, expanding annually

Stanford Study of OUSD New Small Schools Initiative Research Goals: • To understand how Stanford Study of OUSD New Small Schools Initiative Research Goals: • To understand how well new small schools and existing schools in OUSD are performing over time, taking into account the students they serve and their process of start-up & development • To understand what factors influence schools’ achievement and their improvement trajectories over time • To recommend policy strategies that can build on current successes and address identified needs and issues

Key Measure in the Study – School Level “Productivity” Productivity is a school’s capacity Key Measure in the Study – School Level “Productivity” Productivity is a school’s capacity to add value to students’ learning beyond students’ prior achievement and background characteristics. Productivity is evaluated by looking at how a school’s students achieve on the CST tests in comparison to those in schools serving similar students. A productive school produces achievement that is significantly higher than this benchmark.

Student Level Factors Explain about 2/3 of Variance in CST Scores School and Other Student Level Factors Explain about 2/3 of Variance in CST Scores School and Other Factors *CST Math model explained 66% of variance, leaving 34% to be explained by school and other factors 30. 4%

School Level CST Scores (Standard Scores) School Design Features Influence Productivity School Level CST Scores (Standard Scores) School Design Features Influence Productivity

API and Three-Year Average Productivity: Elementary ELA Mean “Old” Schools = -. 012 Mean API and Three-Year Average Productivity: Elementary ELA Mean “Old” Schools = -. 012 Mean New Schools =. 019 API 2008 Acorn Woodland Three-Year Average Productivity

Learnings from New Small School Work • Move out resistant staff from the outset. Learnings from New Small School Work • Move out resistant staff from the outset. Staff forced to participate perpetuate toxic culture • Design team needs dedicated time and support to be successful. • Design teams need a strong theory of action to ground their plans, otherwise it becomes hard to know what to prioritize • New schools need a lot of help implementing their plans. Year 1 is often focused on just figuring out operations and culture • New schools must develop a purposeful culture grounded in theory of action and where everyone shares responsibility for implementation. Coherence is a lot of work.

Key District Policy Supports for Schools Provide support and flexibility • • Network Executive Key District Policy Supports for Schools Provide support and flexibility • • Network Executive Officers serve as thought-partners rather than compliance officers to school leaders Embrace entrepreneurial ethos of small school principals; support innovation Coaches support standards-based instruction and collaborative inquiry Incubate new schools and leaders Continue to strengthen BTSA model by investing in coaches and their training Develop incentives for developing / keeping strong teachers and attracting them to high-priority schools Examine leadership, working conditions, hiring, and mentoring in high-turnover schools Strengthen coaching support for all new teachers Provide service and support orientation, especially in HR • • • Streamline hiring process Continue to move up hiring window to recruit top-quality candidates Prioritize hiring experienced, qualified teachers wherever possible Evaluate teacher pipelines in terms of retention and effectiveness and further develop strong pipelines, including “grow your own” models Identify and recruit strong student teachers

Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in Expect Success Reform: 2003 -10 Dollars follow students More equitable funding More flexibility in spending Quality Options Empowered School Leaders Investment in people Service Standards Transparent scorecards Public results Performance Accountability Personalized Learning Small class sizes & schools Small learning communities Small principal networks Expect Success Standards Based Instruction Technology Paper to computer Manual to automated Sustainable systems Smart use of data Families make choices District manages school portfolio Standards-Based Pacing & Assessments Collaborative Teacher Inquiry (PLC) Targeting Curriculum & PD

Swun Math Program Overview A highly-effective and coherent math model with alignment in standards, Swun Math Program Overview A highly-effective and coherent math model with alignment in standards, curriculum, assessments, professional development and accountability measures.

Swun Math Partnership with OUSD • • • • Thoughtful and careful phased expansion Swun Math Partnership with OUSD • • • • Thoughtful and careful phased expansion Consistent, differentiated and ongoing PD for teachers and principals Site support and coaching for teachers and principals to connect and build on the PD provided (lesson modeling, co-teaching/elbow teaching, observations & feedback, debrief) Training and certification process of district math coaches to ensure high quality services provided District Math Pacing Guides (K-7) aligned with CST & district textbooks Instructional strategies (manuals and Power. Point) Supplemental lessons for standards weakly addressed in textbook Progress monitoring check-ins with district administrators and principals Practice trimester exams that help teachers backwards plan and calibrate their understanding of the expected rigor Reliable common summative district math assessments (K-7) Formative unit assessments aligned with pacing guides District-wide Beyond the Basic Facts Math Competitions (Grades 3, 5, and 6) Beyond the Basic Facts Parent Workshops (ES & MS) Summer school/intervention pacing guides, pre-/post-assessments Math teacher leader training to build site capacity

Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2007 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2007 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient and Advanced in Math Before Swun Math Implementation After Swun Math Implementation 2007 -2010

Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2008 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2008 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient and Advanced in Math Before Swun Math Implementation After Swun Math Implementation 2008 -2010

Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient and Advanced in Math Before Swun Math Implementation After Swun Math Implementation 2009 -2010

Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (by school) Percent of School Proficient and Advanced in Math Before Swun Math Implementation After Swun Math Implementation 2008 -2010

Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (middle School) Percent of School Proficient Oakland Unified School District CST Math 2009 -2010 (middle School) Percent of School Proficient and Advanced in Math Before Swun Math Implementation After Swun Math Implementation 2009 -2010

Summary of Year 4: 2009 -2010 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EXPANSION • 15 schools added for Summary of Year 4: 2009 -2010 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EXPANSION • 15 schools added for a total of 35 out of 61 elementary schools • Coincided with first year implementation of newly adopted math texts • ALL PD made available to Swun Math and non-Swun Math schools MIDDLE SCHOOL EXPANSION • Grade 6 expanded from 3 MS to all 18 middle schools • Grade 7 piloted at 17 out of 18 MS • Implementation challenges: first year of newly adopted math texts, competing middle school initiatives & priorities, and significant number of new teachers CST RESULTS • Grade 7 increased 8% • Average 8 -10% growth in elementary schools, many higher

Our Opportunity for Change K - 12 Education is on the brink of the Our Opportunity for Change K - 12 Education is on the brink of the best of times… we can enter an era of unprecedented effectiveness for the practice of education--one in which the vast majority of schools can be highly effective in promoting student learning. - Robert Marzano (2003)

Thanks for listening! Questions? Brad Stam’s contact information: bstam 415@gmail. com 415 -676 -1523 Thanks for listening! Questions? Brad Stam’s contact information: bstam [email protected] com 415 -676 -1523

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New Small Schools Timeline: 1997 -2009 1997 -2000 Oakland Community Organizations (OCO) begins organizing. New Small Schools Timeline: 1997 -2009 1997 -2000 Oakland Community Organizations (OCO) begins organizing. Wins charter schools. Wins small schools policy. 2001 OCO partners with OUSD and Bay. CES (Bay Area Coalition for Equitable Schools) to create first 8 new schools. 2003 District bankruptcy & state receivership. OCO, Bay. CES & schools mobilize to protect small schools from cuts. 2004 OUSD moves new schools incubator inside District: New School Development Group 2005 Elementary schools in PI 4 enter incubator. OUSD opens 18 new small schools in two years. 2007 Significant improvements in district operations and achievement prompt phased return to local control. 2008 School Board appoints interim Superintendent. Proposal to close 10 -17 small schools to address fiscal crisis. 49 small schools opened since 2000; 26 through OUSD incubator. 2009 Search for permanent superintendent – one who will build on reforms & gains of past decade of struggle for educational equity in Oakland