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NREL Overview Robert J. Noun Executive Director Communications & External Affairs January 30, 2009 NREL Overview Robert J. Noun Executive Director Communications & External Affairs January 30, 2009 NREL is a national laboratory of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Energy Solutions are Enormously Challenging Economic Productivity Energy Security • Secure supply • Reliability Energy Solutions are Enormously Challenging Economic Productivity Energy Security • Secure supply • Reliability • Global financial crisis Vulnerability Or Opportunity Environmental Impact • Carbon mitigation • Land water use Must address all three imperatives National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Achieving a Sustainable Energy Economy Requires: A National Energy Grand Challenge* Forge Essential Policies Achieving a Sustainable Energy Economy Requires: A National Energy Grand Challenge* Forge Essential Policies Investment in RD 3 E Lead Globally Support Education and Workforce Development Encourage Consumer Decisionmaking Inform Decisionmaking Use Federal Market Power * Preliminary Recommendations of the National Science Board Task Force on Sustainable Energy

Getting to “Speed and Scale” – Key Challenges Implementing Renewable Gigawatts at Scale • Getting to “Speed and Scale” – Key Challenges Implementing Renewable Gigawatts at Scale • • BARRIERS • • Cost Reliability Infrastructure Dispatchability Displacement of Petroleum-Based Fuels • BARRIERS • • • Cost Life cycle sustainability Fuels infrastructure Demand utilization Reducing Energy Demand of Buildings, Vehicles, and Industry • BARRIERS • • • National Renewable Energy Laboratory Coordinated implementation Valuing efficiency Cost Performance and reliability Innovation for Our Energy Future

President Obama on Renewable Energy • Invest $150 B in alternative energy over 10 President Obama on Renewable Energy • Invest $150 B in alternative energy over 10 years • Double production of alternative energy in three years • Upgrade the efficiency of more than 75% of federal buildings and two million private homes • Create Jobs with Clean, Efficient, American Energy = $54 B • Transforming Our Economy with Science and Technology = $16 B

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Geothermal Biofuels Wind & Water Technology Options Are Evolving National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Geothermal Biofuels Wind & Water Technology Options Are Evolving Innovation for Our Energy Future

Harvesting Past Investments First Generation Technology U. S. Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity Sources: Harvesting Past Investments First Generation Technology U. S. Renewable Electricity Installed Nameplate Capacity Sources: Chalk, AWEA, IEA, NREL, EIA, GEA National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Technology Innovation Challenges Remain The Next Generation • Wind Turbines – Improve energy capture Technology Innovation Challenges Remain The Next Generation • Wind Turbines – Improve energy capture by 30% – Decrease costs by 25% • Biofuels – New feedstocks – Integrated biorefineries • Solar Systems – Improved performance through, new materials, lower cost manufacturing processes, concentration – Nanostructures • Zero Energy Buildings – Building systems integration – Computerized building energy optimization tools National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Achieving the Potential Requires A Balanced Portfolio National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Achieving the Potential Requires A Balanced Portfolio National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Translational Science is Key to Speed and Scale Systems Biology Photoconversion Computational Science Connecting Translational Science is Key to Speed and Scale Systems Biology Photoconversion Computational Science Connecting new discoveries, via applied research, to the marketplace National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Managing the Lab-to-Market Interface • Partner with industry, universities, other federal agencies, international community Managing the Lab-to-Market Interface • Partner with industry, universities, other federal agencies, international community and state/local governments to deploy clean energy solutions – Hawaii training, Du. Pont CRADA, Xcel/Solar. TAC • Contribute timely and definitive analyses on technology, policy, and market issues that impact commercialization • Provide investment community with credible information (industry growth forums) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

NREL R&D Portfolio Technology Development Programs Efficient Energy Use • Vehicle Technologies • Building NREL R&D Portfolio Technology Development Programs Efficient Energy Use • Vehicle Technologies • Building Technologies • Industrial Technologies Renewable Resources • Wind and water • Solar • Biomass • Geothermal Energy Delivery and Storage • Electricity Transmission and Distribution • Alternative Fuels • Hydrogen Delivery and Storage Foundational Science and Advanced Analytics Energy Future Innovation for Our National Renewable Energy Laboratory

