- Количество слайдов: 36
ZNames~ Za person (boy, girl, mom, sister, dad, brother, baby) Z a place (school, house, movies, park, store, ocean) Z a thing (baseball, cat, desk, pencil, paper, cow Z an idea (love, honesty, joy willingness, strength)
ZCOMMON NOUNS ~ names a GENERAL person, place, things, or idea *sister *composer *lake *team *democracy ZPROPER NOUNS ~ names a SPECIFIC person, place, things, or idea **Always use CAPITAL LETTERS *Sarah *Beethoven *Michigan *Sox *Democrats/ Republicans
COMPOUND NOUNS ~ is made up of 2 or more words that act as a SINGLE noun
toothbrush high school football living room baseball sister-in-law Brian Urlacher cottage cheese doghouse
COLLECTIVE NOUNS names a GROUP of people or things family team chorus school staff company band jury
CONCRETE vs. ABSTRACT Z CONCRETE NOUNS Z ABSTRACT NOUNS ~names things you can see or touch ~names things you CANNOT see or touch *friend *notebook *author *pencil *desk *clouds ***Usually only common nouns can be concrete or abstract!!! *emotions, ideas, state of mind, quality *happiness *surprise *imagination
POSSESSIVE NOUNS ~ a noun that names who or what has something ~ shows ownership ~ is someone who OWNS SOMETHING
An apostrophe and s (‘s) forms the possessive of most singular nouns and of plural nouns that do not end with s. Child - child’s toy Children - children’s bikes Use only an apostrophe (‘) to form the possessive of plural nouns that end with s. girls - girls’ dolls teams - teams’ uniforms It’s is a contraction = it is Its = possessive (no apostrophe)
APPOSITIVES ~ a noun or phrase that gives additional information about another noun in a sentence. “extra” information *Mrs. Zinkel, a teacher, is very nice. *The Bears, a great team, started recently. *We have a great baseball team, the Sox.
S es s PLURALS Z The plural form of a noun indicates that more S es s than one person, place, or thing is being named. s es Z Plural forms are either regular or irregular. Z Regular nouns form their plurals by adding s or es. Most nouns have regular plural forms. S es s es
Plurals Word Ending Rule Examples s, ss, x, z, zz, sh, ch Add es bus - busses mass - masses foxes buzz - buzzes crash - crashes punch - punches o - preceded by a consonant Add es tomato - tomatoes Exceptions: solo - solos (and other musical terms) o - preceded by a vowel Add s radio – radios
Word Ending y - preceded by a consonant Rule Change y to i and add es Examples party - parties discovery discoveries y - preceded by a vowel Add s day - days monkeys ff Add s bluff - bluffs staff - staffs fe Change f to v and add es knife - knives wife - wives f Add s or change f to v and add es chief - chiefs calf - calves leaf leaves
Irregular Plurals Child Mouse Tooth Deer Ox Man Sheep Crisis Datum Syllabus-
Irregular Plurals Child - children Mouse - mice Tooth - teeth Deer - deer Ox - oxen Man men Sheep - sheep Crisis - crises Datum - data Syllabus- syllabi When a compound needs to be plural: add the “s” to the word that is plural: Mother-in-law = mothers-in-law Baseball = baseballs
Pronouns Z A word that can take the place of one or more nouns baseball ~ it Without: The firefighters described how the firefighters did the firefighters’ jobs. With: The firefighters described how they did their jobs.
Antecedent ZThe word or groups of words the pronoun takes the place of *Aunt Connie is a cook. She bakes pies. *The book lists inventors. It is fascinating. *Mrs. Drews is a great librarian. She works at Liberty.
Personal Pronouns ZPronouns that refer to a person Bubba ~ he Suzy Q ~ she
Personal Pronouns Singular First Person I, me, my, mine, Second you, your, person yours Third person he, him, his she, hers it, its Plural we, us, ours you, yours They, them, Their, theirs
*Stacy likes books. She collects mysteries. *These books are rare collectors’ items. _______ can only be found in specialty shops.
Three Cases or Categories of Personal Pronouns 1. Nominitive Pronoun/Subject Pronoun: These pronouns will tell WHAT or WHO the sentence is about. (subject in the sentence) Singular: I, you, he, she, it Plural: we, you, they
Z 2. Objective Pronouns: These pronouns are: *direct object–(after verb) *indirect object–(after verb) *object of preposition(after preposition) Singular: me, you, him, her, it Plural: us, you, them
*3. Possessive Pronouns: pronouns that show ownership Before Nouns: Singular: Plural: my our your his, her, its their Stands Alone: Singular Plural: mine ours yours his , hers, its theirs
Interrogative Pronoun ZIntroduces an interrogative sentence Whom Whose Which What *Who owns that pen? *For whom is that car? *Whose is this? Who=subject Whom=object
Demonstrative Pronoun ZPoints out specific things ~ nearby and at a distance (**take the place of the noun) This *This is a good apple. That *Those are new chairs. These Those **If this, that, these, those is used before a noun then it is an adjective and not a pronoun.
Indefinite Pronoun ZDoes not refer to a particular person, place or thing
Always Singular: Another Anybody Anyone Anything Each Either Everybody Everyone Everything Little Much Neither Nobody no one nothing one other somebody someone something
Always Plural: Both Few Many Others Several Can be both Singular or Plural: All Any More Most None Some
Reflexive Pronoun ZDirects the actions back to the subject (after the verb!!!) “self” word *Sara brought herself back to the camp. *I treated myself to a new book.
Intensive Pronoun ZAdds emphasis to a noun/ pronoun already named. “self” word (comes after noun or pronoun) *Steven himself wrote a book. *Would the soldiers themselves save the chiefs?
Personal Pronouns and Agreement ZPersonal pronouns MUST agree with their antecedents in person, number, and gender. What is wrong with these sentences? Mary likes cats. Its favorite is Bubba. A teacher likes teaching their students.
ZMary likes cats. Her favorite is Bubba. ZA teacher likes teaching his or her students. ZIf using 2 or more singular antecedents joined by OR or NOR – MUST have a singular pronoun. ZEither Becca or Megan will take her backpack.
ZIf compound antecedent is joined by AND – MUST have plural pronoun. ZBecca and Megan will take their backpacks.
ZRemember all those indefinite pronouns? – You need to know them now! ZAlways Singular: anyone, everyone, someone, anybody, everybody, somebody, each, either ZEach of the banners is blue. -Everyone in the first five rows was delighted.
ZSome can be singular or plural: all, any, more, most, none, some ZYou need to use context clues to figure it out! ZSome of the milk is frozen. ZSome of the cookies are frozen, too.
Z The End!!!!