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NSF Budget Process MPS Advisory Committee April 4, 2003 NSF Budget Process MPS Advisory Committee April 4, 2003

National Science Foundation Budget Mission To provide the process by which quality analysis results National Science Foundation Budget Mission To provide the process by which quality analysis results in: (1) budget justifications that represent and communicate the mission and goals of the Foundation (2) budget implementation that reflects the intent of the Foundation, the Administration, and Congress

National Science Foundation Budget Responsibilities PROGRAM ANALYSIS ê Budget Formulation for Science Directorates ê National Science Foundation Budget Responsibilities PROGRAM ANALYSIS ê Budget Formulation for Science Directorates ê Special Analyses & Charts ê Congressional Testimony, Briefing Materials, Qs&As ê Clearance of Program Announcements & other documents ê GPRA BUDGET OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS ê Budget Formulation for Administrative Offices ê Budget Tracking & Execution ê Special Analyses & Charts ê Enterprise Information System/Budget Internet Information System ê Technical Budget Materials & OMB Data Entry

Spending America’s Income Broad revenue and spending categories in President Bush’s fiscal 2004 budget: Spending America’s Income Broad revenue and spending categories in President Bush’s fiscal 2004 budget: How it would be spent (outlays) $2. 2 trillion Where it comes from (receipts) $1. 9 trillion $390 billion: National defense (discretionary) Individual income tax: $850 billion $429 billion: Discretionary (non-defense) Corporate income tax: $169 billion Payroll tax: $765 billion $2. 2 trillion $493 billion: Social Security $255 billion: Medicare $176 billion: Interest on debt Excise tax: $71 billion Estate and gift tax: $23 billion Customs duties: $21 billion Other: $39 billion Deficit: $307 -$322 billion (with adjustment for revenue uncertainty) $185 billion: Medicaid $301 billion: Other

The Long Path to a Federal Budget February House Budget Committee formulates budget resolution The Long Path to a Federal Budget February House Budget Committee formulates budget resolution President submits his budget proposal to Congress. Senate Budget Committee formulates budget resolution The president’s budget is not binding and is considered the administration’s proposal and request. With it comes volumes of information, including budget justifications from each agency that help Congress complete its own budget. The president’s budget generally is submitted by the first Monday in February. March House floor votes Budget conference committee reports out the concurrent resolution of the budget. Senate floor votes The House and Senate budget committees develop their own versions of a budget resolution. If the traditional schedule holds, both are developed by early April, and the leading budget committee members from both chambers develop a consensus agreement called a conference report that is typically adopted in April/May. April House floor votes May House authorizing committees report changes in law to comply with budget resolution. House Appropriations Committees reports spending measures to comply with budget resolution. Concurrent budget resolution reached. Senate floor votes The two chambers arrive at a concurrent budget resolution, which is not formally a law and does not require the president’s signature. However, the House and Senate have enforcement procedures to ensure directives are met. The budget resolution sets in motion legislation that, when enacted, has the force of law. Senate Appropriations Committees reports spending measures to comply with budget resolution. Senate authorizing committees report changes in law to comply with budget resolution. June through September House authorizing committees recommendations submitted to Budget Committee. House votes on 13 separate appropriations bills. 13 conference committees House votes on reconciliation. House votes on conference report. President signs or vetoes appropriation s bills. Senate votes on 13 separate appropriations bills. Senate authorizing committees recommendations submitted to Budget Committee. Appropriations bills cover the discretionary portion of the budget and don’t affect mandated benefit programs such as Social Security and Medicare. Two or more of the appropriations measures can be lumped into a single omnibus appropriations bill. All of the bills must be signed by the president to become law. House votes on reconciliation. Budget reconciliation conference committees. President signs or vetoes appropriation s bills. Senate votes on conference report. Senate votes on reconciliation. Another portion of the funds goes to authorizing committees for entitlements and other mandatory spending. To change these amounts, laws must be rewritten and voted on in reconciliation legislation, which requires presidential signature to become law. If all 13 appropriations bills aren’t signed by Oct. 1, the start of the new fiscal year, Congress may pass a continuing resolution to fill the gap. If Congress fails to pass the resolution or the president vetoes it, nonessential activities in government are shut down until appropriations for them are enacted.

