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NOUN CLAUSES İSİM CÜMLECİKLERİ İSİM GÖREVİ YAPAR. YANİ DOĞRUDAN İSİM YERİNE KULLANILIR
SUBJECT V OBJECT İSİM C. (SUBJECT F. ) İSİM C. ( OBJECT F. ) SUBJECT FUNCTION ( S V O ) FINITE 1. That The fact that…. ) (It ……. . ) 2. Interrogative a. Question words b. Whether & If NON-FINITE 1. Ving 2. To Vo 3. Interrogative a. Question words b. Whether & If
FINITE 1. That SVO ( -ın dığı / mesi ) Our technology has exceeded our humanity. 1. That our technology has exceeded our humanity has become appallingly obvious. 2. The fact that our technology has exceeded our humanity has become appallingly obvious. 3. "It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity. " --Albert Einstein He accepted stealing the money. 1. That he accepted stealing the money angered his mother. 2. The fact that he accepted stealing the money angered his mother. 3. It angered his mother that he accepted stealing the money.
The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824. 1. That the greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 is true. 2. The fact that the greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 is true. 3. It is true that the greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824. THE NOUN + THAT SVO FACT BELİEF IDEA SUGGESTION OPINION Türkçe: -nın dığı inancı, düşüncesi, varsayımı The belief that the distinction between the past, present and future is only an illusion is getting support. --Albert Einstein The assumption that the Earth's climate changes is mentioned in the book.
IT IS TIME ABOUT TIME PEOPLE MADE SOMETHING TO SAVE OUR WORLD. HIGH TIME
SUBJUNCTIVE n Gereklilik, Emir, Dilek, İstek, Zorunluluk n It is/was adj. /noun that S Vo O should Vo It is vital that people (should) use less water than ever. good, imperative, important, mandatory, necessary, requisite, ridiculous, right, urgent, vital, essential, desirable, obligatory, better, compulsory a must, a wish, requirement, decision, recommendation, desire, obligation, resolution, proposal, suggestion, advice, arrangement It is a must that government should do something for greenhouse gases caused warming.
2. INTERROGATIVE A. Question Words ( Soru kelimesi kullanırız. Kim, nasıl, neresi, …. gibi anlamlar katar) ( TÜRKÇE -ın –dığı ) Jane went to Istanbul in 1999 by train. 1. Where did Jane go in 1999 by train? Where Jane went in 1999 by train is unknown. 2. When did Jane go to Istanbul by train? When Jane went to Istanbul by train is unknown. 3. How did Jane go to Istanbul in 1999? How Jane went to Istanbul in 1999 is unknown. Ingilizceyi ne zaman öğreneceğiniz bazı faktörlere bağlıdır. When you will learn English depends on some factors. Dillerin neden bu kadar farklı olduğu beni her zaman büyülemiştir. Why languages differ so widely has always amazed me. Ailelerin ne zaman tatile gidecekleri çocuklar tarafından belirlenir. When families go for a holiday is determined by the children.
B. Whether ( -ın – ıp, madığı/maması) Jane went to Istanbul in 1999 by train. Did Jane go to Istanbul in 1999 by train? Whether (or not) Jane went to Istanbul in 1999 by train is unknown. John’un toplantıya gidip gitmediği bilinmiyor. Whether John went to the meeting isn’t known. Bu ilacın işe yarayıp yaramadığı yakında belli olacak. Whether this medicine will help will come out soon. Kontratı imzalayıp imzalamayacağı bazı faktörlere bağlı. Whether he will sign the contract or not depends on some factors. Teroristlerin rehineleri bırakıp bırakmayacağı bilinmiyordu. Whether the terrorists would release the hostages was unknown. Onu seviyor muyum yoksa ondan nefret mi ediyorum belli değil. Whether I love him or hate him is uncertain.
NON-FINITE A. To Vo / Ving / It …. To swim in the cold sea is difficult. It is difficult to swim in the cold sea. It is difficult for Ahmet to swim in the cold sea. Swimming in the cold sea is difficult. Ahmet’s swimming in the cold sea is difficult To climb steep hills requires slow pace at first. --William Shakespeare It requires slow pace at first (for people) to climb steep hills. (People’s) climbing steep hills requires slow pace at first. To find happiness in ourselves and to find it elsewhere is not easy. –Agnes It is not easy to find happiness in ourselves and to find it elsewhere . Finding happiness in ourselves and finding it elsewhere is not easy. To have an intelligent mind is a great advantage. It is a great advantage to have an intelligent mind. Having an iintelligent mind is a great advantage.
