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Nurturing Your Children’s Literacy Skills Michele Hochhauser P-12 ELA Chairperson Hewlett-Woodmere Schools
Identifying the essential skills of a highly successful reader. Phonemic awareness n Decoding n Fluency n Vocabulary n Literal comprehension n Deep meaning comprehension n
Strategies for Understanding Text Within the Text n Solving Words n Monitoring & Correcting n Searching for and Using information n Summarizing n Maintaining fluency n Adjusting Beyond the Text n Predicting n Making Connections n Synthesizing n Inferring n Concluding About the Text n Analyzing Structure and Craft n Critiquing
How can parents support their children’s early literacy? Remember: the lap is the best app n Build a love of reading n Reduce stress n Read to your child n Let your child read to you n Share reading of difficult text n Discuss the big ideas presented in a text n Celebrate success n
How can parents continue to support their children’s reading (even when they don’t want your help)? Reading to your child vs. reading with your child Read the same book as your child ¨ Talk, interact, write, text… ¨ Make reading agreements ¨ Have a discussion once you reach the end of an agreed upon section/chapter ¨ Encourage your child to use post its ¨ Continue to make reading part of your routines
Important Behaviors to Notice and Support n Levels M – Z Longer stretches of text More difficult vocabulary, ideas, and language structures More complex ideas and topics A greater range of genres Children can use texts as references Children can search for and find information in texts Children can interpret texts from a variety of perspective Children can read critically Children can understand subtleties of plot and humor Children can reflect on their personal response in relation to how others see the text ¨ Many characters are involved in more complex and expanded plots ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
Predicting Searching for and using connections to knowledge gained through personal experiences, learning about the world, and reading other texts. Inferring Going beyond the literal meaning of a text to think about what is not stated but is implied by the writer. Putting together information from the text and from the reader's own background knowledge in order to create new understandings. Analyzing Thinking About the Text Making Connections - Personal - World - Text Synthesizing Thinking Beyond the Text Using what is known to think about what will follow while reading continuous text. Examining elements of a text to know more about how it is constructed and noticing aspects of the writer's craft. Critiquing Evaluating a text based on the reader's personal, world, or text knowledge and thinking critically about the ideas in it.
Within the Text - Fiction Talk about what happened in this story. Within the Text - Nonfiction What did you learn about…? Tell about some examples from the book. What was… What were some of the important facts about ____? What did… Look at the photograph and drawing on pg. 2. What did you learn from these pages? What happened when… What happens first? That what happens? Then what? What was the problem in the story? What is a ____? How was the problem solved? Explain what happened in this story. What happened in this story? Then what happened? What was the problem? What happened at the end? Tell what you learned from the drawing on page 4. What was the big problem at the beginning of the story? What happened at the end. Tell what you learned about ____ from this book. What else did you learn? Look at the glossary. How does it help you? Give an example of a word from the glossary. What is an example of a(n) ____ described in this book?
Beyond the Text - Fiction There were a few clues that might have helped you… What were they? How did ____ feel when ____? How do you think… Tell some of the ways ____ and ____ are alike. What kind of person was ____? What makes you think that? Tell how ____ felt at the end of the story. Why did he feel that way? ____ acted differently at the end of the story than he did at the beginning. What did he do that was different? Tell how ____ changed in the story. Why did he change? How were the beginning and ending parts of this story alike? How were they different? Tell what you learned about ____. What does she like to do? ____ learned a lesson about ____. What do you think she learned? How did ____ feel about ____ at the beginning of the story? How did ____'s feelings toward ____ change and why? Have you ever had an experience like this? What kind of person do you think ____ was? Why do you think he was able to …? ____ changed during the story. Tell how she changed and why. In the end, how do you think ____ felt about ____? Why was ____ so unhappy about ____? How did ____ change in the story? What did she learn? Why do you think…. ? What does the word "stammered" tell you about how he was feeling?
Beyond the Text - Nonfiction What new information did you learn about? Why do you think… Look at the photograph on page ____. What information does it give you? What did you learn that was new information to you? What was the most important idea in this book? What did you learn about why ____ are important to us? What was unusual about ____ in this story? What was the disagreement different people had about _____? What is the most important thing about ____? How do you think ____ and ____ feel about each other? Why do you think ____ are important? What is a question you still have about ____? Explain why ____ is complicated. What is the main idea of this book? Why are ____ important? What does the information in this book make you think about ____?