Development of the Federal R&D Budget Showing Fields of Science and Executive and Legislative Development of the Federal R&D Budget Showing Fields of Science and Executive and Legislative Decision Units Connecting lines indicate location of agency budget decisions, but not decision sequences. Fields of Science Departments & Agencies National Science and Technology Council Research Committees Defense National Security & International Affairs Engineering Agency for International Development Physical Sciences Energy Environment and Natural Resources Interior Math & Computer Science Agriculture NASA Environmental Sciences NSF Budget Review Offices (OMB) International Science, Engineering and Technology House & Senate Budget Committees (Budget Functions) House Authorization Committees Armed Services National Security Defense Foreign Relations International Relations Foreign Operations Energy & Natural Commerce Energy and Water Development (With significant R&D $) National Defense International Affairs General Science, Space & Technology Natural Resources, Energy, and Science House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees Senate Authorization Committees Energy Resources Natural Resources & Environment & Public Works Resources Interior Transportation & Infrastructure Agriculture Commerce, Science, & Transportation EPA Life Sciences Commerce Economics & Government Transportation Psychology Social Sciences Housing &Urban Development Science Labor Agriculture & Related Agencies Banking & Financial Affairs VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Economic & Educational Opportunities Transportation & Related Agencies Veterans Affairs Labor, Health & Human Services, & Education Judiciary Agriculture, Nutrition, & Forestry Banking, Housing & Urban Affairs Education, Training, Employment, & Social Services Labor and Human Technology Health Human Resources, Veterans, and Labor Veterans Benefits & Services Justice Administration of Justice Veterans Affairs Commerce, Justice, State, Judiciary Transportation Community & Regional Development Education Health & Human Services Other Sciences Commerce & Housing Credit National Security Science Resources NRC

NSF BUDGET YEAR February 2003: Budget to Congress (04) March/April - Hearings (04) March NSF BUDGET YEAR February 2003: Budget to Congress (04) March/April - Hearings (04) March - June Planning (05) (OMB/OSTP Guidance) May NSB: Budget Discussion (05) May –July: Budget Calls / AD Retreat / PARTs (05) June – AC/GPA (03) August NSB: OMB Budget Approved (05) September - OMB Submission (05) / Close Out (03) October - Current Plan (04) / OMB Hearings (05) Thanksgiving – OMB Passback (05) December - Appeal/Finalize (05) February 2004: Budget to Congress (05)

NSF Budget and Planning Cycle Director’s Policy Group Retreat; Major Research Equipment Review; Examining NSF Budget and Planning Cycle Director’s Policy Group Retreat; Major Research Equipment Review; Examining Priorities NSF Activities Complete FY 2004 Budget Planning Environment Nov Dec Develop FY 2005 Budget Submit FY 2005 Budget to OMB Approve Principles FY 2005 Governing Budget FY 2005 Budget Issues Analysis; Guidance on NSB Attention Establishing to Priorities FY 2005 Budget NSB Activities Oct, ‘ 02 Scenario Planning for FY 2005 Jan, ‘ 03 Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct, ‘ 03

Budget and Planning Cycle Establish Operating Plans OMB Review Prepare Budget Congressional Hearings / Budget and Planning Cycle Establish Operating Plans OMB Review Prepare Budget Congressional Hearings / Budget Resolution / Bill Long Range Planning Oct ‘ 02 Nov Dec Jan ‘ 03 Implement Programs Prepare OMB Request OMB Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct ‘ 03 Establish Operating Plans Review Oct ‘ 03 Nov Prepare Budget Dec Jan ‘ 04 FY 2003 Congressional Hearings / Resolution / Bill Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug FY 2004 FY 2005 OP Plan Sep Oct ‘ 04

Key Budget Planning Tasks Key Budget Planning Tasks

Input to Planning Process Input to Planning Process

Assessment/Accountability ê GPRA 1993: Congress (law) ê PMC/PMA 2000: President/OMB ê PART 2001: OMB: Assessment/Accountability ê GPRA 1993: Congress (law) ê PMC/PMA 2000: President/OMB ê PART 2001: OMB: Numerical Measurement ê R&D Criteria 2002: NAS/OSTP/OMB