NREL FY 2008 Program Portfolio Actual $328. 3 Million Weatherization $3. 4 M Facilities NREL FY 2008 Program Portfolio Actual $328. 3 Million Weatherization $3. 4 M Facilities and Infrastructure $76. 2 M Solar $72. 4 M Transmission and Distribution $1. 9 M WFO $18. 7 M Bioenergy $35. 4 M Other DOE $7. 6 M Geothermal $1. 9 M Basic Sciences $13. 5 M FEMP $4. 6 M Wind $33. 9 M Buildings $11. 1 M Updated October 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Technologies $19. 3 M Hydrogen $28. 4 M Innovation for Our Energy Future

NREL Funding and Staffing 14 NREL Funding and Staffing 14

NREL: Leadership by Example TEAM Initiative – DOE's effort to maximize energy efficiency and NREL: Leadership by Example TEAM Initiative – DOE's effort to maximize energy efficiency and renewable energy generation across the DOE complex Science and Technology Facility achieves LEED ‘Platinum’ – First Federal building NREL Site is “Carbon Neutral” – Onsite renewables (Mesa Top and NWTC PV) – Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) purchases Renewable Fuel Heating Plant – Will offset 75% of current South Table Mountain campus natural gas use (significant on-site RE project) – Financed and installed through Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) Energy Policy Act and Executive Order Requirements – Currently exceeding EPAct requirements – Meet or exceed new Executive Order requirements Vehicle Fleet – 48 vehicles, 34 (71%) are alternatively fueled – Fleet petroleum reduced ~45% since 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Market Growth is Enabled by Progressive Public Policy JAPAN CALIFORNIA National Renewable Energy Laboratory Market Growth is Enabled by Progressive Public Policy JAPAN CALIFORNIA National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

State Policy Framework Renewable Portfolio Standards Source: DSIRE database, March 2008 National Renewable Energy State Policy Framework Renewable Portfolio Standards Source: DSIRE database, March 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Wind Today’s Status in U. S. • 22, 820 MW installed capacity • Cost Wind Today’s Status in U. S. • 22, 820 MW installed capacity • Cost 6 -9¢/k. Wh at good wind sites* DOE Cost Goals • 3. 6¢/k. Wh, onshore at low wind sites by 2012 • 7¢/k. Wh, offshore in shallow water by 2014 Long Term Potential • 20% of the nation’s electricity supply * With no Production Tax Credit Updated December 8, 2008 Source: U. S. Department of Energy, American Wind Energy Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

NREL Research Thrusts • Improved performance and reliability • Advanced rotor development • Utility NREL Research Thrusts • Improved performance and reliability • Advanced rotor development • Utility grid integration Wind Source: Megavind Report Denmark’s future as leading centre of competence within the field of wind power National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Solar – Photovoltaics and CSP Status in U. S. PV • 1, 000 MW Solar – Photovoltaics and CSP Status in U. S. PV • 1, 000 MW installed capacity • Cost 18 -23¢/k. Wh CSP • 419 MW installed capacity • Cost 12¢/k. Wh Potential: PV • 11 -18¢/k. Wh by 2010 • 5 -10 ¢/k. Wh by 2015 CSP 8. 5 ¢/k. Wh by 2010 6 ¢/k. Wh by 2015 Source: U. S. Department of Energy, IEA Updated January 5, 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

NREL Research Thrusts • PV – – – Higher performance cells/modules New nanomaterials applications NREL Research Thrusts • PV – – – Higher performance cells/modules New nanomaterials applications Advanced manufacturing techniques • CSP – Low cost high performance storage for baseload markets – Advanced absorbers, reflectors, and heat transfer fluids – Next generation solar concentrators National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8. 22 -megawatt Alamosa, Colo. , PV solar plant Future Innovation for Our Energy