About the Text - Fiction This book has different kinds of writing in it, didn't it? What were the different kinds of writing? Do you think what happened in this story could really happen? Why (not)? When did ____ start to change her mind about ____? How did the writer show what ____ was like even though he wasn't in the story most of the time? The writer was showing how ____ learned a lesson. What was the important lesson she learned? How did the writer help you know this was a kind of dangerous situation? How did the writer show you what kind of person ____ was? Is this a good title for this story? Why (not)? What did ____ learn? Look at the last page. Why do you think the writer said ____? How did the writer help you know how ____ felt about ____? Show the place in the story that helped you know that. Give an example of a description the writer used to show what ____ was like. Why did the writer use this description? What was the most important part of the story? Why was that part important? What makes this title a good one for this book? What did the writer mean when she said ____? Find the part of the story where the writer showed that ____ had learned something new? What does the title mean? Did you like the ending? What did you like about it? What was the writer's message? Look at the beginning. What was happening in the first paragraph? Show a place in the book where the writer showed you … How did the writer start and end the story? Why did she do that? Explain the meaning of the title of this story. How did the writer tell you that 1904 was different from today? Give an example from the book. Why was it important for the writer to help you know that?
About the Text Nonfiction Why do you think the writer included photographs and drawings in the book? Can you give me an example? What side do you think the writer is on? Why? What did the writer do to make ____ interesting to read about? Look at the sections and the headings in this book. How do they help you read it? The writer told the information in a special way to make it easy for you to understand. What did the writer do? Why is this title a good one for this book? In addition to the main part of the book, what are some of the other ways the writer told information about ____? How do you think the writer decided what information to put in the book? Do you think the information in this book is accurate? Why (not)? How does the writer help you find the different kinds of information in this book? What do you think the author wants you to think about ____? What do you think she might want you to do after you read this book? Look at the three sections and read the headings. Do you think this was a good way to organize the information? Why (not)? How did the writer help you understand two different points of view about ____? How did the writer make this book interesting? What does the word ____ mean in this book? Look at the last section. What did the writer want you to learn from this book? How did the writer help you understand vocabulary word on page __? Why do you think the writer wrote the book? Look at the way the writer began this book. What did the writer do to get you interested in the topic? Look at the way the writer ended the book. Do you think this is a good way to end? Why? How did the writer help you imagine these ____ as if you were there with them? Give an example. Look back at the text and find some powerful descriptive words. Explain what they mean. How did the writer begin the story? What else did the writer do to help you understand __?
Reading is thinking… n n n n All thoughtful discussion supports reading Practice thinking skills with movies, TV shows and real experiences Build inferential thinking with clues/ games/riddles Encourage your child to think critically (humor/irony) Highlight the usefulness of following directions Use academic and technical language when appropriate Nurture your children’s curiosity
General Information about the NYS ELA Exam n n Tuesday, April 5 -Thursday April 7 (3 days) Changes Untimed test Less test items Grades 3 -4 comparison to last year Book 1 (Day 1)- Last Year 5 Passages : This Year 4 Passages Last Year 30 MC Questions: This Year 24 MC Questions Book 2 (Day 2)- Last Year 3 Short Response: This Year 2 Short Responses Book 3 (Day 3)- No Changes Grades 5 -8 comparison to last year Book 1 (Day 1)- Last Year 6 Passages : This Year 5 Passages Last Year 42 MC Questions: This Year 35 MC Questions Book 2 (Day 2)- Last Year 3 Short Response: This Year 2 Short Responses Book 3 (Day 3)- No Changes ¨ ¨ n Useful links n n http: //www. p 12. nysed. gov/assessment/ei/2016/changes 2016 grades 3 -8 ela-math-tests. pdf - testing memo https: //www. engageny. org/resource/released-2015 -3 -8 -ela-and-mathematics-state-test-questions- released test items