NON-FINITE SUBJECT FUNCTION DA PASSIVE/PERFECT/ CAUSATIVE / MODALITY PASSIVE: Herkes tarafından takdir edilmek hoştur. To be admired by everyone is nice. Being admired by everyone is nice. CAUSATIVE: Ali’ye arabanı yıkatman kabaca bir davranıştır. To get Ali to wash your car is impolite. Getting Ali to wash your car is impolite. PERFECT: Dağa ulaşmış olmamız büyük bir başarı. To have reached the mountain is a great success. Having reached the mountain is a great success. MODALITY: Arabayı yıkamak zorunda olmam beni öldürüyor. To have to clean the car is killing me. Having to clean the car is killing me.
B. Interrogative a. Question words ( soru kelimesi Türkçeleştirilir) fiile –eceği – ileceği getirilir. Where When + to Vo why + Vo What Nereden başlanacağı belirsiz. Where to start is ambiguous. Nasıl pişirileceği kitap da yazıyor. How to cook this is written in the book. Neden çok çalışılacağı toplantının konusu. Why study a lot is the subject of the meeting. Ne zaman dans edileceği bize bağlı. When to dance depends on us.
b. Whether + to Vo ( yes – no question ) fiile –ıpmayacağı ve ya ılıp ılmayacağı Yeni eve taşınılıp taşınılmayacağı arkadaşlar arasında büyük bir tartışmaya yol açtı. Whether to move to a new house caused a big argument among friends. Ölüm cezasının kaldırılıp kaldırılmayacağı toplantıda ele alındı. Whether to abolish the death penalty was handled in the meeting. Whether to love him or not depends on some factors. Whether to love him or hate him depends on some factors.
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 1. Since the sole witness was a 2 -year-old boy, it would be very difficult ____ his guilt. A. B. C. D. E. proving to have proven being proven prove to prove
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 2. ____ was and still is the world’s biggest industry. A. B. C. D. E. Farming Being farmed To be farming To have farmed
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 3. That birds emigrate elsewhere in winter ____ help the H 5 N 1 virus spread. A. B. C. D. E. is known that is known to knows that to know is known
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 4. It is _____ that all passengers ____ their seat belts fastened during take off and landing. A. B. C. D. E. compulsory / keep supported / keeping a must / must keep advised / had better keep reported / to keep
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 5. ____ the ban on British beef might soon be lifted relieved the British government. A. B. C. D. E. It was What When The news that Whether
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 6. ____ to be offered a higher place in the company made him give in his notice without a second thought. A. B. C. D. E. Being able That he was likely When Having been To be unlikely
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 7. ____ a sound plan and programme then seems to be a waste of resource now. A. B. C. D. E. Not having made Being made It was not making What was made Being able to make
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 8. _____ so many people came to the last meeting before the elections encouraged the party leader. A. B. C. D. E. The fact that When Whether It was evident that How
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 9. It was obvious _____ there was going to be another large scale strike in the factory sooner or later. A. B. C. D. E. when what the fact that where
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 10. ____ makes US investors optimistic is that Asia’s stock market climate has been prolific for over a year now. A. What B. That C. The idea that D. It E. It is a fact that
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 11. ____ was urgent that discussions on energy resources ____, for overdependence on gas from one country proved disastrous. A. B. C. D. E. It / should be held What / had to hold The fact that / be held That / are held The proposal / hold
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 12. That the fragile atmosphere of peace in the region _____ abruptly _____ the whole world. A. B. C. D. E. ended / had frightened would end / frightening might end / frightened ending / would frighten to end / to frighten
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 13. _____ sports should promote good will is sometimes ignored. A. B. C. D. E. The fact that It is a fact that Whether or not How much
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 14. _____ smoking in England’s pubs, clubs and workplaces will have been banned by next year; this makes more people think about quitting the habit. A. The fact that B. What C. It is a fact that D. That E. How
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 15. Under the circumstances it was vital that an energy pact ____ with Russia. to sign A. had to sign B. be signed C. signing D. signed E.