Buildings Status U. S. Buildings: • 39% of primary energy • 71% of electricity Buildings Status U. S. Buildings: • 39% of primary energy • 71% of electricity • 38% of carbon emissions DOE Goal: • Cost effective, marketable zero energy buildings by 2025 • Value of energy savings exceeds cost of energy features on a cash flow basis NREL Research Thrusts • Whole building systems integration of efficiency and renewable features • Computerized building energy optimization tools • Advanced HVAC and envelope technologies • Building integrated PV April 10, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Geothermal Today’s Status in U. S. • 2, 800 MWe installed, 500 MWe new Geothermal Today’s Status in U. S. • 2, 800 MWe installed, 500 MWe new contracts, 3000 MWe under development • Cost 5 -8¢/k. Wh with no PTC • Capacity factor typically > 90%, base load power DOE Cost Goals: • <5¢/k. Wh, for typical hydrothermal sites • 5¢/k. Wh, for enhanced geothermal systems with mature technology Long Term Potential: • Recent MIT Analysis shows potential for 100, 000 MW installed Enhanced Geothermal Power systems by 2050, cost-competitive with coalpowered generation April 10, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL Research Thrusts: • Analysis to define the technology path to commercialization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems • Low temperature conversion cycles • Better performing, lower cost components • Innovative materials Innovation for Our Energy Future

Biopower status in U. S. • 2007 capacity – 10. 5 GWe – – Biopower status in U. S. • 2007 capacity – 10. 5 GWe – – 5 GW Pulp and Paper 2 GW Dedicated Biomass 3 GW MSW and Landfill Gas 0. 5 GW Cofiring • 2004 Generation – 68. 5 TWh • Cost – 8 -10¢/k. Wh Potential • Cost – 4 -6¢/k. Wh (integrated gasification combined cycle) • 2030 – 160 TWh (net electricity exported to grid from integrated 60 billion gal/yr biorefinery industry) April 10, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Biofuels Current Biofuels Status in U. S. • Biodiesel – 165 companies; 1. 85 Biofuels Current Biofuels Status in U. S. • Biodiesel – 165 companies; 1. 85 billion gallons/yr capacity 1 • Corn ethanol • 134 commercial plants 2 • 7. 2 billion gal/yr. capacity 2 • Additional 6. 2 billion gal/yr planned or under construction • Cellulosic ethanol (current technology) • Projected commercial cost ~$3. 50/gge Key DOE Goals • 2012 goal: cellulosic ethanol $1. 31/ETOH gallon or ~$1. 96/gge • 2022 goal: 36 B gal Renewable Fuel; 21 B gal “Advanced Renewable Fuel”– 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act • 2030 goal: 60 billion gal ethanol (30% of 2004 gasoline) NREL Research Thrusts • The biorefinery and cellulosic ethanol • Solutions to under-utilized waste residues • Energy crops Updated February 2008 Sources: 1 - National Biodiesel Board 2 - Renewable Fuels Association, all other information based on DOE and USDA sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) Key Challenges • Energy storage – life and cost Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) Key Challenges • Energy storage – life and cost • Utility impacts • Vehicle cost • Recharging locations • Tailpipe emissions/cold NREL Research Thrusts starts • Energy storage • Cabin heating/cooling • Advanced power electronics • ~33% put cars in garage • Vehicle ancillary loads reduction • Vehicle thermal management • Utility interconnection • Vehicle-to-grid Status: • PHEV-only conversion vehicles available • OEMS building prototypes • NREL PHEV Test Bed National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Renewable Electricity at Scale Microturbines Grid Simulator Grid integration/Interconnection Technology Synchronous Generators 3 AC Renewable Electricity at Scale Microturbines Grid Simulator Grid integration/Interconnection Technology Synchronous Generators 3 AC Buses Focus on Key Barriers Utility Grid Inverters Wind Turbines Reliable Operation at High Penetration 3 DC Buses Battery Banks Load Simulators PV Array Fuel Cells Electrolyzer National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

An Integrated Approach is Required National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future An Integrated Approach is Required National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

Visit us online at www. nrel. gov Operated for the U. S. Department of Visit us online at www. nrel. gov Operated for the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future