Sample MC Questions from the NYS ELA Exam- Grade 3 Which statement best describes a lesson learned from this story? A Secrets can often be entertaining. B Secrets are not very useful. C Rewards should not be taken for granted. D Rewards can be more trouble than they are worth. Based on paragraphs 2 and 7, a “paleontologist” is a person who mainly A digs deep in the ground B studies ancient animal bones C leads a big team D finds complete animal skeletons Read this sentence from paragraph 7. -He added, “You know, Ben, if you’re tired of searching, you can always help someone else on the crew. ” What does this show about Dave? A He is concerned that Ben may be feeling unhappy. B He hopes that Ben will work harder than he has been. C He needs Ben to work with some of the others in the group. D He is worried that Ben will become careless with the tools
Sample MC Questions from the NYS ELA Exam- Grade 4 The details about the setting are important to the story because they A explain why the Overtons arrive so quickly B explain why the bat is able to enter the house C show why the family is looking for excitement D show why Betsy sees the bat before anyone else The phrase “couldn’t get a word in edgewise” in paragraph 10 shows that A Andrew was taking a long time to finish talking B Andrew’s family doubted what he was saying C Andrew’s family did not know he had joined them D Andrew was not given the opportunity to talk How does the information in paragraphs 4 and 5 support a main idea of the article? A by explaining how to prepare for mountain biking B by giving details about the difficulty of mountain biking C by showing how mountain biking can be painful D by describing what muscles are used in mountain biking
Sample MC Questions from the NYS ELA Exam- Grade 5 Which detail best reflects the main goal of the Haughton Mars Project? A “Now I have some idea of what it’s like to be on the Red Planet. ” (paragraph 1) B “That means people can work there only during the summer months. . . ” (paragraph 5) C “Others test how well their robot rovers collect rock and soil samples. ” (paragraph 6) D “Recent robot missions there found possible signs of frozen water. ”(paragraph 10) How does paragraph 14 relate to paragraph 4? A Paragraph 14 explains the effect of the event in paragraph 4. B Paragraph 14 gives a solution to the problem introduced in paragraph 4. C Paragraph 14 provides further details that summarize the event in paragraph 4. D Paragraph 14 provides further details that contrast the information in paragraph 4. Which sentence from the story best shows how Seema feels about going to America without Raju? A “I stood near the acacia tree growing at the edge of an abandoned lot and watched Raju’s back as the dust rising from his shoes covered my white blouse and my beige pinafore. ” (paragraph 2) B “Raju was my cousin, and I wanted to tell him that everything would be fine—but how could I? ” (paragraph 3) C “Why had Kaka and Kaki told Uma and Raju, and why had Pappa told me? ” (paragraph 21) D “Raju and I went to school together and were in the same class. ” (paragraph 22)
Sample Short Response Questions n n Why does the author ask questions throughout “The Aurora Borealis”? Use two details from the article to support your response. (Grade 3) Why does the author use the word “swaggered” to describe Eli in paragraph 22? Use two details from the story to support your response. (Grade 3) In “Excerpt from Hattie Big Sky, ” what do paragraphs 18 and 19 show about Hattie? Use two details from the story to support your response. (Grade 4) How do both ’Cesca and the American girl feel about the gondola? Use two details from the story to support your response. (Grade 5)
Sample Extended Response – Grade 3 n Eli and his mother visit different places in the story. What places do they visit? Why are these places important to the story? Use details from the story to support your response. In your response, be sure to ¨ • tell the places Eli and his mother visit in the story ¨ • explain why these places are important ¨ • use details from the story to support your response
Sample Extended Response – Grade 4 n In “Excerpt from Hattie Big Sky” and “Excerpt from If Wishes Were Horses, ” both Hattie and Aunt Nell accept challenges that benefit them in some way. What challenges do Hattie and Aunt Nell accept? How do the stories show the benefits of accepting these challenges? Use details from both stories to support your response. In your response, be sure to • describe the challenges that Hattie and Aunt Nell accept ¨ • explain the benefits of accepting these challenges in both stories ¨ • use details from both stories to support your response ¨
Sample Extended Response – Grade 5 n In both “’Cesca’s Reward” and “Roy’s Secret, ” the main characters learn lessons. What do ’Cesca and Roy learn from the adults in the stories? How do ’Cesca and Roy show that they have learned these lessons? Use details from both stories to support your response. In your response, be sure to • explain what ’Cesca and Roy learn from the adults in the stories ¨ • describe how ’Cesca and Roy show that they have learned these lessons ¨ • use details from both stories to support your response ¨
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