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 16. ____ the addiction to fast-food meals high in fat has become an increasing concern. A. How to crack B. To be cracking C. To be cracked D. Having cracked E. Why crack
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 17. The EU’s ____ stringent guidelines prevented the British mad cow outbreak from spreading elsewhere. A. B. C. D. E. adopted adopting adopt being adopted to adopt
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 18. It is surprising ____ athletes want some tangible reward and are not contented with success. A. how B. what C. which D. that E. if
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 19. Because Japan’s current policy is an extraordinarily loose one, ____ that the country’s recovering economy might be affected adversely. A. the fear that B. it is feared C. fearing D. what is feared E. to fear
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-1 20. It is compulsory that blood ____ for an HIV test. A. B. C. D. E. drawing drawn being drawn draw
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 1. ____ 50 foreign journalists were kidnapped by gunmen in one week was good reason for the others to consider leaving the country. A. What B. It was C. There D. The fact that E. There being
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 2. It is likely that bird flu ____ to an increase in bookings for western Mediterranean vacation resorts at the expense of eastern Mediterranean destinations this year. leading A. has led B. to lead C. being led D. led E.
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 3. ____ the project to build a transport corridor linking the Balkans and Western Europe has not been realized so far is mainly due to a lack of funding. A. It is B. How C. Why D. The idea that E. What is
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 4. ____ the military to have a larger intelligence role in fighting terror turned out to be a boomerang; the PM had to give up office A. That pushing B. Pushing C. It was pushing D. To be pushed E. Being pushed
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 5. It would not be difficult ____ how much communal tension was caused by the successive blasts in the holy city last week. A. when to tell B. that tells C. telling D. to tell E. having told
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 6. ____ the World Bank and the Global Fund to fight AIDS are pouring millions into AIDS programs is slowly changing things in black Africa for the better. A. How B. The fact that C. What D. Whether E. If
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 7. That China ____ China defense spending in this year’s draft budget raises concerns in her neighbours, which see it as a military buildup. be increased A. to be increased B. increasing C. is increasing D. having increased E.
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 8. ____ Taida Pasic, 18, ____ to the Netherlands with her family years ago is obvious: the war in Kosovo. A. B. C. D. E. That / fleeing Why / fled How / did flee Whether / to flee When / has fled
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 9. It is important that human rights abuses by government agents themselves ____. A. B. C. D. E. should eliminate to eliminate eliminating be eliminated
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 10. It is inevitable _____ overwatering will destroy fertile land. A. B. C. D. E. what when the fact that how that
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 11. ____ Gordon Parks, photographer, specialized in was subjects relating to racism, poverty and black urban life. A. B. C. D. E. That It was What That it was Whatever
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 12. Their ____ for federal money to rebuild the city’s flood protection system swept by Hurricane Katrina galvanized the people of Louisiana. having to wait A. what to wait B. having waited C. being able to wait D. how long to wait E.
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 13. ____ their agricultural subsidies is the aim of developed countries; meanwhile, they seek access to the markets like India, Brazil and China. A. That they retained B. To have to retain C. It is vital that they retain D. Being able to retain E. The opinion that retaining
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 14. ____ the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty means the country will be able to buy civilian nuclear technology from the world’s nuclear club, i. e. the US, China, Russia, Britain and France. A. That signing B. The fact that signing C. Having signed D. To be signed E. Being signed
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 15. Praomedya’s most successful work is a chronicle of the Indonesian revolution, Great Post Road; ____ from him next is clear: a national encyclopedia. A. to expect B. expecting C. the expectation that D. it is expected that E. what to expect
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 16. It’s easy ____ that a male elk with such a fascinating large rack would have an advantage over his rivals. A. B. C. D. E. having seen to see able to see that seeing whether to see
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 17. It is no mere coincidence ____ renowned modernists were enthusiastic collectors of religious artefacts, such as masks, imagery and ceremonial reliquaries of tribal societies in Africa. A. who B. which C. what D. that E. whether
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 18. It was widely assumed by well-informed people, like Sir George Darwin, ____ the moon came out of the earth, presumably from what is now the Pacific Ocean. A. what B. where C. how D. the idea that E. that
NOUN CLAUSES SUBJECT FUNCTION TEST-2 19. Turkey’s ____ much more crowded than the other members ____ as a risk by some within the EU. A. B. C. D. E. being / is considered is / is considering to be / is being considered to have been / to consider having been / considers